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M. Filliol contributes a highly technical and curious paper on what may be called the mysterious beginnings of rivers. Both to the poet and the engineer there is something very striking and mysterious in the thought that the great rivers of the world almost invariably start from tiny springs, and the problem of "where the water comes from" has occupied many minds both in the past and in the present.
In the second August number M. Ghuesi gives a sympathetic sketch of the childhood and youth of Mme. Juliette Adam, the brilliant French woman who founded the Nouvelle Revue some twenty years ago, and who may well claim to have played a very real and constructive part in modern French republican history.
A REVUE" for August contains many articles of the highest interest, several of which are noticed separately.
Professor Vambéry calls attention to the growth of German influence in Turkey since 1870. The Turkish official language even contains the word aleman (French allemand). At Constantinople there are an increasing number of Germans in high favor with the Sultan. None of these functionaries are or have been really worth their high salaries, except Baron von der Goltz, whose instruction of the Turkish officers was certainly worth its cost. How soon Turkey will see that she is pulling the chestnuts out of the fire for Germany, Professor Vambéry leaves to others to discuss. Certainly Germany loses no opportunity of profiting by her friend. But, equally certain, German influence has left the masses of the people quite untouched; the German does not conciliate the Asiatics nearly so much as the English or French; and German advance and the Bagdad Railway (which is to regenerate Turkey) will certainly displease Russia, and sooner or later England.
M. Montfort describes the new literary generation in France, which has arisen chiefly since 1895. France's literary vitality is amazing. Every fifteen years it produces a new generation. Most of the names of the rising literary generation of to-day are not well known yet even in England, not to speak of the United States. The best known are those of Jean Viollis, Marc Lafargue, Louis Lamarque, and André Fleury.
Fray Candil's paper on "Intellectual Spain" is devoted to an appreciation of Larra the critic, Espronceda the poet, and Rosales the painter. Madrid has just opened a Pantheon of her own.
MM. Savitch and Kniajnine's paper on the Russian home and foreign press chiefly excites amazement that such a thing as a Russian newspaper can possibly exist.
M. Klingsor has two illustrated papers on French caricaturists.
Mme. Rémusat writes of the new Danish novel. She says pessimism is the keynote of the Danish novel. Of the modern works deserving serious consideration not one celebrates the joy of life.
M. Muret has a lengthy study of "an American naturalist poet"-Thoreau; and Mary Summer's paper on the conquest of the supreme intelligence is a biographical sketch of Buddha.
Dr. Rouby writes of the Nun of Grèzes, Sœur SaintFleuret, who has been perplexing France by declaring herself possessed of a devil. Dr. Rouby says the devil is hysteria.
M. Coupin has a charming paper on 'Animals which Never Pay their Rent," chiefly birds who usurp other birds' nests.
There is a long, remarkable poem by Ibsen, and the usual reviews of books and magazines.
N" independent politician " concludes his eulogistic paper in the Deutsche Revue upon Prince Hohenlohe as Chancellor. He was not a good speaker, had not the fire of a Bebel, the sarcasm of a Richter, or the pathos of Dr. Lieber, and the way in which he said things did not please people. But what he said was always important, profound, and in a classical form.
The Deutsche Rundschau contains several interesting articles. M. von Brandt writes upon "The End of the South African War." He points out that everything should be done to allay the animosity between England and Germany, and regrets that the Times, the Spectator, and the National Review seem to have made it their special business to try and make trouble not only between Germany and England, but also between other powers. Mr. Walter Gensel contributes a paper upon art at the Düsseldorf Exhibition. He regrets that the German section was by no means representative. The best art cannot be said to come from Germany, nor indeed from France or England, who have had the lead alternately for so many years. It is to be found in the paintings of Americans and Scandinavians, and the sculptures of Belgians. Von Ernst Elster discusses the question of Heine's nationality.
The Monatsschrift für Stadt und Land contains an article by C. von Zepelin upon Russia's position in the far East. He sketches the gradual building up of a Russian colony on the Pacific, and predicts a great future for it. The great trans-continental railway will increase immigration as well as assure the military position. In addition, the unwilling assistance of foreign powers will help its development, and it is sure to play a great rôle in the opening up of the East.
The Socialistische Monatshefte has an article by Eduard Fuchs upon French caricature in 1870-71. It is illustrated with several reproductions, which show that the style of French cartoon has altered very little during the intervening thirty years. All sorts of problems are being worked out in Austria just now, and in consequence Friedrich Hertz's article upon national democracy in the empire is very timely. His conclusion is that Austria can be reconstituted only from the spirit of the masses, can win power and strength only by means of political democracy and national autonomy. Adolph von Elm describes the fourth German Mining Congress.
NOTES ON RECENT AMERICAN PUBLICATIONS.
BIOGRAPHY AND AUTOBIOGRAPHY. OME of the brightest bits of autobiography that have
L. Cuyler's "Recollections of a Long Life " (New York: Baker & Taylor Company). The publication of this book serves to remind us that of all that famous group of preachers, who, in the latter half of the nineteenth century, gave a world-wide renown to Brooklyn pulpits, Dr. Cuyler alone is left. It is not this fact alone, however, that gives interest to his book; all through his life, even before he became a distinguished clergyman, his travels and associations with noted men of all professions afforded excellent material for a volume of this kind. One feature of the work which gives it a vital interest is the remarkable collection of anecdotes of great men and details of conversations held with them many years since. On Dr. Cuyler's first trip abroad, sixty years ago, when he was a young Princeton graduate, he visited such men as Wordsworth, Carlyle, and Dickens, and the talks with these literary worthies, which Dr. Cuyler's remarkable memory enables him to reproduce, are so characteristic and vivacious that the reader only wishes for more. Of even greater interest to some classes of readers, perhaps, are Dr. Cuyler's recollections of the great American reformers of his generation, the Beechers, the Finneys, the Moodys, the Goughs, and other distinguished workers and orators, some of whom are almost fading from the recollection of the men of our day. Among the writers and journalists, Dr. Cuyler's acquaintance with Washington Irving, John G. Whittier, and Horace Greeley was intimate and of long duration, and among statesmen Abraham Lincoln was proud to count the Brooklyn pastor as his warm personal friend.
The missionary of whom Robert Louis Stevenson could write "A man that took me fairly by storm as the most attractive, simple, brave, and interesting man in the whole Pacific" is surely worthy of a larger circle of acquaintances than he was able to enjoy in his lifetime. To many readers the new volume entitled: "James Chalmers: His Autobiography and Letters" (Revell) will bring the first revelation of a singularly devoted and heroic life. Chalmers was a Scotch missionary who gave his life to the redemption of the savages of New Guinea, and suffered martyrdom there only a little more than a year ago. Chalmers lived a life that was simple in its devotion to duty, and found little time for the commemoration of his services in literary efforts. The autobiography that he left was a very brief one, and in the present volume it has been supplemented by a mass of correspondence and reports, part of which was supplied by his family and a part by the archives of the missionary society under which he served. Chalmers was sixty years of age when he was killed by the natives, and his career as a missionary had covered somewhat less than forty years. There was much in it of thrilling adventure and repeated instances of personal bravery, so that the reader can hardly fail to join with Stevenson in his commendation of this heroic missionary as indeed an "attractive, simple, brave, and interesting man."
Dr. L. L. Doggett's life of Robert R. McBurney (Cleveland: F. M. Barton) is something more than a biography, since of necessity it involves an account of the rise and development of the Young Men's Christian Associations of America. For over thirty years Mr. McBurney was secretary of the New York Y. M. C. A., and, by common consent, was regarded as the leading spirit of the American Association movement. Dr. Howard Crosby once said that no Christian minister had rendered a greater service.
Unlike any published autobiography of this or any other year is Dr. Charles A. Eastman's "Indian Boyhood" (McClure, Phillips & Co.). Dr. Eastman, who is a full-blooded Sioux Indian, can remember the Minnesota massacre of 1862, when he and his people were obliged to flee for their lives to the plains of the far Northwest before the enraged settlers and soldiers of what was then our frontier. In after years Dr. Eastman embraced our civilization, was educated in our schools, and married a white wife, but never has he lost his love of some of the old tribal customs into which he was born, and which he so well describes in this book. "Indian Boyhood" stands alone in our literature as a record of much that has passed beyond the range of human experience, never to return.
BOOKS ON POLITICS, SOCIOLOGY, AND ECONOMICS. Notwithstanding the failure of the National Civic Federation to bring about an arbitration of the coal strike, there will be a very general interest in the published proceedings of the National Conference on Industrial Conciliation held under the auspices of the Federation in New York City in December last. The participants in that conference were leaders in American commerce and industry, and the labor unions were especially well represented. The present volume published by the Putnams contains a complete stenographic report of the discussions of the conference, together with the papers read at the Chicago conference of December, 1900. It will be remembered that the direct outcome of the New York conference was the organization of the industrial department of the National Civic Federation, composed of thirty-six representative citizens, and including such men as ex-President Cleveland, Archbishop Ireland, Bishop Potter, and President Eliot on the part of the public; Senator Hanna, Charles M. Schwab, and H. H. Vreeland on the part of the employers, and Samuel Gompers, John Mitchell, and Frank P. Sargent on the part of the wage earners.
In the publications of the Michigan Political Science Association (Ann Arbor, Mich.), Volume IV., No. 6, appear the papers read at the joint meeting of the Michigan Political Science Association and the Michigan Farmers' Institutes held in February, 1902, the proceedings of which were noted in the REVIEW OF REVIEWS for April last. These papers are grouped under the appropriate head of "Social Problems of the Farmer," and contain timely discussions of such themes as "The Economic Value of Industrial Education," "Higher Education and the People," "Changes Demanded in the Educational System of Rural Communi
ties," "The Origin and Development of Forest Work in the United States," "Needs and Possibilities of Organization among Farmers," and "Agriculture and the Home Market." Dr. Graham Taylor, of the Chicago Commons social settlement, contributes an interesting paper on "The Church as a Center of Rural Organization;" the Hon. E. A. Prouty, of the Interstate Commerce Commission, treats of "The Dependence of Agriculture upon Transportation ;" and Secretary Wilson, of the Department of Agriculture, outlines the relation of his department at Washington to the individual farmer. All of these papers will be found exceedingly helpful to all interested in the movement for the betterment of rural conditions in our country.
Among the recent publications relating to municipal government, the monograph by President Edmund J. James, of the Northwestern University, on "Municipal Administration in Germany, as Seen in the Government of the Typical Prussian City, Halle," is one of the most important (University of Chicago Press). In less than one hundred pages Dr. James gives a full and clear account of the organization of the city government, the functions of the various officials and boards, the municipal operation of public services,—such as water, gas, and electricity,—and a brief note on the management of the city's cemeteries. A careful reading of Dr. James' monograph will put any intelligent American in possession of the essential facts necessary to an intelligent comprehension of the German municipal system.
The Committee of Fifteen's report on "The Social Evil, with Special Reference to Conditions Existing in the City of New York" (Putnams), is a work of far more than local interest, since it includes a thorough and useful discussion of the systems of regulation of prostitution adopted in Paris, Berlin, and other European cities, with an exhaustive setting forth of the American conditions, especially in their sanitary aspects. Many of the conclusions reached by the committee are as applicable to other American cities as to New York, although the peculiar conditions arising there from the enforcement of the so-called "Raines Law," regulating the liquor traffic, have made appropriate several chapters of special recommendations. All in all, the report contains by far the most satisfactory treatment of this problem from the American point of view that has appeared up to the present time.
'Principles of Sanitary Science and the Public Health," by William T. Sedgwick, Ph.D. (Macmillan), is a volume that has been developed from a course of lectures on these subjects given by the author to students in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The material embraced in these lectures, however, is of great value to publicists and physicians who have to do with public questions of sanitation. The work has been written with special reference to the causation and prevention of infectious diseases, and includes the most recent conclusions of specialists on these important subjects. Dr. Sedgwick's chapters on sewage and water-supply, based as they are on actual observation and experience in various American cities, are especially valuable. Prof. James Henry Hamilton, of Syracuse University, has written a popular account of "Savings and Savings Institutions" (Macmillan). Professor Hamilton has given special attention to the municipal and post-office savings banks of Europe, and a large part of the present volume is devoted to a description of the principles and working systems of these very useful and popular institutions.
In "The Citizen's Library of Economics, Politics, and Sociology," edited by Prof. Richard T. Ely (Macmillan), Prof. Paul S. Reinsch, of the University of Wisconsin, contributes a volume on "Colonial Government." In the first part of his book Professor Reinsch gives a brief survey of the motives and methods of colonial expansion, so as to furnish the historical point of view. In the second part he deals with the general forms of colonial government, and in the third part he presents an outline of administrative organization and legislative methods. His main purpose is to set forth the outline of the colonial policy of European powers. He makes no attempt to apply the information directly to American problems. Such a review of the motives and principles adopted by other nations in their colonial administration should be helpful in building up an American colonial system. In the present volume, however, little attempt is made to discuss specific problems of colonial administration, such as finance, taxation, immigration, and so forth, but the author promises to deal with these topics in a subsequent volume.
"The Eastern Question: A Study in Diplomacy" is the subject of a monograph contributed to the Columbia University series of "Studies in History, Economics, and Public Law" (Macmillan) by Dr. Stephen P. H. Duggan. The author begins his history with the treaty of Kainardji, of 1774, and brings the account down to the Turko-Greek War of 1897.
The Outlook Company, of New York, publishes in a handsomely printed volume a survey by Governor Taft of what has been accomplished in the Philippines in establishing civil government, prefaced by a personal sketch of Governor Taft written by President Roosevelt shortly before the assassination of President McKinley, and first published in the Outlook about a year ago. As a record of recent history in the Philippines, Governor Taft's article has special value, and is well worthy of the permanent form that has been given to it.
A new edition of "The Future of War," by the late M. Jean de Bloch, with an introduction by Mr. Edwin D. Mead, has just been issued at Boston (Ginn & Co.). Perhaps it is not generally understood that the work as it appears in English is a translation of only the last one of the six volumes which were published in Russian five or six years ago. It is stated, however, that a complete English edition is now in preparation. The present volume contains the exceedingly interesting conversation with M. de Bloch by Mr. W. T. Stead which ap peared in an earlier edition.
A fresh subject has been found by Dr. Yetaro Kinosita, who writes in the Columbia University "Studies of History, Economics, and Public Law" on "The Past and Present of Japanese Commerce" (Macmillan). The author explains that Japanese students who come to America to study economic science are handicapped by the fact that the appearance of this science in Japan is only of the most recent date. No Japanese economist of note has as yet arisen, and it may be said that there is no classical work of economics in the language of Japan except a few translations from European writers. The admitted importance of Japan in the industrial awakening of the far East is surely sufficient reason in itself why the Western nations should become more familiar with Japan's economic past, and, as the author truly says, in order to understand Japan's present economic condition, it is necessary to know the vicissitudes through which she has gone.
One of the reprints issued by the University of Chi
cago Press from the University Decennial Publications, a series intended to set forth and exemplify the material and intellectual growth of the institution during its first decade, is a discussion of "Credit," by Prof. J. Laurence Laughlin. The subject is presented with the clearness of statement and soundness of reasoning which have distinguished all of Professor Laughlin's utterances on this and kindred topics.
An attempt to present some of the fundamental economic truths of the time with a clearness and conciseness fitted to make the presentation attractive to the busy "average man" has resulted in Mr. George L. Bolen's "Plain Facts as to the Trusts and the Tariff" (Macmillan). The author abjures idle speculations and confines himself rigidly to the actualities of the modern business world. His discussions are supplemented with references to the latest and most authoritative writers on various phases of the problems treated. Mr. Bolen has shown himself able to state fairly the opposing arguments on controverted points without lapsing into the condition of utter nervelessness which the mere summarizer often betrays. He forms his own conclusions, and seems glad to have his readers form theirs. The work includes chapters on the railroad problem and municipal monopolies.
In Mr. George Cator's monograph on “Trust Companies in the United States," appearing in the Johns Hopkins University "Studies in Historical and Political Science" (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press), there is an interesting account of the use of the term “trust” in the titles of different corporations, followed by a discussion of the functions exercised by trust companies and of their regulation by the state. The author concludes with suggestions as to some of the causes leading to the growth of these institutions, and explaining the place occupied by them. In appendices are comprised sketches of two of the early trust companies, schedules of legislation, and tables of statistics.
BOOKS OF REFERENCE.
President Gilman, Prof. Harry Thurston Peck, and Prof. Frank Moore Colby have set before themselves a task of no small proportions in undertaking the editorship of "The New International Encyclopædia" (Dodd, Mead & Co.). On the basis of the two volumes that have thus far been issued no general estimate of the work is possible, but it may be well to mention the four attributes which, in the opinion of the editors, combine to form the ideal encyclopædia. These are: "First, accuracy of statement; second, comprehensiveness of scope; third, lucidity and attractiveness of presentation; and fourth, convenience of arrangement." However widely the users of encyclopædias may differ as to the relative importance to be assigned to these several desiderata, there would be general agreement, we think, that they include the qualities first to be sought. In mechanical features "The New International" is a model of serviceability. The type is clear, the illustrations appropriate and helpful, the maps authentic, and the volumes of convenient size. As the publication of the work progresses we shall have occasion to comment, from time to time, on the salient features of the letterpress.
The fact that the latest volume of Appleton's "Annual Cyclopedia" contains a large number of articles of more than transient interest makes a reference to it at this late date not inappropriate. Among these articles there is one on automobiles, one on bookbinding, one on
rural mail delivery, and a remarkable article on medicine and surgery which sets forth the discovery of the causes of malaria and yellow fever, giving special attention to the mosquito theory of germ transmission. The annual article on gifts and bequests has become a regular feature of the annual, and nowhere else is so accurate a record kept of the sums annually set apart in this country for benevolent purposes, aggregating in the year 1901 the enormous sum of $107,000,000.
"Who's Who?" England's annual biographical dictionary (Macmillan), has reached its fifty-fourth year of issue, and contains, besides its usual complement of sketches of our British contemporaries, convenient lists of official personages, journalists, scientists, newspapers, and members of the British royal family, together with much other information which may at times prove serviceable to American writers.
The eleventh volume of the "National Cyclopedia of American Biography" (New York: James T. White & Co.) contains sketches of numerous eminent Americans, many of them contemporary. In the present volume the artists and architects seem to receive a larger measure of attention than in earlier volumes of the work. Government officials, governors of States, prominent men in the profession of law and medicine, and writers and journalists are all well represented.
Some indication of the scope of the work undertaken by the editors and publishers of "The Jewish Encyclopedia" (Funk & Wagnalls) is afforded by the fact that two volumes of over seven hundred pages each of closely printed text have been required to cover one and one-third letters of the alphabet. The entire work will consist of twelve volumes, and its completion seems likely to be postponed for several years. Three editorial staffs and nearly two hundred contributors are engaged in preparing the articles on archæological, historical, theological, philosophical, biographical, and sociological topics which comprise this elaborate work. Since no adequate history of the Jews has ever been published, it was necessary for the contributors to this encyclopedia to write articles giving for the first time a comprehensive history of those countries where the Jewish race has been dominant. The biographical department of this work is especially noteworthy because Jewish biography has been so generally neglected in most of the important biographical cyclopedias of America and Europe, and also because the twelve volumes will include more than five thousand biographical sketches, although the editors disclaim any intention to create a Jewish "Hall of Fame" or to exaggerate the merits of the characters described.
The fourth and concluding volume of Dr. James Hastings' "Dictionary of the Bible" has now been issued (Scribners). Like the earlier volumes of the same work, it contains numerous articles by eminent authorities on Biblical topics. Each of the more important articles is accompanied by a brief bibliographical note. The type used throughout the dictionary is especially clear and serviceable, and the illustrations, while not numerous, are of good quality.
Dr. Edward M. Deems has compiled a thesaurus which he calls "Holy-Days and Holidays" (Funk & Wagnalls). It is especially intended for use by preachers and speakers as a source of material whenever sermons or addresses suitable to recurring anniversaries are to be made. Not only the most important so-called "Church days" have been included, but anniversaries not in the Church calendar, such as Thanksgiving Day
and New Year's Day. The most important secular holidays observed in America, Great Britain, Ireland, and Canada are also included. The volume contains a topical index and an index of authors, and a complete bibliography is also included.
Although only one of the three large volumes of the "Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology," edited by Prof. J. Mark Baldwin (Macmillan), has as yet appeared, it is possible to gain from this a fairly correct impression of the character of the work. The staff of contributors embraces specialists in all parts of the world, and consulting editors in England, France, Germany, and Italy have supplied recommendations as to foreign equivalents for all the terms defined in the work. Each one of the articles has been submitted to competent authorities especially versed in the topics treated, and Dr. Baldwin's own marked qualifications as editor of such a work have already been demonstrated in earlier undertakings.
"The Municipal Year Book," issued by the Engineering News Publishing Company of New York, will be found an indispensable book of reference for all city officials and others in any way interested in American municipal government. The book is edited by Mr. M. N. Baker, associate editor of the Engineering News and editor of various works on municipal engineering, and combines a directory of municipal officials and franchise companies, an exhibit of municipal and private ownership, and an outline of leading public works and services in each of the 1,524 largest municipalities in the country, including all incorporated places of 3,000 population or upward as shown by the census of 1900, and, in addition, all New England "towns" of like size are included in Mr. Baker's tabulations. As an exhibit of the relative extent of municipal and private ownership, the book is unique. The information is first given alphabetically by States, together with other facts relating to various cities and towns, and is next presented alone in compact tabular form, with the cities appended in their order of population. Municipal boards and committees having to do with water-supply, sewage, or other similar topics should find this book of great service in enabling them to make comparative studies of places of the same general size. The book is based on special returns made, with a very few exceptions, by the city officials of the several places included.
"The Statistician and Economist," of San Francisco (L. P. McCarty), into which such an astonishing amount of useful information is packed, will hereafter be issued biennially instead of annually. This work is a combination of cyclopedia, chronological summary, technical handbook, almanac, and economic year-book. There is no other publication quite like it in the United States, nor, so far as we are aware, in any foreign country.
It is not often that one can find between the covers of a single volume selections from so wide a range of sources as have been gathered by Mr. J. N. Larned in his book entitled "A Multitude of Counsellors" (Houghton, Mifflin & Co.). In this work Mr. Larned has drawn on the codes, precepts, and rules of life embodied in ancient Egyptian, Greek, Roman, mediæval, and modern writings. All schools of thought are represented, and a more comprehensive compilation of wisdom could hardly be imagined.
The handbook of "Libraries of Greater New York," issued by the New York Library Club, shows that the libraries of the American metropolis number 288, or, in
cluding branch libraries, 350. The name, location, history, regulations, resources, and number of volumes of each library are given, as well as special collections, where such exist. There is also a manual and historical sketch of the Library Club. Special students can make good use of this manual as a guide to direct them to the best places in which to carry on their researches (New York: Gustav E. Stechert, 9 East Sixteenth Street).
ETHICAL AND RELIGIOUS WORKS.
It is entirely appropriate that Mr. Booker T. Washington's volume on "Character Building" (Doubleday, Page & Co.) should head the list of recent publications of this class, for it may well be doubted whether any other book of the year will accomplish so much by way of direct moral influence on individual lives. The book is made up of selections from Mr. Washington's famous Sunday evening talks to the students of Tuskegee Institute. Quite apart from the literary value of these addresses-and this is by no means slight-the moral strength and earnestness of this leader of his race is nowhere else so well exemplified. These talks are all on practical topics, and must have appealed with great force to the young negro men and women to whom they were addressed. These are a few of the topics which best illustrate the nature of the talks: "Helping Others," "On Influencing by Example," "The Virtue of Simplicity," "On Getting a Home," "The Value of System in Home Life," "Education that Educates," "The Importance of being Reliable," "Keeping Your Word," "The Gospel of Service," "Some Great Little Things," "The Cultivation of Stable Habits," "Getting On in the World," "Character as Shown in Dress," "Getting Down to Mother Earth," and "A Penny Saved." In not a few of these addresses there is a suggestion of the real eloquence for which Mr. Washington has long been distinguished; but the feature which gives them their value in their present form, as well as when originally delivered, is their invigorating moral tone.
The latest exposition of the science of ethics to come from the schools is Prof. George Trumbull Ladd's elabborate volume entitled "Philosophy of Conduct " (Scribners). While Professor Ladd has adhered to the philosophical treatment throughout his work, he regards philosophy itself as the "investigation and interpretation of the sum total of human experience," and wholly disregards the à priori method adopted by those writers on ethics who are inclined to ignore the actual facts of conduct "or the current opinions of mankind respecting the significance and the value of these facts." Ethics, in Professor Ladd's view, must always remain practical, however metaphysical it may become, "for ethics has its roots in the facts of experience, and its fruitage must be an improvement of experience." While, therefore, Professor Ladd's treatise is fundamentally a philosophical one, the discussion is conducted in accordance with modern methods and with constant reference to the actual facts of human life and conduct.
Dr. Fairbairn's work on "The Philosophy of the Christian Religion" (Macmillan) is described by its author as an attempt to do two things: First, to explain religion through nature and man; and, secondly, to construe Christianity through religion. He defines his book as neither a philosophy nor a history of religion, but as "an endeavor to look at what is at once the central fact and idea of the Christian faith by a man