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structional, expressional, and harmonized design in the placing and grouping of human figures."


In "Fire-Fighting To-day - and To-morrow," Mr. Philip G. Hubert, Jr., says that our American system of fire-fighting is the most perfect in the world. Our fire force is nearly four times that of Germany or France in proportion to the population, and three times that of England. Fires now cost us $150,000,000 a year, not counting insurance and expense of fire departments, which amounts to another hundred million. The immediate improvements hoped for are chiefly the substitution of electricity for horses, that is, automobile fire-engines, more signal boxes, direct communication between the boxes and the fire houses, as well as with the central station, the greater use of chemical extinguishers, devices for fighting smoke, and the better education of the public in using the appliances provided for sending in the alarm.


Mr. Walter A. Wyckoff continues his articles "Among London Wage-Earners." He says that unsanitary and savage London has largely disappeared, but that overcrowded London remains a most urgent question of the hour. He describes the "Poor Men's Hotels," where sixpence procures a clean bed and room for the night in a comfortably appointed hostelry.



POSTHUMOUS essay by John Fiske on Alexander Hamilton begins the October Cosmopolitan. In the series of sketches of "Captains of Industry," Mr. James H. Bridge writes on Henry Clay Frick, and Mr. Edward Bok on Cyrus Curtis, the founder and publisher of The Ladies' Home Journal and The Saturday Evening Post. It was in 1883 that Mr. Curtis, then thirty-three years old, asked an artist to draw a heading for a paper to be called The Ladies' Journal. The artist inserted a domestic scene between the second and third words of the title, and labeled it "Home" in small letters. The first subscription received asked for "The Ladies' Home Journal," and the next; in short, the public renamed the paper, and Mr. Curtis accepted the amendment. The publisher had no money, and he asked the advertising agency of N. W. Ayer & Son for $400 credit. The credit was allowed, and the entire $400 was spent in one advertisement in one periodical. In answer to this announcement several thousand people sent 25 cents for a year's subscription. Nowadays, Mr. Bok says, The Ladies' Home Journal spends as much as $300,000 in a single year to make its announcements to the public. Other captains of industry dealt with in this number are David H. Moffat, Woodrow Wilson, the new president of Princeton University, and H. H. Vreeland, president of the Metropolitan Street Railway Company of New York City.


Mr. H. G. Wells has an interesting discussion of the problem of the birth-supply, a chapter in his series of contributions under the title, "Mankind in the Mak

Wells thinks that even if we had a very wise committee to decide on who should marry whom, we should probably soon vote them out of office and let things go on in the old way. The only thing we can do in this allimportant enterprise of improving the birth-supply must come, according to Mr. Wells, through research. But he adds that if there is at present a man specially gifted and disposed for such inquiry, the world offers him no encouragement. "This missing science of heredity, this unworked mine of knowledge, on the borderland of biography and anthropology, which for all practical purposes is as unworked now as it was in the days of Plato, is in simple truth ten times more important to humanity than all of the chemistry and physics, all the technical and industrial science, that ever has been or ever will be discovered."



HE October number of Everybody's begins with a very dramatic account of "Old Steamboat Days on the Missouri," by J. W. Ogden. The last great commercial steamer to navigate the Missouri River went out of commission twenty years ago. The river traffic bred a tribe of hard men. A pilot was a king in those days. Almost three hundred steamers have been wrecked in the Missouri, and a thousand human beings were lost in the disasters of a half-century of river service. These great steamers were, after 1830, graceful, swift, and commodious. Some of them were over 200 feet long, with the beam of an ocean-going ship. But they were so shallow that their capacity was not more than 1,000 tons. They were capable of making about ten miles against the current. The innumerable treacheries of the Missouri required such an exhaustive knowledge and phenomenal memory on the part of a pilot that ten or even fifteen thousand dollars was not an unusual compensation for eight or nine months' service.

There is an excellent account of the experiences of a literary woman as a working girl by Miss Marie Van Vorst under the title, "The Woman That Toils." Her studies of the factory life of the girls in the Massachusetts towns are eminently practical and accurate. An article on "Light Cures, Old and New," by Dr. A. E. Bostwick, discusses the new remedial work which is best shown in the achievements of Dr. Finsen, of Copenhagen, whose career is described in this number of the REVIEW OF REVIEWS. Besides Dr. Finsen, Dr. Bostwick tells of analogous work done by Dr. Kaiser, of the Vienna Medical Society, and by Drs. Gottheil and Franklin in New York. These endeavors to cure disease by photo-therapy are founded on the old idea that there is life and health in light, and are legitimate successors of the old theories of the once famous Dr. Dio Lewis, who introduced the sun baths that afterward came into general use.

We have quoted among the "Leading Articles of the Month" from Mr. Chalmers Roberts' sketch of Alfred Beit, "The Croesus of South Africa."


IN an able article on the great modern life insurance

ing." Mr. Wells examines the possibilities of carrying companies, telling how they use their enormous

out the principle of Plato, Douglas Galton, and Victoria Woodhull Martin in the matter of improving the human race by making those units which are best fitted to produce an improved order of mankind. But Mr.

surplus, it is stated in the October World's Work that there was a surplus last year of no less than $120,000,000 in which policy holders did not participate at all.

What is done with such an enormous superfluous income? This writer shows that the insurance companies have added the functions of banking corporations, trust companies, safe-deposit concerns, and have, too, a powerful influence in the affairs of railroad corporations. The Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York owns a controlling interest in the $2,000,000 capitalization of the United States Mortgage and Trust Company, as well as several million dollars' worth of the bonds of the same corporation. The New York Mutual owns almost control of the Guaranty Trust Company. A very considerable interest in the great Morton Trust Company is similarly controlled. Each of these companies has offices in the New York Mutual's building in the city of New York. Each is in close touch with the others. The resources of each are ready at any time to coöperate with those of the others. Notice the Equitable Life Assurance Society's report. This society-whose capital stock is $100,000-owns absolute control of the Western National Bank, with its $2,100,000 capitalization, and of the Mercantile Trust Company, with $2,000,000 capitalization. Subsidiary to the Mercantile Trust Company, which is an exceedingly powerful concern, is the Mercantile Safe Deposit Company, itself a most profitable organization.

The Rev. Thomas Dixon, Jr., tells how he escaped the "horrors of city life" and found happiness in a country home on the shores of Chesapeake Bay. Mr. Dixon does not find it difficult to convince the reader that his historic house, with "modern conveniences" added, his five hundred acres of land, his horses, cows, dogs, game, and fish, are better than a city flat. All this, he says, with canvasback ducks, terrapin unlimited, fish, and historical associations, he got "for the price of nineteen feet of scorched mud in New York."

Under the title "The Organized Conscience of the Rich," Mr. Franklin Matthews tells of the many-sided activity of the New York Chamber of Commerce, from its present of $35,000 for the relief of Savannah in 1865, to the last present of $42,000 to the West Indians who suffered in the volcanic disaster. The Chamber has raised for public charities altogether $2,800,000, of which $1,044,000 was for the victims of the Chicago fire.

Mr. George Maxwell argues that a fixed wage is unjust, "because the producer has no real share or property in the article produced," William McAndrew describes "A Day's Work in a New York Pubiic School," and M. G. Cunniff investigates "Labor Union Restriction of Industry," finding that in the building trades, at least, the union rules are a very real handicap to individual industry and ability and to the employer.



E have reviewed among the "Leading Articles of the Month" the article in the October Atlantic Monthly on "Limitations of the Production of Sky-Scrapers," by Mr. Burton J. Hendrick.

Mr. Frank Foxcroft begins the magazine with "A Study of Local Option," largely occupied with investigation into the Massachusetts situation. Mr. Foxcroft thinks that in this State the local-option system, although it may not be perfect, is probably the best plan ever devised for dealing with the liquor traffic, and that it works better in harmony with American ideals of self-government. Mr. H. H. D. Pierce, in an article on "Russia," gives much attention to the social life in

St. Petersburg, and especially to the Russian opera. The favorite composers in Russia are Glinka and Tschaikowsky, the former's opera, "A Life for the Czar," being the favorite with all classes. There has been completed in St. Petersburg during the past year the new People's Theater, the gift of the Emperor to the people, where excellent dramatic and operatic works are given at prices within the reach of the poor. For the equivalent of five cents in our money an evening may be spent in this playhouse, and if desired the theater furnishes an excellent dinner before the performance at an equally moderate price. Two good literary essays are by H. D. Sedgwick, Jr., on "Montaigne," of whom it is said, "There have been greater men in literature, but none have been more successful," -and by Harriet Waters Preston on George Meredith, under the title, "A Knightly Pen." Edward Atkinson writes on "Commercialism," there is an essay on Democracy and the Church," by V. D. Scudder, Prof. I. N. Hollis discusses "Intercollegiate Athletics," and Edith B. Brown "Moral Hesitations of the Novelist."




HE September number of the North American Review opens with a discussion of the question "Will the Novel Disappear?" in which James Lane Allen, W. D. Howells, Hamlin Garland, Hamilton W. Mabie, and John Kendrick Bangs participate. The discussion was suggested by an interview with Jules Verne recently appearing in the London Daily Mail. In this interview the great French romancer affirmed his belief that in fifty or a hundred years from now there will not be any novels or romances, at all events, in volume form. In his opinion they will all be supplanted by the daily newspaper. These views of Jules Verne are strongly opposed by Messrs. Allen, Howells, Garland, and Mabie. Mr. John Kendrick Bangs alone, of the five writers who contribute to this symposium, confesses to an agreement with M. Verne in his prophecy. Even Mr. Bangs, however, concedes that the same thirst for the story of of love and life which is inherent in our weak human nature would be as strong as ever, and it would be satisfied, he says, by the genius of the future, just as our present-day geniuses are satisfying all the immediate aspirations of men. "If wireless telegraphy, why not bookless romances, typeless novels, pageless poems? We already have jokeless comic papers. These things are surely coming, and I foresee the day when without novels, poetry, or drama the public will be surfeited with romances of the most stirring character; poems of stately measure and uplifting concept; psychological studies of the deepest dye; and dramas that will take the soul of man and twist it until it fairly shrieks for mercy, and all of these things men and women will get while they sleep. It is my impression that the literature of that period will be induced by pills." Mr. Bangs then goes on to illustrate his ideas by such concrete examples as the "Alfred Austin Pellet," 99 66 Caine's Capsules for Creepy Creatures," the "Belasco Tabloid," and so forth. He concludes with a suggestion that "Some clever druggist will meet the literary necessities of the hour, and put up all the literature that anybody can possibly want in small doses, in every variety, and at a price which will bring it within the reach of all. It will be a great boon, and will enable thousands of men who might otherwise have been novelists, poets, or play

wrights to turn their backs on letters and take up some really useful occupation."


The law of July 1, 1902, providing a temporary civil government for the Philippines, is analyzed in an article contributed by Mr. Sidney Webster. His examination of this and other legislation for our colonial possessions leads Mr. Webster to the conclusion that the theory upon which the Spanish treaty was negotiated,—that the new islands could be held indefinitely as colonies outside the Constitution,-has prevailed; that places subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, but not incorporated into it, are not within the United States; that incorporation of territory acquired by a treaty of session in which there are conditions against the incorporation until Congress has provided therefor, will not take place until, in the wisdom of Congress, the acquired territory has come into the American family; that the article of the treaty with Spain by which it is declared that the civil rights and political status of the native inhabitants "shall be determined by the Congress" show a purpose not only to leave the status of the territory to be determined by Congress, but to prevent the treaty from operating to the contrary. Hence the Constitution does not yet control in the new islands. AMERICANS IN EUROPE.

Mr. H. G. Dwight, formerly connected with the American consulate at Venice, writes an entertaining description of "Americans in Europe, as Seen From a Consulate." Mr. Dwight, from his vantage ground of consul's messenger, indulges in certain pointed observations on the globe-trotting propensities of his fellow countrymen. He says: "I often marvel at the tales of travel that are narrated to me, particularly when, as is frequently the case, my visitors affirm themselves to be abroad for recuperation. He of the seven-league boots was nothing to them. They mention the number of towns they have 'done'in as many days, and their reminiscences appear to be solely of accommodation. One wonders what idea they have in traveling. Their interest seems to be principally in motion; and when they find themselves outside of a railway car, they are at a loss for employment. It is then that they come to us for advice. St. Mark's and the ducal palace once hurried through, the satiated traveler comes to ask if there is anything else he should 'do' before going on? Certainly not; he should depart with all speed, and God be with him! What else can you say to a man whose sole interest in this enchanted town is that he finds in a café a trick of cooling beer that he has never seen? With regard to the Doge's Palace, the observation of many is that it lacks steam heat and has an elevator." THE LAW OF PRIVACY.

Mr. Elbridge L. Adams, of Rochester, N. Y., who was counsel for the successful parties in the right of privacy case which recently came before the New York Court of Appeals, contributes an article in which the grounds of this decision are examined, together with certain legislation of other States on the same subject. The Court of Appeals decided, it will be remembered, that in the existing state of the law there is no right of privacy as a legal and actionable right. The case as it came before the court was this: a lithographic company had printed, and a milling company had circulated as an advertisement.of its flour, some prints upon which appeared the likeness of a young woman, above

which were the words "Flour of the Family," and below, the name and address of the milling company. A young woman claiming to be the original of the portrait brought suit against both the maker and user of the advertising matter, claiming that she had been greatly humiliated by the scoffs and jeers of persons who had recognized her face and picture on the adver tisement, and that she had been made sick, and had been put to the expense of employing a physician, by reason of which she had suffered damage. She prayed to be compensated in damages and for an injunction restraining the further circulation of the picture. The relief sought was granted solely upon the proposition that the circulation of the advertisement without the complainant's consent constituted an invasion of her right of privacy. For this contention, however, the Court of Appeals was not able to find any precedent. Mr. Adams thinks that he has found in recent statutes enacted by the State of California a basis for legislation which should remedy most of the evils complained of, and also holds that the distinction between public and private characters in this country has been virtually nullified. This California law makes it unlawful to publish the portrait of any living person a resident of the State, other than that of a person holding a public office, without the written consent of that person first had and obtained. It is provided, however, that the portrait of a person convicted of a crime may be lawfully published. It is further forbidden to publish a caricature of any person which "will in any manner reflect upon the honor, integrity, manhood, virtue, reputation, or business or political motives of the person so caricatured, or which tends to expose the person so caricatured to public hatred, ridicule, or contempt."


Surgeon-General Sternberg, U. S. A., retired, outlines some of the sanitary problems connected with the construction of the Isthmian canal. One of the first things to be looked after, in his opinion, should be the watersupply. A pure water-supply should be insured before the laborers are sent to any particular section of the line to begin work, and other necessary sanitary measures should be promptly executed. Dr. Sternberg accepts as fully demonstrated the mosquito theory of malarial and yellow fever. While the men cannot work under mosquito bars, Dr. Sternberg suggests that they can sleep under them, and that they should be compelled to do so. Mosquitoes seek their food chiefly at night, and a man when not protected by a mosquito bar is especially exposed to their attacks while asleep. It has long been understood that sleeping under a mosquito bar affords a certain amount of protection from malarial fever, although the explanation of this fact is of very recent date. Dr. Sternberg concludes by recommending the establishment of a sanitary service in connection with the Isthmian canal operations similar in character to the sanitary corps enlisted in the army.


Prof. E. W. Hilgard writes on "The Causes of the Development of Ancient Civilization in Arid Countries," Mr. A. M. Wergeland on "Grieg as a National Composer," Mr. Arthur Symons on "Casanova at Dux: An Unpublished Chapter of History," Mr. Herbert C. Howe on "Contradictions of Literary Criticism," Mr. G F. Kunz on "The Management and Uses of Expositions," and Maggiorino Ferraris on "The Public Debt of Italy."

We have quoted in our department of "Leading Articles of the Month" from Señor Morale's account of the situation in Colombia, and from Lieutenant-Commander Smith's exposition of "The Navy's Greatest Need."



IN the September Arena, Mr. Duane Mowry shows that the indiscriminate criticism and abuse of our public men in the newspaper press tends strongly to keep good men out of political service. Mr. Mowry pleads for "the erection of a line between just and unjust criticism, and for the emphasis of a marked difference between the rights of free speech and unbridled license."


Although our title to the Danish West Indies is not yet perfected, it is not too early to begin taking an account of stock in the islands. Mr. Hrolf Wisby, in an article on "Our Duty in the Danish West Indies," makes much of the fact that negroes, and negroes only, can stand the climate of the islands in the long run, and he argues that the country must be thrown open to the native black population, while the colored population of our southern sea-coast States should be induced to immigrate to the islands. As to the agricultural possibilities, this writer thinks that hemp-growing would be more congenial and profitable than sugar-cane-growing. Hemp is a product suited to the capacities of the small farmer, and it will grow in soil that is now considered

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Mr. Joseph Dana Miller denies to charity, as such, any place in the social relations of men. Society owes relief of distress as a matter of justice. For all attempts at the organization of private relief Mr. Miller has only this to say:

"Intellectually and morally deteriorating is this playing at charity. Better far the hard, calculating bent of mind, urged and animated by a sense of unpitying justice, than this toying with a great problem, this skimming the social surface for novelty, this wetting of dainty feet in idle dalliance in the great deep."


Editor Flower voices "The Cry of the Children" in a vigorous protest against the employment of children of tender years at factory labor. Mr. George F. Spinney contributes an interesting sketch of President Vreeland of the Metropolitan Street Railway system in New York City. Mr. Vreeland's career thus far is a good concrete illustration of "Humanity's Part in the Labor Problem"-the title of Mr. Spinney's article. There is a "conversation" with Prof. John Ward Stimson on the subject of "Art for America."


THE INTERNATIONAL QUARTERLY. NCE more we have an American counterpart of the British quarterly reviews. The International Monthly, a periodical very acceptably edited for the past two years by Mr. Frederick A. Richardson, of Burlington, Vt., is now succeeded by the International Quarterly, under the same editorship. In contents there is no material change noticeable, beyond the marked tendency to expansion. The average length of the articles, which has always been in excess of the average for other American reviews, remains about the same as formerly, but the number of articles making up an issue has been doubled.

As to the character of the contributions, our readers can form their own judgments from the list of contributors. As was notably the case in the old series of the International, these are all experts and authorities of the first rank in their respective fields. In the first issue of the Quarterly, for example, Mr. Elwood Mead, chief of the irrigation investigations conducted under the auspices of the United States Department of Agriculture, writes on "Property Rights in Water;" Prof. C. H. Toy on "Religious Fusion;" Mr. Will H. Low "National Art in a National Metropolis;" Max Nordau on Zionism; Mr. Richard M. Meyer on Hermann Sudermann; Sir W. Lee-Warner on "The Native States of India ;" and Prof. J. H. Robinson on "The Elective System, Historically Considered." Prof. George Santayana, of Harvard, recounts "A Dialogue in Limbo," and Mr. Robert Y. Tyrrell reports an "interview" with Cicero. Studies of Napoleon and Héloïse are contributed, respectively, by M. Mare Debrit and Mr. Henry O. Taylor.

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The chronicle of events is written, as heretofore, by Mr. Joseph B. Bishop, the topics in the current issue being our work as a civilizer in Cuba and the national value of an Isthmian canal. The important article by Professor Jenks on "The Egypt of To-day " has been quoted at length elsewhere in this number of the REVIEW OF REVIEWS. All of the International's articles are of the highest quality known to modern periodical literature, and this American review does not suffer by comparison with its European contemporaries.


IN the September number of Gunton's, besides the editorial articles on such timely topics as "Politics and Business Prosperity," "The Misuse of Injunctions," and "Is the Coal Strike a Conspiracy?" there is a character sketch of Governor La Follette of Wisconsin, by Mr. Henry W. Wilbur, which has a special interest in connection with the political campaign now in progress. An address by Mr. Horace White, of the New York Evening Post, on "The Economies of Branch Banking" is printed in this number, and there is a paper on "The Rule of Force," by Mr. Albert R. Carman. NEGROES AS COTTON MANUFACTURERS.

Prof. Jerome Dowd tells of a cotton mill in the Piedmont region of North Carolina which is owned and manned by colored people. It used to be thought in the South that negroes could never be employed in factory labor because the hum of the machinery would put them to sleep. Within the past twenty years, however, they have come into very general employment in certain manufacturing industries, notably tobacco factories and cotton-seed oil and fertilizer mills, and now

it has been found that negro labor can be successfully and profitably utilized in cotton manufacturing. The mill has been running for more than a year, and only a few of the operatives have succumbed to the charms of Morpheus.



ARON A. VON MALTZAN writes, in the Nineteenth Century for September, a very interesting article describing his experiences as a German volunteer with the Boers in Natal. He confirms everything that has been said as to General Buller's monstrous exaggeration of the numbers of the troops opposed to him. He says that the Boer position at Colenso was absolutely impregnable, but General Buller had 20,000 men against 1,500. He lost 1,000, and the Boers lost 3 killed and 8 wounded. He vouches for the fact that at 2 o'clock in the afternoon orders were given to the Boers to cease firing, as it was an unchristian and inhuman thing to continue the slaughter of men who were helpless and defenseless. Buller was quite sure that he had 20,000 Boers against him at Colenso. In reality, in all Natal there were only 13,000 Boers at that time. The whole line from Colenso to Van Reenen's Pass, a distance of 22 miles, was held by 7,000 men. Baron von Maltzan says that the Boers made no trenches whatever at Colenso; they simply lay behind the boulders.


Mr. Tom Mann has been seven months in New Zealand, and he is not enthusiastic about its climate. In some places fog is more general than in London. Wages are higher than at home, but 25 per cent. of this must be deducted as decreased purchasing power. Rent is very high, and the climate is by no means so idyllic as people represent. On the other hand, there are fewer stoppages of work from strikes than in any other country, thanks chiefly to the principle of compulsory arbitration, which, however, he says, is by no means working quite smoothly. It is quite on the cards that the men may take action for its repeal, and that the employers may be found defending it. He is pleased with the New Zealand Factory Act, chiefly because it forbids any boy or girl with a less wage than $1.25 a week being employed, and also because it fixes the hours of adult males at forty-eight per week, and those of women at forty-five. He is glad to find that the railways are in the hands of the state, and that the people having one person, one vote, and all elections on one day, have government under better control than is the case in England.


Mr. Percy F. Rowland is rather enthusiastic about the Australian national character, although he admits that there is a tendency to great cruelty on the part of the Australians. This, he says, is due to their climate, to their familiarity with the horrors of drought in the bush, their habit of thinking of the sheep and kine as mere wool and meat,—the counters with which they play the game of life,-long warfare with rabbits and kangaroos for means of sustenance,-these have rendered the normal Australian countryman callous to animal suffering. The Australian woman is less prolific than her European relatives. The number of illegitimate births is double that of Ireland, and the divorce rate is thirteen times higher than that of England. Yet with all these

defects Mr. Rowland maintains that there is a good ground-work for building up such a noble national type that the proudest boast of Englishmen may some day be that they had a share in building up the Australian character. For among the Australians "you will find determination, pluck, sportsmanship, good humor, religion without theology, civility without servility, and an uncommon power of common sense."


Lord Nelson writes an interesting article upon "Hymns Ancient and Modern." He thinks that in the future authorized hymn-book the old Latin hymns, with good English translations, should form a prominent part of the book. Then there should be a selection of narrative hymns, bringing out the teachings of the Christian year, and a large selection of modern hymns which have all won their way generally into the hearts of our people. A general book, voicing the religious experiences of men from every clime and in every age, would have no mean share in the formation of national character.


Miss Edith Sellers writes a pitiful paper entitled "In the Day-room of a London Workhouse." It was written after visiting a London workhouse in which there were 288 men and 437 women over the age of sixty-five. The account she gives is very sad, and she could not help contrasting the fate of these worn-out toilers with the inmates of the cheery, comfortable homes provided for the same class in Denmark and Austria, where the cost per head per week is considerably less than in these London workhouses, where it averages $3.37. "There was a time when we were supposed to provide for our poor at once more humanely and more wisely than other nations; but now-. It is only in England that poor old folk who have toiled hard for long years and pinched and saved must pass their last days in the workhouse. Even Russia has its old-age homes."


N the New Liberal Review, Mr. George Martineau

combinations. An undergraduate, Mr. D. F. T. Coke, defends Oxford against the accusation of laziness brought by Mr. Fotheringham in the previous number. Mr. Holt Schooling writes on the export of English coal, the large increase of which obscures the significance of the comparative decrease in other exports. Mr. Blumenfeldt gossips pleasantly concerning the new industry of manufacturing antiquities to order, which, it seems, is in a very flourishing condition at the present time. It is, however, somewhat precarious, for fashion is capricious, and antiquities which are at a premium to-day are at a discount to-morrow. One of the brightest articles is Mr. E. F. Benson's paper on the decadence in manners. Mr. Benson argues that the changes which are alleged to prove a decadence in English manners are really due to the improved sense of comradeship which has resulted from men and women playing games together. At the same time he admits that women are often brutally rude to each other. He says that the insolence of women, well-bred in their conduct to the other sex, can be a thing to shudder at when one of her own is concerned. This, in its more flagrant aspects, is easily observable in such public places as steamers and railway cars.

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