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it a model for all subventioned theaters, he has many things to say. For instance : "Since it would be in a sense a national institution, the King, who has never been lacking in generosity, might give the land, without making the building a court theater, an impossible institution in our democratic country, while the fact that it would be under the control of the London County Council should sufficiently guarantee its conduct on democratic lines as to seating and prices; finally, the subscriptions, which must be unconditional, so that the future of the concern may not be handicapped, will be some evidence of a real demand on the part of influential citizens.'
THE ARGUMENT ON MORAL GROUNDS.
Mr. Charrington comments incidentally on the opposition to his scheme that may be looked for from the Nonconformist conscience." He says:
The remedy for this, in Mr. Slater's opinion, is to be found in an adaptation of a principle which has been successfully embodied in the Laborers' Dwellings Act of Ireland. He admits that it is socialistic. He says:
"If it is asserted that to provide lands and houses for wage-earners, at a cost that can hardly much more than pay for maintenance and management, leaving the interest and repayment of capital to be paid out of rates and grant, is nothing more nor less than outdoor relief in aid of wages, one cannot deny that, economically speak. ing, the accusation is true. But speaking ethi cally and psychologically, it does not follow that the tenant is pauperized, nor that his independ ence is undermined, nor that he will probably hose in wage an equivalent of what he gains in garden and house-room.
"My own experience, if I may be pardoned an unavoidably egoistic tone, in speaking to a great number of Nonconformist ministers of various denominations, is, that in a great number of cases their repugnance to the theater is due to the scenes they see depicted upon the posters which garnish our hoardings. Now the coarse sensationalism and lubricity that these pictures frequently advertise are among the principal reasons which should lead us to press forward the establishment of a municipal theater; for, while such a theater would necessarily produce plenty of farces and laughter-provoking plays and other works which would not rank high as artistic productions, an institution for which the people were collectively responsible would probably be as much superior to the average theater of private enterprise in moral tone as the municipal free library is superior to the little circulating library where the penny dreadful is the representative form of literature."
HOUSING OF THE RURAL POOR IN IRELAND.
MUCH has been done in Ireland through the UCH has been done in Ireland through the agency of the local governing bodies to improve the housing of the laborers. Mr. Gilbert Slater, writing in the Contemporary Review for September, describes this work.
his article by quoting from Mr. W. W. Crotch's paper on the condition of housing in rural districts of England, in which it is declared that whole countrysides may be traversed without finding a single cottage with a watertight roof available for habitation, while the cottages which do exist are scandalously lacking in sanitary accommodation. Few new cottages are being erected, and the old ones, through lack of repair, have been allowed to become uninhabitable.
Irish legislation on this subject is a clear embodiment of the principle that the Irish agricultural laborer is entitled to demand not only that he shall be housed in a manner consistent with human and not merely animal life, but also that with his house he shall be provided with a garden, which can, with proper culture, pay the rent of both house and garden. The laborer who has no cottage, or whose cottage is insanitary, with the help of the signatures of a few friends and neighbors sends his representation' to the by law to provide the cottage, and encouraged District Council; the District Council is required by aid from the Treasury not to evade it duties; if it does evade them, the laborer can appeal to the Local Government Board."
Next to nothing has been done in England and Wales by the local governing authorities in the way of improving the cottages of the rural poor. Up to May 31, 1900, there were only fourteen cottages built or building. at the same date there were 14,888 cottages In Ireland built or building. Since that date the Local Government Act of 1898 came into force, with applied for for the purpose of providing 8,000 the result that in the very first year loans were cottages. Up to the end of the financial year of 1901 over two millions sterling has been sanctioned for the purpose of rebuilding laborers' dwellings in Ireland. The cost is defrayed by a rate which may not exceed one shilling in the pound of the rateable value of the property. Ireland the government grants under the Land In Purchase acts £40,000 a year to cover cases in which purchasers fail to pay their interest on adpunctually, this sum of £40,000 has been availvances, but as the purchasers seem to have paid up housing stands first. Cottages with half-acre garable for secondary purposes, among which that of den plots are let at from 64d. to 1s. 6d. a week.
THE PERIODICALS REVIEWED.
IN the October Harper's Dr. Richard T. Ely has a
on the Iowa River. "Outside of Amana, the only communistic settlements of any note now exising in the United States are those of the Shakers, and their thirty five communities do not altogether have as many members as are embraced in the Amana Society. Amana, then, comprises more than half the communists of the United States, and unless I am mistaken, in studying Amana we are examining the history of altogether the largest and strongest communistic settlement in the entire world." There are 1,800 souls in the commuity now, and they have added to their domain until it comprises some 26,000 acres.
Mr. Charles Mulford Robinson writes of the "Art Effort in British Cities," there is a nature study contribution from Mr. J. J. Ward, "Plant Battles," a beautifully illustrated light sketch of Monte Carlo by André Castaigne, and an account of the "Newest Definitions of Electricity," by Carl Snyder, which is reviewed among the "Leading Articles of the Month."
THE CENTURY MAGAZINE.
N the October Century the opening articles deal in text and illustrations with the much-discussed relation of photography to the proper pictorial art of the painter. Mr. Alexander Black conducts a dialogue between the artist and the camera man, and Mr. Alfred Stieglitz writes on "Modern Pictorial Photography.” Mr. Stieglitz is the founder of the Society of PhotoSecessionists, who were organized to develop and publish the true art value of photographic reproductions of beautiful things. Mr. Stieglitz tells us that the organization of artists known as the Munich Secession was the first officially to recognize the possibilities of pictorial photography. The art committee of the Glasgow Exhibition in 1901 received pictorial photography as a legitimate member of the family of the fine arts. In the spring of this year the artists of the Vienna Secession admitted photographs to the jury of selection on the same terms as paintings, drawings, and statuary. At the same time, the jury of the Paris Salon accepted for hanging ten photographs which had been submitted by E. J. Steichen, a young artist of Milwaukee. Large prices are being paid by connoisseurs for choice photographic prints, as much as three hundred dollars having been refused for a picture exhibited this year at the National Arts Club of New York.
NEW YORK'S SUBWAY.
Mr. Arthur Ruhl describes "Building New York's Subway," and Mr. F. W. Skinner tells of the particularly difficult engineering problems in the subway. The longest solid tunnel in the subway system is that which dives into the solid rock at One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Street. "At an average depth of 100 feet below the surface, it burrows through blackness for a distance of two miles, except at One Hundred and Sixty-ninth and One Hundred and Eighty-first streets, where elevators will carry passengers to and
from the tracks. Except for the Hoosac tunnel, there is no single tunnel so long in America."
Mr. Sylvester Baxter discusses "Art in Public Works," the aqueducts, water-towers, power-houses, reservoirs, and bridges of the modern cities, and Dr. James M. Buckley makes an interesting study of the founder of Zion City, under the title, "Dowie Analyzed and Classified.” Dr. Buckley's analysis fits John Alexander Dowie, of course, into the class of fanatics, spiritual megalomaniacs. A much more sympathetic character sketch of Dowie follows from the pen of John Swain, who believes the founder of Zion City to be sincere. "Yet I must admit that he uses all the methods of the charlatan."
E have quoted in another department from
WMr. Ralph M. Easley's article in the October
McClure's, "What Organized Labor has Learned."
A brief note on Woodrow Wilson, by Mr. Jesse Lynch Williams, emphasizes the fact that it is not as an academic personage that President Woodrow Wilson undertakes his task at Princeton, but as a man among men, realizing always that the students he is to lead are to be citizens and the world's servants, and the college must make men of them.
There is an eloquent appreciation of the actress Rachel by Miss Clara Morris. The actress gives many interesting anecdotes of the great Jewess. Miss Morris has an indignant account of the rapacious and humiliating tactics of Rachel's family. In her minority Felix, her father, allowed the brilliant girl only sixty dollars a month for her own use, to cover theatrical costumes, private wardrobes, and pocket money. When she finally broke away from her slavery to her own family, she gave them all her apartments conained, a pension of twelve thousand francs to her father, paid the debts of her sisters, and exerted herself to get good positions for her brother. The coffin of the great actress had barely settled in the grave when this precious family had a public sale of her belongings.
Mr. John La Farge closes his study of Velasquez with the opinion that of all artists he was the most of a painter, "as having most naturally expressed the special differences of painting from other forms of representation; the appearance of things and not their analysis being the special character of painting. His life is that of a modest, sincere, and honorable man."
R. RUSSELL STURGIS describes in the October Scribner's the work of the sculptor J. Q. A. Ward, who now has in hand his greatest task, "and the most formidable piece of combined sculpture yet undertaken in America-the pediment for the Stock Exchange building, in Broad Street, New York." Mr. Sturgis thinks that "in Ward we have the first of American sculptors in this important matter of con
structional, expressional, and harmonized design in the placing and grouping of human figures."
IMPROVEMENTS IN FIRE-FIGHTING.
In "Fire-Fighting To-day - and To-morrow," Mr. Philip G. Hubert, Jr., says that our American system of fire-fighting is the most perfect in the world. Our fire force is nearly four times that of Germany or France in proportion to the population, and three times that of England. Fires now cost us $150,000,000 a year, not counting insurance and expense of fire departments, which amounts to another hundred million. The immediate improvements hoped for are chiefly the substi tution of electricity for horses,-that is, automobile fire-engines, more signal boxes, direct communication between the boxes and the fire houses, as well as with the central station, the greater use of chemical extinguishers, devices for fighting smoke, and the better education of the public in using the appliances provided for sending in the alarm.
Mr. Walter A. Wyckoff continues his articles "Among London Wage-Earners." He says that unsanitary and savage London has largely disappeared, but that overcrowded London remains a most urgent question of the hour. He describes the "Poor Men's Hotels," where sixpence procures a clean bed and room for the night in a comfortably appointed hostelry.
THE COSMOPOLITAN MAGAZINE.
POSTHUMOUS essay by John Fiske on Alexander Hamilton begins the October Cosmopolitan. In the series of sketches of "Captains of Industry," Mr. James H. Bridge writes on Henry Clay Frick, and Mr. Edward Bok on Cyrus Curtis, the founder and publisher of The Ladies' Home Journal and The Saturday Evening Post. It was in 1883 that Mr. Curtis, then thirty-three years old, asked an artist to draw a heading for a paper to be called The Ladies' Journal. The artist inserted a domestic scene between the second and third words of the title, and labeled it "Home" in small letters. The first subscription received asked for "The Ladies' Home Journal," and the next; in short, the public renamed the paper, and Mr. Curtis accepted the amendment. The publisher had no money, and he asked the advertising agency of N. W. Ayer & Son for $400 credit. The credit was allowed, and the entire $400 was spent in one advertisement in one periodical. In answer to this announcement several thousand people sent 25 cents for a year's subscription. Nowadays, Mr. Bok says, The Ladies' Home Journal spends as much as $300,000 in a single year to make its announcements to the public. Other captains of industry dealt with in this number are David H. Moffat, Woodrow Wilson, the new president of Princeton University, and H. H. Vreeland, president of the Metropolitan Street Railway Company of New York City.
Wells thinks that even if we had a very wise committee to decide on who should marry whom, we should probably soon vote them out of office and let things go on in the old way. The only thing we can do in this allimportant enterprise of improving the birth-supply must come, according to Mr. Wells, through research. But he adds that if there is at present a man specially gifted and disposed for such inquiry, the world offers him no encouragement. "This missing science of heredity, this unworked mine of knowledge, on the borderland of biography and anthropology, which for all practical purposes is as unworked now as it was in the days of Plato, is in simple truth ten times more important to humanity than all of the chemistry and physics, all the technical and industrial science, that ever has been or ever will be discovered."
HE October number of Everybody's begins with a very dramatic account of "Old Steamboat Days on the Missouri," by J. W. Ogden. The last great commercial steamer to navigate the Missouri River went out of commission twenty years ago. The river traffic bred a tribe of hard men. A pilot was a king in those days. Almost three hundred steamers have been wrecked in the Missouri, and a thousand human beings were lost in the disasters of a half-century of river service. These great steamers were, after 1830, graceful, swift, and commodious. Some of them were over 200 feet long, with the beam of an ocean-going ship. But they were so shallow that their capacity was not more than 1,000 tons. They were capable of making about ten miles against the current. The innumerable treacheries of the Missouri required such an exhaustive knowledge and phenomenal memory on the part of a pilot that ten or even fifteen thousand dollars was not an unusual compensation for eight or nine months' service.
"THE MISSING SCIENCE OF HEREDITY."
Mr. H. G. Wells has an interesting discussion of the problem of the birth-supply, a chapter in his series of contributions under the title, "Mankind in the Mak
There is an excellent account of the experiences of a literary woman as a working girl by Miss Marie Van Vorst under the title, "The Woman That Toils." Her studies of the factory life of the girls in the Massachusetts towns are eminently practical and accurate. An article on "Light Cures, Old and New," by Dr. A. E. Bostwick, discusses the new remedial work which is best shown in the achievements of Dr. Finsen, of Copenhagen, whose career is described in this number of the REVIEW OF REVIEWS. Besides Dr. Finsen, Dr. Bostwick tells of analogous work done by Dr. Kaiser, of the Vienna Medical Society, and by Drs. Gottheil and Franklin in New York. These endeavors to cure disease by photo-therapy are founded on the old idea that there is life and health in light, and are legitimate successors of the old theories of the once famous Dr. Dio Lewis, who introduced the sun baths that afterward came into general use.
We have quoted among the "Leading Articles of the Month" from Mr. Chalmers Roberts' sketch of Alfred Beit, "The Croesus of South Africa."
THE WORLD'S WORK.
N an able article on the great modern life insurance
ing." Mr. Wells examines the possibilities of carrying companies, telling how they use their enormous
out the principle of Plato, Douglas Galton, and Victoria Woodhull Martin in the matter of improving the human race by making those units which are best fitted to produce an improved order of mankind. But Mr.
surplus, it is stated in the October World's Work that there was a surplus last year of no less than $120,000,000 in which policy holders did not participate at all.
What is done with such an enormous superfluous income? This writer shows that the insurance companies have added the functions of banking corporations, trust companies, safe-deposit concerns, and have, too, a powerful influence in the affairs of railroad corporations. The Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York owns a controlling interest in the $2,000,000 capitalization of the United States Mortgage and Trust Company, as well as several million dollars' worth of the bonds of the same corporation. The New York Mutual owns almost control of the Guaranty Trust Company. A very considerable interest in the great Morton Trust Company is similarly controlled. Each of these companies has offices in the New York Mutual's building in the city of New York. Each is in close touch with the others. The resources of each are ready at any time to coöperate with those of the others. Notice the Equitable Life Assurance Society's report. This society-whose capital stock is $100,000-owns absolute control of the Western National Bank, with its $2,100,000 capitalization, and of the Mercantile Trust Company, with $2,000,000 capitalization. Subsidiary to the Mercantile Trust Company, which is an exceedingly powerful concern, is the Mercantile Safe Deposit Company, itself a most profitable organization.
The Rev. Thomas Dixon, Jr., tells how he escaped the "horrors of city life" and found happiness in a country home on the shores of Chesapeake Bay. Mr. Dixon does not find it difficult to convince the reader that his historic house, with "modern conveniences" added, his five hundred acres of land, his horses, cows, dogs, game, and fish, are better than a city flat. All this, he says, with canvasback ducks, terrapin unlimited, fish, and historical associations, he got "for the price of nineteen feet of scorched mud in New York."
Under the title "The Organized Conscience of the Rich," Mr. Franklin Matthews tells of the many-sided activity of the New York Chamber of Commerce, from its present of $35,000 for the relief of Savannah in 1865, to the last present of $42,000 to the West Indians who suffered in the volcanic disaster. The Chamber has raised for public charities altogether $2,800,000, of which $1,044,000 was for the victims of the Chicago fire.
Mr. George Maxwell argues that a fixed wage is unjust, "because the producer has no real share or property in the article produced," William McAndrew describes "A Day's Work in a New York Pubiic School," and M. G. Cunniff investigates "Labor Union Restriction of Industry," finding that in the building trades, at least, the union rules are a very real handicap to individual industry and ability and to the employer.
THE ATLANTIC MONTHLY.
E have reviewed among the "Leading Articles of the Month" the article in the October Atlantic Monthly on "Limitations of the Production of Sky-Scrapers," by Mr. Burton J. Hendrick.
Mr. Frank Foxcroft begins the magazine with "A Study of Local Option," largely occupied with investigation into the Massachusetts situation. Mr. Foxcroft thinks that in this State the local-option system, although it may not be perfect, is probably the best plan ever devised for dealing with the liquor traffic, and that it works better in harmony with American ideals of self-government. Mr. H. H. D. Pierce, in an article on "Russia," gives much attention to the social life in
St. Petersburg, and especially to the Russian opera. The favorite composers in Russia are Glinka and Tschaikowsky, the former's opera, "A Life for the Czar," being the favorite with all classes. There has been completed in St. Petersburg during the past year the new People's Theater, the gift of the Emperor to the people, where excellent dramatic and operatic works are given at prices within the reach of the poor. For the equivalent of five cents in our money an evening may be spent in this playhouse, and if desired the theater furnishes an excellent dinner before the performance at an equally moderate price. Two good literary essays are by H. D. Sedgwick, Jr., on "Montaigne," of whom it is said, "There have been greater men in literature, but none have been more successful,” -and by Harriet Waters Preston on George Meredith, under the title, "A Knightly Pen." Edward Atkinson writes on "Commercialism," there is an essay on "Democracy and the Church," by V. D. Scudder, Prof. I. N. Hollis discusses "Intercollegiate Athletics," and Edith B. Brown "Moral Hesitations of the Novelist."
THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW.
HE September number of the North American Review opens with a discussion of the question "Will the Novel Disappear?" in which James Lane Allen, W. D. Howells, Hamlin Garland, Hamilton W. Mabie, and John Kendrick Bangs participate. The discussion was suggested by an interview with Jules Verne recently appearing in the London Daily Mail. In this interview the great French romancer affirmed his belief that in fifty or a hundred years from now there will not be any novels or romances, at all events, in volume form. In his opinion they will all be supplanted by the daily newspaper. These views of Jules Verne are strongly opposed by Messrs. Allen, Howells, Garland, and Mabie. Mr. John Kendrick Bangs alone, of the five writers who contribute to this symposium, confesses to an agreement with M. Verne in his prophecy. Even Mr. Bangs, however, concedes that the same thirst for the story of of love and life which is inherent in our weak human nature would be as strong as ever, and it would be satisfied, he says, by the genius of the future, just as our present-day geniuses are satisfying all the immediate aspirations of men. "If wireless telegraphy, why not bookless romances, typeless novels, pageless poems? We already have jokeless comic papers. These things are surely coming, and I foresee the day when without novels, poetry, or drama the public will be surfeited with romances of the most stirring character; poems of stately measure and uplifting concept; psychological studies of the deepest dye; and dramas that will take the soul of man and twist it until it fairly shrieks for mercy, and all of these things men and women will get while they sleep. It is my impression that the literature of that period will be induced by pills." Mr. Bangs then goes on to illustrate his ideas by such concrete examples as the "Alfred Austin Pellet," ""Caine's Capsules for Creepy Creatures," the "Belasco Tabloid," and so forth. He concludes with a suggestion that "Some clever druggist will meet the literary necessities of the hour, and put up all the literature that anybody can possibly want in small doses, in every variety, and at a price which will bring it within the reach of all. It will be a great boon, and will enable thousands of men who might otherwise have been novelists, poets, or play
wrights to turn their backs on letters and take up some really useful occupation."
THE NEW PHILIPPINE GOVERNMENT.
The law of July 1, 1902, providing a temporary civil government for the Philippines, is analyzed in an article contributed by Mr. Sidney Webster. His examination of this and other legislation for our colonial possessions leads Mr. Webster to the conclusion that the theory upon which the Spanish treaty was negotiated,-that the new islands could be held indefinitely as colonies outside the Constitution,-has prevailed; that places subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, but not incorporated into it, are not within the United States; that incorporation of territory acquired by a treaty of session in which there are conditions against the incorporation until Congress has provided therefor, will not take place until, in the wisdom of Congress, the acquired territory has come into the American family; that the article of the treaty with Spain by which it is declared that the civil rights and political status of the native inhabitants "shall be determined by the Congress" show a purpose not only to leave the status of the territory to be determined by Congress, but to prevent the treaty from operating to the contrary. Hence the Constitution does not yet control in the new islands. AMERICANS IN EUROPE.
Mr. H. G. Dwight, formerly connected with the American consulate at Venice, writes an entertaining description of "Americans in Europe, as Seen From a Consulate." Mr. Dwight, from his vantage ground of consul's messenger, indulges in certain pointed observations on the globe-trotting propensities of his fellow countrymen. He says: "I often marvel at the tales of travel that are narrated to me, particularly when, as is frequently the case, my visitors affirm themselves to be abroad for recuperation. He of the seven-league boots was nothing to them. They mention the number of towns they have 'done' in as many days, and their reminiscences appear to be solely of accommodation. One wonders what idea they have in traveling. Their interest seems to be principally in motion; and when they find themselves outside of a railway car, they are at a loss for employment. It is then that they come to us for advice. St. Mark's and the ducal palace once hurried through, the satiated traveler comes to ask if there is anything else he should 'do' before going on? Certainly not; he should depart with all speed, and God be with him! What else can you say to a man whose sole interest in this enchanted town is that he finds in a café a trick of cooling beer that he has never seen? With regard to the Doge's Palace, the observation of many is that it lacks steam heat and has an elevator." THE LAW OF PRIVACY.
Mr. Elbridge L. Adams, of Rochester, N. Y., who was counsel for the successful parties in the right of privacy case which recently came before the New York Court of Appeals, contributes an article in which the grounds of this decision are examined, together with certain legislation of other States on the same subject. The Court of Appeals decided, it will be remembered, that in the existing state of the law there is no right of privacy as a legal and actionable right. The case as it came before the court was this: a lithographic company had printed, and a milling company had circulated as an advertisement.of its flour, some prints upon which appeared the likeness of a young woman, above
which were the words "Flour of the Family," and below, the name and address of the milling company. A young woman claiming to be the original of the portrait brought suit against both the maker and user of the advertising matter, claiming that she had been greatly humiliated by the scoffs and jeers of persons who had recognized her face and picture on the adver tisement, and that she had been made sick, and had been put to the expense of employing a physician, by reason of which she had suffered damage. She prayed to be compensated in damages and for an injunction restraining the further circulation of the picture. The relief sought was granted solely upon the proposition that the circulation of the advertisement without the complainant's consent constituted an invasion of her right of privacy. For this contention, however, the Court of Appeals was not able to find any precedent. Mr. Adams thinks that he has found in recent statutes enacted by the State of California a basis for legislation which should remedy most of the evils complained of, and also holds that the distinction between public and private characters in this country has been virtually nullified. This California law makes it unlawful to publish the portrait of any living person a resident of the State, other than that of a person holding a public office, without the written consent of that person first had and obtained. It is provided, however, that the portrait of a person convicted of a crime may be lawfully published. It is further forbidden to publish a caricature of any person which “"will in any manner reflect upon the honor, integrity, manhood, virtue, reputation, or business or political motives of the person so caricatured, or which tends to expose the person so caricatured to public hatred, ridicule, or contempt."
SANITARY PROBLEMS OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL. Surgeon-General Sternberg, U. S. A., retired, outlines some of the sanitary problems connected with the construction of the Isthmian canal. One of the first things to be looked after, in his opinion, should be the watersupply. A pure water-supply should be insured before the laborers are sent to any particular section of the line to begin work, and other necessary sanitary measures should be promptly executed. Dr. Sternberg accepts as fully demonstrated the mosquito theory of malarial and yellow fever. While the men cannot work under mosquito bars, Dr. Sternberg suggests that they can sleep under them, and that they should be compelled to do so. Mosquitoes seek their food chiefly at night, and a man when not protected by a mosquito bar is especially exposed to their attacks while asleep. It has long been understood that sleeping under a mosquito bar affords a certain amount of protection from malarial fever, although the explanation of this fact is of very recent date. Dr. Sternberg concludes by recommending the establishment of a sanitary service in connection with the Isthmian canal operations similar in character to the sanitary corps enlisted in the army.
Prof. E. W. Hilgard writes on "The Causes of the Development of Ancient Civilization in Arid Countries," Mr. A. M. Wergeland on "Grieg as a National Composer," Mr. Arthur Symons on "Casanova at Dux: An Unpublished Chapter of History," Mr. Herbert C. Howe on "Contradictions of Literary Criticism," Mr. G F. Kunz on "The Management and Uses of Expositions," and Maggiorino Ferraris on "The Public Debt of Italy."