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attempt to put in order, to reduce to principle, what is at present in countless instances a matter of inconsistent proceedings, to frame a general theory in accordance with modern conditions of social and political activity. He maintains that no religion which at present exists prescribes rules that can be immediately applied to every eventuality. Upon a thousand questions of great public importance religion as it is generally understood gives by itself no conclusive light. The foundation of his new religion, or startingpoint, is the desire to leave the world better than we found it.
BIRTH AS A RELIGIOUS BASIS.
He then goes back to the foundation of all religions, the bedrock from which every religion has sprung, to which the Church bears witness in the supreme position which it has ever accorded to the Mother and the Child. His first basic doctrine is that the fundamental nature of life is a tissue and succession of births. Love, home, and children are the heart-words of life. The statement that life is a texture of births, he thinks, may be accepted by minds of the most divergent religious and philosophical profession. Life is a fabric woven of births, and struggles to maintain and develop and multiply lives. The departing generation of wisdom, which founds its expression in the meditations of Marcus Aurelius, is based upon a predominant desire for a perfected inconsequent egotism, whereas the new faith, of which he makes himself the prophet, protests against this accentuation of man's egotistic individuality. To the extraordinary and powerful mind of Schopenhauer this realization of the true form of life came with quite overwhelming force, although it seemed to him a detestable fact, because it happened he was a detestably egotistical man. To others less egotistical the recognition of our lives as passing phases of a greater life comes with a sense of relief and discovery. The discovery of the nineteenth century which has been its crowning glory has been to establish the fact that each generation is a step, a definite measurable step, toward improvement. Darwin, he thinks, has altered the perspective of every human affair. Social and political effort are seen from a new view point. Hence the need for formulating what he calls the new republic.
A REPUBLIC OF BETTER BIRTHS.
In future we have to judge of collective human enterprises from the standpoint of an attentive study of birth and development.
“Any collective human enterprise, institution, movement, party, or state is to be judged, as a
whole and completely, as it conduces more or less to wholesome and hopeful births, and according to the qualitative and quantitative advance due to its influence made by each generation of citizens born under its influence toward a higher and ampler standard of life."
The essential idea which the new republic is to personify and embody is that men are no longer unconsciously to build the future by individualistic self-seeking, but by a clear consciousness of our coöperative share in the process. Every question, such, for instance, as the continuance of the existence of monarchy,—would be judged solely from the question whether it ministers or does not minister to the bettering of births and of the lives intervening between birth and birth. The new republican, in his inmost soul, will have no loyalty or submission to any kind and color save only if it conduces to the service of the future of the race.
THE FAILURE OF OUR PARTY SYSTEMS. There is not in Great Britain or in America any party or section, any group, any single poli. tician, whose policy is based upon the manifest trend and purpose of life as it appears in the modern view. Mr. Wells does not believe that any Liberal or Conservative has any comprehensive aim at all as we of the new generation measure comprehensiveness. Hence the new republican cannot be a thoroughgoing party man. We want reality because we have faith. seek the beginning of realism in social and politi cal life. We have to get better births and a better result from the births we get. Each one of us is going to set himself immediately to that, using whatever power he finds to his hand to attain that end.
CCORDING to the symposium which is being conducted in the Commonwealth by Canon Scott Holland, Sunday in London is in a bad way. In the current number "A Printer" and a Tram-Driver" give their views on the subject. Sunday in the Metropolis," says the latis becoming nothing more nor less than a weekly Bank Holiday :
"As I ride up and down the road I see drunkenness and debauchery on every side. Fathers and mothers unworthy of the name, young men and women with no sense of decency in them, while on every side my ears are assailed with profane language, cursing, and blasphemy.
The effect on the masses of spending their Sunday as a Bank Holiday, instead of a holy day, is apparent to the most casual observer où Monday morning: they are in a state of bank
ruptcy, and have to resort to the pawnshop to carry them on until pay-day. I see crowds of people waiting for the pawnshops to open, some of them most respectable people, but because of their manner of spending Sunday they have to resort to this ignominious manner of raising money to carry them on till the end of the week.
To the tram-worker Sunday brings no cessation of labor. Sunday and week day, feast-day and fast-day, it is the same; there is no day of rest to look forward to, consequently Sunday is the same as week-day to him and his wife. He having no regular meal-times, his wife has to prepare and take his food out to him, so she is never free to spend her Sunday as a day of rest.
"The London County Council, all honor to them, have, since they have acquired the tramway system in South London, arranged that every driver and conductor in their employ gets one day's rest in seven, one day in which they have nothing whatever to do with their work, they have neither to ask if they can be spared or to show up for it, but one day absolutely free, and every man knows which day of the week his restday falls upon, as it would be impossible under the existing conditions to have Sunday."
THE PRINTERS' SUNDAY.
"A Printer" says:
"I suppose there are still some people who delight in Sunday as a day of faith and worship and good works, but such people are few and far between, something like Abraham's ten righteous men. I have been going about asking all sorts and conditions of men, 'What do you think about Sunday?' There has been a wonderful degree of unanimity in the answers. Nearly every one has said, in varying phrases, It all depends on the weather.' The shopkeeper sells. more sweets if the Sunday is a fine day. He is nearly as many in number as the publican, and he keeps open on Sunday for even longer hours than the publican. Sunday' to him conveys no meaning except that of larger sales than on other days. And the boys and girls that buy the sweets and drink the ginger beer? For them a fine Sunday is merely a synonym for a fine Bank Holiday. The town publican prefers a wet Sunday. He is busier then. But, wet or fine, his doors are crowded at opening time, and the thirst of a neighborhood comes to be slaked.
"In the printing trade Sunday work is sometimes necessary. I have never heard a printer object to Sunday work on religious grounds. On the rare occasions when exception is taken, the reasons are either frankly economic or personal. The observance of Saturday afternoon is the printer's cult; and nothing else must come in
the way of its exercise. In exchange for the opportunity to attend a football match the Sunday's rest is freely bartered."
HOW MUNICIPAL THEATERS MIGHT BE
OUR readers may recall a reference in our
August number (page 231) to Mr. William Archer's plea for publicly owned theaters. Mr. Charles Charrington contributes to the Contemporary Review for September an article in support of this movement. He says that it would be well if a national and municipal theater league were formed, which would set itself to secure the foundation of municipal theaters in the great towns, and especially in the London boroughs, as well as a great theater for all London. He maintains that in Great Britain, owing to the lack of municipal theaters, not only is the standard of dramatic work below that of other countries, but that it is dearer and less in quantity; above all, that so long as the theater lacks the organization, implicit in the control of the theater of every other country in Europe by the people themselves through their accredited representatives, so long will the weakness of our theatrical management remain inherent and inevitable. "It is not only that the number of times Shakespeare's plays are performed in German-speaking countries compared with the number in England is about sevenfold; but also that, in England, only the plays which admit of the opportunity of great star parts for the actor-manager are performed; whereas, among our neighbors, all the plays, including the great historical cycle, are constantly produced."
THEATERS TO BE LEASED.
Every municipal theater, he maintains, would be a repertory theater in which long runs would be impossible. The municipality would never manage the theater itself. It owns the theater and invites tenders for the lease, which is usually granted for five or seven years to a manager, who receives a subsidy and pays no rent. The manager, as a rule, does as he pleases, but he is prevented from using the theater as a mere means of speculation. Prices are kept low, and the programme must be brought out in advance for the whole season. The municipality also has a right of veto upon plays, and can, and does sometimes, stipulate upon the performance of a certan number of classical plays. It also insists upon the payment of standard wages to the employees. Of the great London theater upon which Mr. Charrington would spend $2,500,000 in order to make
it a model for all subventioned theaters, he has many things to say. For instance : "Since it would be in a sense a national institution, the King, who has never been lacking in generosity, might give the land, without making the building a court theater, an impossible institution in our democratic country, while the fact that it would be under the control of the London County Council should sufficiently guarantee its conduct on democratic lines as to seating and prices; finally, the subscriptions, which must be unconditional, so that the future of the concern may not be handicapped, will be some evidence of a real demand on the part of influential citizens.'
THE ARGUMENT ON MORAL GROUNDS.
Mr. Charrington comments incidentally on the opposition to his scheme that may be looked for from the Nonconformist conscience." He says:
"My own experience, if I may be pardoned an unavoidably egoistic tone, in speaking to a great number of Nonconformist ministers of various denominations, is, that in a great number of cases their repugnance to the theater is due to the scenes they see depicted upon the posters which garnish our hoardings. Now the coarse sensationalism and lubricity that these pictures frequently advertise are among the principal reasons which should lead us to press forward the establishment of a municipal theater; for, while such a theater would necessarily produce plenty of farces and laughter-provoking plays and other works which would not rank high as artistic productions, an institution for which the people were collectively responsible would probably be as much superior to the average theater of private enterprise in moral tone as the municipal free library is superior to the little circulating library where the penny dreadful is the representative form of literature."
The remedy for this, in Mr. Slater's opinion, is to be found in an adaptation of a principle which has been successfully embodied in the Laborers' Dwellings Act of Ireland. He admits that it is socialistic. He says:
"If it is asserted that to provide lands and houses for wage-earners, at a cost that can hardly much more than pay for maintenance and management, leaving the interest and repayment of capital to be paid out of rates and grant, is nothing more nor less than outdoor relief in aid of wages, one cannot deny that, economically speak. ing, the accusation is true. But speaking ethi cally and psychologically, it does not follow that the tenant is pauperized, nor that his independ ence is undermined, nor that he will probably hose in wage an equivalent of what he gains in garden and house-room.
Irish legislation on this subject is a clear embodiment of the principle that the Irish agricultural laborer is entitled to demand not only that he shall be housed in a manner consistent with human and not merely animal life, but also that with his house he shall be provided with a garden, which can, with proper culture, pay the rent of both house and garden. The laborer who has no cottage, or whose cottage is insanitary, with the help of the signatures of a few friends and neighbors sends his representation' to the by law to provide the cottage, and encouraged District Council; the District Council is required by aid from the Treasury not to evade it duties; if it does evade them, the laborer can appeal to the Local Government Board."
Next to nothing has been done in England and Wales by the local governing authorities in the way of improving the cottages of the rural poor. Up to May 31, 1900, there were only fourteen cottages built or building. at the same date there were 14,888 cottages In Ireland built or building. Since that date the Local Government Act of 1898 came into force, with applied for for the purpose of providing 8,000 the result that in the very first year loans were cottages. Up to the end of the financial year of 1901 over two millions sterling has been sanctioned for the purpose of rebuilding laborers' dwellings in Ireland. The cost is defrayed by a rate which may not exceed one shilling in the pound of the rateable value of the property. Ireland the government grants under the Land In Purchase acts £40,000 a year to cover cases in which purchasers fail to pay their interest on adpunctually, this sum of £40,000 has been availvances, but as the purchasers seem to have paid up housing stands first. Cottages with half-acre garable for secondary purposes, among which that of den plots are let at from 64d. to 1s. 6d. a week.
THE PERIODICALS REVIEWED.
IN the October Harper's Dr. Richard T. Ely has a
on the Iowa River. "Outside of Amana, the only communistic settlements of any note now exising in the United States are those of the Shakers, and their thirty five communities do not altogether have as many members as are embraced in the Amana Society. Amana, then, comprises more than half the communists of the United States, and unless I am mistaken, in studying Amana we are examining the history of altogether the largest and strongest communistic settlement in the entire world." There are 1,800 souls in the commuity now, and they have added to their domain until it comprises some 26,000 acres.
Mr. Charles Mulford Robinson writes of the "Art Effort in British Cities," there is a nature study contribution from Mr. J. J. Ward, "Plant Battles," a beautifully illustrated light sketch of Monte Carlo by André Castaigne, and an account of the "Newest Definitions of Electricity," by Carl Snyder, which is reviewed among the "Leading Articles of the Month."
THE CENTURY MAGAZINE.
N the October Century the opening articles deal in text and illustrations with the much-discussed relation of photography to the proper pictorial art of the painter. Mr. Alexander Black conducts a dialogue between the artist and the camera man, and Mr. Alfred Stieglitz writes on "Modern Pictorial Photography.” Mr. Stieglitz is the founder of the Society of PhotoSecessionists, who were organized to develop and publish the true art value of photographic reproductions of beautiful things. Mr. Stieglitz tells us that the organization of artists known as the Munich Secession was the first officially to recognize the possibilities of pictorial photography. The art committee of the Glasgow Exhibition in 1901 received pictorial photography as a legitimate member of the family of the fine arts. In the spring of this year the artists of the Vienna Secession admitted photographs to the jury of selection on the same terms as paintings, drawings, and statuary. At the same time, the jury of the Paris Salon accepted for hanging ten photographs which had been submitted by E. J. Steichen, a young artist of Milwaukee. Large prices are being paid by connoisseurs for choice photographic prints, as much as three hundred dollars having been refused for a picture exhibited this year at the National Arts Club of New York.
NEW YORK'S SUBWAY.
Mr. Arthur Ruhl describes "Building New York's Subway," and Mr. F. W. Skinner tells of the particularly difficult engineering problems in the subway. The longest solid tunnel in the subway system is that which dives into the solid rock at One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Street. "At an average depth of 100 feet below the surface, it burrows through blackness for a distance of two miles, except at One Hundred and Sixty-ninth and One Hundred and Eighty-first streets, where elevators will carry passengers to and
from the tracks. Except for the Hoosac tunnel, there is no single tunnel so long in America."
Mr. Sylvester Baxter discusses "Art in Public Works," the aqueducts, water-towers, power-houses, reservoirs, and bridges of the modern cities, and Dr. James M. Buckley makes an interesting study of the founder of Zion City, under the title, "Dowie Analyzed and Classified.” Dr. Buckley's analysis fits John Alexander Dowie, of course, into the class of fanatics, spiritual megalomaniacs. A much more sympathetic character sketch of Dowie follows from the pen of John Swain, who believes the founder of Zion City to be sincere. "Yet I must admit that he uses all the methods of the charlatan."
E have quoted in another department from
WMr. Ralph M. Easley's article in the October
McClure's, "What Organized Labor has Learned."
A brief note on Woodrow Wilson, by Mr. Jesse Lynch Williams, emphasizes the fact that it is not as an academic personage that President Woodrow Wilson undertakes his task at Princeton, but as a man among men, realizing always that the students he is to lead are to be citizens and the world's servants, and the college must make men of them.
There is an eloquent appreciation of the actress Rachel by Miss Clara Morris. The actress gives many interesting anecdotes of the great Jewess. Miss Morris has an indignant account of the rapacious and humiliating tactics of Rachel's family. In her minority Felix, her father, allowed the brilliant girl only sixty dollars a month for her own use, to cover theatrical costumes, private wardrobes, and pocket money. When she finally broke away from her slavery to her own family, she gave them all her apartments conained, a pension of twelve thousand francs to her father, paid the debts of her sisters, and exerted herself to get good positions for her brother. The coffin of the great actress had barely settled in the grave when this precious family had a public sale of her belongings.
Mr. John La Farge closes his study of Velasquez with the opinion that of all artists he was the most of a painter, "as having most naturally expressed the special differences of painting from other forms of representation; the appearance of things and not their analysis being the special character of painting. His life is that of a modest, sincere, and honorable man."
structional, expressional, and harmonized design in the placing and grouping of human figures."
IMPROVEMENTS IN FIRE-FIGHTING.
In "Fire-Fighting To-day - and To-morrow," Mr. Philip G. Hubert, Jr., says that our American system of fire-fighting is the most perfect in the world. Our fire force is nearly four times that of Germany or France in proportion to the population, and three times that of England. Fires now cost us $150,000,000 a year, not counting insurance and expense of fire departments, which amounts to another hundred million. The immediate improvements hoped for are chiefly the substi tution of electricity for horses,-that is, automobile fire-engines, more signal boxes, direct communication between the boxes and the fire houses, as well as with the central station, the greater use of chemical extinguishers, devices for fighting smoke, and the better education of the public in using the appliances provided for sending in the alarm.
Mr. Walter A. Wyckoff continues his articles "Among London Wage-Earners." He says that unsanitary and savage London has largely disappeared, but that overcrowded London remains a most urgent question of the hour. He describes the "Poor Men's Hotels," where sixpence procures a clean bed and room for the night in a comfortably appointed hostelry.
THE COSMOPOLITAN MAGAZINE.
POSTHUMOUS essay by John Fiske on Alexander Hamilton begins the October Cosmopolitan. In the series of sketches of "Captains of Industry," Mr. James H. Bridge writes on Henry Clay Frick, and Mr. Edward Bok on Cyrus Curtis, the founder and publisher of The Ladies' Home Journal and The Saturday Evening Post. It was in 1883 that Mr. Curtis, then thirty-three years old, asked an artist to draw a heading for a paper to be called The Ladies' Journal. The artist inserted a domestic scene between the second and third words of the title, and labeled it "Home" in small letters. The first subscription received asked for "The Ladies' Home Journal," and the next; in short, the public renamed the paper, and Mr. Curtis accepted the amendment. The publisher had no money, and he asked the advertising agency of N. W. Ayer & Son for $400 credit. The credit was allowed, and the entire $400 was spent in one advertisement in one periodical. In answer to this announcement several thousand people sent 25 cents for a year's subscription. Nowadays, Mr. Bok says, The Ladies' Home Journal spends as much as $300,000 in a single year to make its announcements to the public. Other captains of industry dealt with in this number are David H. Moffat, Woodrow Wilson, the new president of Princeton University, and H. H. Vreeland, president of the Metropolitan Street Railway Company of New York City.
"THE MISSING SCIENCE OF HEREDITY."
Mr. H. G. Wells has an interesting discussion of the problem of the birth-supply, a chapter in his series of contributions under the title, "Mankind in the Mak
Wells thinks that even if we had a very wise committee to decide on who should marry whom, we should probably soon vote them out of office and let things go on in the old way. The only thing we can do in this allimportant enterprise of improving the birth-supply must come, according to Mr. Wells, through research. But he adds that if there is at present a man specially gifted and disposed for such inquiry, the world offers him no encouragement. "This missing science of heredity, this unworked mine of knowledge, on the borderland of biography and anthropology, which for all practical purposes is as unworked now as it was in the days of Plato, is in simple truth ten times more important to humanity than all of the chemistry and physics, all the technical and industrial science, that ever has been or ever will be discovered."
HE October number of Everybody's begins with a very dramatic account of "Old Steamboat Days on the Missouri," by J. W. Ogden. The last great commercial steamer to navigate the Missouri River went out of commission twenty years ago. The river traffic bred a tribe of hard men. A pilot was a king in those days. Almost three hundred steamers have been wrecked in the Missouri, and a thousand human beings were lost in the disasters of a half-century of river service. These great steamers were, after 1830, graceful, swift, and commodious. Some of them were over 200 feet long, with the beam of an ocean-going ship. But they were so shallow that their capacity was not more than 1,000 tons. They were capable of making about ten miles against the current. The innumerable treacheries of the Missouri required such an exhaustive knowledge and phenomenal memory on the part of a pilot that ten or even fifteen thousand dollars was not an unusual compensation for eight or nine months' service.
There is an excellent account of the experiences of a literary woman as a working girl by Miss Marie Van Vorst under the title, "The Woman That Toils." Her studies of the factory life of the girls in the Massachusetts towns are eminently practical and accurate. An article on "Light Cures, Old and New," by Dr. A. E. Bostwick, discusses the new remedial work which is best shown in the achievements of Dr. Finsen, of Copenhagen, whose career is described in this number of the REVIEW OF REVIEWS. Besides Dr. Finsen, Dr. Bostwick tells of analogous work done by Dr. Kaiser, of the Vienna Medical Society, and by Drs. Gottheil and Franklin in New York. These endeavors to cure disease by photo-therapy are founded on the old idea that there is life and health in light, and are legitimate successors of the old theories of the once famous Dr. Dio Lewis, who introduced the sun baths that afterward came into general use.
We have quoted among the "Leading Articles of the Month" from Mr. Chalmers Roberts' sketch of Alfred Beit, "The Croesus of South Africa."
THE WORLD'S WORK.
N an able article on the great modern life insurance
ing." Mr. Wells examines the possibilities of carrying companies, telling how they use their enormous
out the principle of Plato, Douglas Galton, and Victoria Woodhull Martin in the matter of improving the human race by making those units which are best fitted to produce an improved order of mankind. But Mr.
surplus, it is stated in the October World's Work that there was a surplus last year of no less than $120,000,000 in which policy holders did not participate at all.