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try. North Leeds indicates the discontent with which the great constituencies see the choice of Mr. Balfour as premier, and the complete indifference of the ministry to administrative reform. There is a fixed belief in Ulster that slowly but surely the government of Ireland is being surrendered to the Roman Catholics. Mr. Wynd. ham and Lord Cadogan have managed to make Ulster believe that loyalty does not pay, and all classes and sections are united in opposition to the government. Mr. Sloan's election is a spoke in Mr. Balfour's wheel. It is a thousand pities that Mr. Brodrick and Lord Roberts should be brought into a local quarrel in the German Emperor's train. The Russian heir-apparent refused to attend the manoeuvres, although he was first asked. This visit will not add to the popularity of the government in the country, and it will probably result in dust being thrown into the eyes of the British war minister and the commander-in-chief.

The Test of Efficiency.

"Calchas," in the Fortnightly Review for September, reviews in a very hostile spirit the changes which Mr. Balfour has made in his ministry. Apart from the appointment of Mr.


(Chief Secretary for Ireland.)

Austen Chamberlain, his readjustments are commonplace, pointless, and inept. The present opposition, even without Mr. Morley, Sir William Harcourt, and Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, would supply a ministry with a larger number of efficients than are to be found in Mr. Balfour's cabinet. Calchas" deals faithfully with Lond Rosebery's absurdly inadequate speech on the North Leeds election, which Calchas" says was a stupefying surprise to the victors hardly less than to the vanquished. After long immo. bility in national conviction. there can be little doubt that the nation is now prepared, as it has never been before, to change, and to change constantly, until it gets a ministry to its mind. A new political world has come into existence since 1900. The war has destroyed much which was in the national repute, the prestige of British shipping has been almost extinguished, and on the diplomatic side it has been discovered that the German Empire as the bed rock of England's external relations is a rotten foundation. England has completely lost the reputation of technical preeminence in industry and commerce. For the first time, perhaps, for two or three centuries there is no longer a department of national life in which anything like the old leadership of English intellect is recognized by the world.



THE "Morganeering" of British shipping is

still a subject of discussion in the English


Mr. Edmund Robertson, M.P., contributes to the Pall Mall Magazine for September a lucid exposition of the shipping combine." The following is his brief summary of the gigantic deal:


"The new company then will become the owner of all the shares in all the companies, and will, through its ownership of the shares, direct and control the combined fleets of all these concerns. It is important that this peculiarity of the combine' should be kept steadily in mind, for a good deal depends upon it. The flag of each company, whether British or American, will be the same as before, but a foreign corporation will be the owner of all the shares in all the companies."

The great difference between the British. American and the German-American mergers,the retention of the control of the German companies in German hands,-is one of necessity rather than choice. Mr. Robertson says that the German companies were prevented by their subsidies from entering the combine on the same terms as the English companies.


The motive for the deal was simply that the venders thought it to their advantage to sell, and the purchasers to theirs to buy. Nothing more occult than this. The advantages of the combine were truly stated by Mr. Russell Rea, M.P., who said that the origin of the movement was in the business necessities of the great American railroads deriving their revenue mainly from carrying American produce across the continent to be shipped to Europe.

"The old system, under which each railroad company made its own arrangements with the various steamship companies, is said to have produced intolerable confusion and embarrassment in the handling of cargo. When, some time ago, certain of the trunk lines pooled their interests and became one association with one mind and one policy, the organization of sea traffic, on lines corresponding with the organization of the land. traffic, became a business necessity. It was a vital matter for them-the associated railroads

'to be able to direct the movements of freight steamers, to allot their ports, and fix the dates of their sailing.'"


THE FIRST STEP IN TRUST REGULATION. RESIDENT ROOSEVELT'S utterances on the trust question have been approved by many conservative journals which have offered scant encouragement to the ordinary anti-trust propaganda. Thus, the Bankers' Magazine for September, which has no sympathy with those who seek to "make a political issue of an evolu. tion in economic science," strongly endorses the policy of publicity advocated by the President as a first step in the regulation of the trusts. The inventors and promoters of the trust system, it declares, are themselves largely responsible for the darkness covering their operations. It is undeniable that the trust managers gained temporary advantages, in many cases, by keeping secret many details of organization.

Public hostility was excited, according to the Bankers' Magazine writer, more by the prospect of great profits under the trust system than by any real or supposed faults in the system itself. This brought about the interference of the state for purposes of taxation. It was a spirit of greed that dictated much of the anti-trust legis lation now on the statute books, and the trusts have resisted the attack in a similar spirit. They have often appeared to defy the law.

The narrow motive of securing information, for the state or for individuals, as to the moneymaking capacity of particular trusts is no part of the President's purpose in advocating publicity.

"It is to show the effect on the industries of the country and the general welfare of the people of a system of business which seeks to do away with competition. The public ought to take very little interest as a whole in the individuals or

cliques of speculators who happen to be in control or to be quarreling over some money-making proposition. The real question is of the general or universal effect of a business system on the prosperity of the whole people. It is a waste of time to call attention to exceptional financial success on the part of individuals when it is the underlying system that should be examined.


"Those who manage trusts have, no doubt, in a great measure, pursued a policy of concealment. They have been excusable on account of the manner in which they have been attacked. Public prosecutors, often excited by demagogi. cal motives, with the desire of popularity, have attacked corporations and trusts without preliminary investigation of the ground or knowledge of the law. Most of these suits by public prosecutors have resulted in ridiculous failure. But in consequence it has been given out as an excuse for failure, which was in most cases anticipated, that trusts have a mysterious capacity of resistance impervious to the weapons of the law. Like the mediæval dragon, they are armed at all points. But all this is nonsensical. It is no doubt true that as new conditions arise in any branch of human activity old laws become inadequate, but there never has yet been a time when legislators have failed to adapt the law to new conditions when these conditions were understood. The first step is to understand them.


"To discover the real nature and purpose and meaning of such an economical activity as a trust, it would appear to be better to study it in its ordinary normal existence, and not when stirred. up to an unusual kind of life by hostile attacks. The publicity which the President refers to is the publicity of the general operations of a trust, similar to that now required by law as to the general operations of a national bank. The legitimate business of a bank is not hampered by the publicity, nor is any secrecy necessary to the inception of business or as to private dealings necessarily revealed. Publicity of this kind is the trail which shows that business, secret enough while doing, after it is finished, was done according to law. This trail is so complete in the case of a bank that if it indicates violations of law, it becomes impossible to deny or evade the con. sequences of them. But it was many years before

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a code of laws suitable for the guidance of the "1. Strikes are bad, and should be a last banking business was formulated. The perfection resort. of this code is the result of continual amendment. “2. Scales of wages should be determined by In regard to so recent a development of indus- mutual concessions in conferences with employ. trial method as trusts and combined corporations, ers rather than by a demand submitted by the it cannot be expected that suitable laws will be union as an ultimatum. enacted in a moment. Time and trial will be "3. When thus determined, this scale be. necessary. But, as the President says, the people comes a contract, which is not only as sacred as must learn what these so-called monsters really any business contract, but the violation of which are, and not suffer themselves to be misled by by tte union is also the most disastrous blow the scare utterances of the enemies of the trust, or that can be struck at the principle of unionism. of those who seek to use them as a political issue. “4. Sympathetic strikes are unwise, because

« The utterances of the President are far in they violate contracts, bring injury to friendly advance of the usual party platform which, lack- employers and the friendly public, and arouse ing real knowledge, joins in the scare outcry as public opinion against the organization. the easiest and safest political course.”

6.5. It is not essential to a contract that nonunion men should be excluded from employment

along with union men, provided they receive the WHAT ORGANIZED LABOR HAS LEARNED.

same ray. NDER this title Mr. Raiph M. Easley, secre- 666. The union should attract the non-unionist

tary of the National Civic Federation, by persuasion, not force, into membership. sketches in the October McClure's the progress of “Violence in conducting a strike alienates the trades unionism in the United States, and sums public, brings the courts and the militia to the up the most important lessons that have come to support of employers, and reacts disastrously the organizers of labor through hard experience. upon the union. The first system of regular annual conferences 6.8. Unionists should welcome new machinery. and joint agreements was arranged in the year ««9. Unions should abandon arbitrary restric1865 by the United Sons of Vulcan, employed tions on output, and direct their attention to in boiling pig iron. The present rapid advance questions of hours of labor and rates of pay. of organized labor is shown by a doubling in membership within the past three years. Mr. Easley sees, too, a marked improvement in the

THE RELIEF SYSTEM OF THE MINE character of the unions, their broadening policies,

WORKERS. the conservatism of their leaders, and the result: MA ing joint conferences and agreements with em.

peared in the newspapers relating to the ployers based on mutual concessions.

He gives

distribution of the relief fund among the striking many recent evidences of this improvement in anthracite mine workers. Very few attempts the situation, such as the recent joint agreement have been made, however, to ascertain just between the American Newspaper Publishers' what system of accounting is employed in this Association, and the International Typographical distribution. The clearest statement of the l'nion, and the Printing Pressmen's Union, for matter that has come to our notice is contributed five years. He shows how the president of the by Dr. Walter E. Weyl to Charities for SepInternational Longshoremen's Union, Mr. Daniel tember 6. J. Keefe, actually hired non-union men to replace As Dr. Weyl points out, the relief system of strikers who had broken a union contract. Mr. the miners differs from that of charitable organi. Easley says that non-union prejudice is dying out. zations in that its central idea is "militant rather In the Iron Moulders' Union, for instance, only than charitable.” That is to say, the object in twenty-five of the thirteen hundred agreements view is the winning of the strike, rather than to-day restrict employment to union men. The the prevention of suffering. The principle of characteristics of the walking delegates are im- absolute equality in the distribution of the fund proving, the best labor leaders are resolutely op- has been discarded for the principle of distribu posing any breaking of labor contracts, and they tion in accordance with the needs of the appliare, too, denouncing the sympathetic strike.


The funds received by the national organiza

tion were divided among the three districts of Mr. Easley gives what he calls the revised the anthracite regions in proportion to the num. creed of organized labor,” constructed from the ber of mine workers in each, but each of these lessons of practical experience.

districts redistributed its quota according to the


requirements of the various locals composing it. certain sum is allowed each single man, an adEven here a rough approximation seems to have ditional sum for a wife, and still another sum been made to the number of mine workers in the for each child or other dependent, varying acvarious locals, although some of the locals de. cording to the age and requirements of each. manded less than their share, while others, it is Relief rarely takes the form of rent or clothing, claimed, have hitherto refused all aid whatso- and nothing is paid on account of fuel, since coal ever. In the distribution of relief no discrimina

for that purpose may be picked from the culm tion has been made against non-union miners, heap. who receive the same amount of aid as the union miners.



NGLAND'S administration of Egypt has " The system of accounting appears to be been so frequently cited as an object lesboth simple and effective. The district officers son of what colonial government should be, that have printed order books in the shape of check the observations of an American traveler just books, with detachable orders and stubs. A now have a peculiar interest to all American local makes a requisition for one or more of citizens who are concerned, as we all should be, these books, and when relief is granted the name in the successful administration of our newly of the recipient and the amount granted are acquired American dependencies. There is, written upon the order and upon the remaining therefore, a special timeliness in the article on stub. The order which the miner receives is - The Egypt of To-day" contributed by Prof. not convertible into cash, but is accepted by the J. W. Jenks, of Cornell University, to the first local grocer in payment for flour, potatoes, number of the International Quarterly, the sucmeat, canned goods, etc. The grocer fills out cessor of the International Monthly. Professor the amounts and prices of the goods received Jenks briefly relates the disasters of the politi. upon the obverse of the order, and both grocer cal and financial history of Egypt as a Turkishi and miner sign this statement, thus minimizing province, and describes the ingenious system the danger of allowing the grocer and miner in under which, since 1882, the country, while collusion to convert the order into cash and sub.

nominally under the authority of the Khedive, sequently into whiskey. The grocer or other has been virtually a British protectorate, if not small local merchant surrenders the filled-out actually a British dependency. The Khedive order and receives his payment in the form of a pays to his master, the Sultan of Turkey, an ancheck. The local union thus retains the orig. nual tribute of about $3,375,000. An advisory inal stub, the order accepted by the miner, the cabinet of six ministers, each in charge of a de miner's receipt for the groceries purchased, and partment, is nominally, in the name of the Khe the stub of the check paid to the grocer. The dive, the law-making body. There is also the

. local auditing committee reviews the workings legislative council, to which proposed laws are of the system, and the district officials have submitted for advice. There is a general asequally the right to inquire into the distribution sembly meeting every two years, but the only of the funds.

power possessed by this body is that of making suggestions relating to the welfare of the coun.

try. The most important official of all, how• The reduction of the expense of relief is ever, is an English financial adviser, who, withcarried to a fine point, and relief is granted in a out a vote, sits with the cabinet, must be given manner faintly suggesting Becky Sharp's famous full information, and must be allowed to give plan of living on nothing a year. There are advice. In each department there is also either many men in the district who will not accept re- an English adviser or an English permanent lief, and many others to whom it is not granted. Secretary, who must be given full knowledge of The great army of those who have left do not, of the working of the government, and must be course, receive relief, and men who have obtained permitted to make suggestions. These all act work in the region also go without assistance. under the leadership of Lord Cromer, England's A corresponding reduction is made for miners diplomatic agent and consul-general. There is or other mine workers who receive aid from rela- an English army of occupation of some five tives or friends, or whose daughters are employed thousand troops holding the citadel whose guns as servants, mill hands, or otherwise."

command the Khedive's capital, and this, it

may After making such deductions, the amount well be believed, lends effective support to the granted bears an approximate proportion to the advice of the English officials. Furthermore, food requirements of the striking population. A the Egyptian army itself is trained and com.


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manded by English officers, and the Egyptian diture directly for the improvement of the people government has more than once been given to has arrived. A few figures may be cited to understand that when England, on important show the reduction of the tax burden : Between inatters, gives advice to the Egyptian govern. 1881 and 1897, the average land tax per acre was ment, that advice must be acted upon.

reduced from $5.50 to $4.56. Since 1895, the

total annual tax on land has been reduced by REFORMS IN TAXATION.

over half a million pounds; other direct taxes Before proceeding with an account of the han- have been reduced by about a quarter of a mil. dling of the Egyptian debt, Professor Jenks lion pounds, and indirect taxes amounting to devotes some space to showing the essential im- £186,000 have been abolished. Between 1881 portance of irrigation to the country's welfare, and 1897, the tax per head of population was re. and the great prosperity that has been secured duced some 20 per cent., although there had solely through the wise development of en. gineering schemes either originated or completed by the British officials. The direct economic effect of these works on the country's financial condition can hardly be believed by one not familiar with the facts of the situation as set forth by Professor Jenks. Take, for instance, the saving from the improved drain. age of the irrigation canals alone. Owing to the deposit of silt in these canals after the flood, it was once necessary to clear them out in the summer season by forced labor. Former. ly the labor required in the Delta alone amounted to more than $3,000,000 a year. Now, with a much more extensive system and additional drains, and owing to the better organization and more careful distribution of the water, the annual cost is only $1,000,000. In one special case, by certain minor changes introduced to lessen the amount of silt deposited, with an ex: penditure of less than $10,000, an economy was made of between 700,000 and 800,000 days of work per year, or, in terms of money, an annual saving resulted of at least $80,000. Thus the an. nual increase in the wealth of the country, subject to taxation, directly due to these engineering improvements, can hardly be estimated. In the days before the English administration landwere not only compelled to mortgage

LORD CROMER. their crops to pay the annual taxes, but in 1870

(British administrator in Egypt.) were compelled to pay six years' land tax in advance, though they were promised thereafter, as been over two hundred miles of new railway compensation, that their taxes should be reduced opened ; the expenditure on public instruction by 50 per cent. Lord Cromer himself has had been increased by over 37 per cent., large summed up the financial history of the country sums had been spent on irrigation and on agri. under English rule in three distinct phases. cultural roads, and the men called out on “ Cor

From 1883 to 1887, the efforts of the govern. vee,”—that is, for unpaid labor,—had been re. ment had to be directed toward the maintenance duced from 281,000 to 11,000 men per year. of financial equilibrium. It was impossible to In 1881, the market price of the 5 per cent. effect either fiscal relief or to incur additional privileged debt was 964. In 1897, the expenditure. The second period, froin 1887 to debt, converted into 34 per cent., was 102. The 1894, might have been considered that of fiscal 4 per cent. unified debt in 1881 stood at 714. relief. There was an opportunity of relieving The amount of debt per head of population in the country in part from the burden of the taxes. 1881 was £14 8s. 9d.; in 1897, it was £10 0s. Since 1894 the tax burdens have become so rea. 20. While the per capita of the burden of the sonable, on the whole, that the period of expen- debt has been enormously reduced, the ability to




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