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London, relating to her history in the seventeenth century. Besides this, copies of the records of some of her early and more important counties have been made and deposited in the State Library at Richmond. North Carolina has published seventeen volumes of her Colonial Records; also, a "Complete Legislative Manual and Political Register" of the State, and a pretty full military roster down to, and including, 1898. In 1892, South Carolina appropriated $6,500 to secure copies of her Colonial Records in England, of which there are now thirty-six folio volumes in the office of the Secretary of State. It is to be hoped that they will be printed soon. Her military history has been brought down to the Mexican War, and a roster of her Confederate soldiers is now being prepared. A "Roster and Itinerary" of her soldiers in the Spanish-American War has already appeared. An Historical Commission, to serve without pay, has been appointed to collect material from any available source. Georgia has spent about $10,000 for collection, but nothing for printing. Unfortunately, the copy of her Colonial Records was burned in 1893. An appeal will be made to the Legislature to have them copied again.

Some of the newer States also are waking up to the importance of their records. Alabama was the first to begin the preservation of the history of the Civil War. A Superintendent of Army Records was appointed in 1863; but the end of the war, and the consequent change of government, left matters in great confusion. A part of the work already done was lost, but some of it has been recovered. A few years since a commission was appointed to report upon historical material. February 27, 1901, a Department of Archives and History was created by the Legislature, and a director appointed, with a salary of $1,800, and $700 for contingent expenses. Mississippi has appropriated $2,000 to be used for publication under the direction of the Historical Commission appointed by the president of the Historical Society. Texas has sent a commission to the city of Mexico to look after documents there.

It is doubtful if the Solons who have been so busy making history would have found time to do even this much, had not the members of the historical societies proved their relationship to a certain widow by their importunities. Just what credit is due to them in each particular case cannot easily be determined, but several societies have been untiring in their efforts. The Maryland society edits and looks after the publication of the archives mentioned above. In addition to this, it has done good work in the publication of documents and of carefully prepared papers based

on sources. TheCalvert Papers are the most important published so far. The society now has more than thirty volumes to its credit. The Society for the History of Germans in Maryland has issued two volumes. The Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science" are too well known to need comment.

In 1894

The Virginia Historical Society was founded in 1831, and was chartered three years later, but in 1882 it had published only thirteen volumes. Since then it has taken on new life. In the decade 1882-92 eleven volumes appeared. the society began the publication of the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, a quarterly of one hundred and twelve pages. It is largely devoted to documents, but considerable space is given to genealogies of only local interest. A catalogue of the manuscripts in the possession of the society has lately been published. The William and Mary (College) Quarterly, edited by President Lyon G. Tyler, is doing much to supplement the work of the Virginia Magazine of History. Lower Norfolk, Virginia, Antiquarian, and the John P. Branch Historical Society Papers of Randolph-Macon College, are publications worthy of



From 1857 to 1883 the South Carolina Historical Society published four volumes. In 1891 new life was infused into the society, and it is now pushing its work before the Legislature. January, 1900, witnessed the birth of its official organ, The South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine. The most commendable feature about this quarterly is that it is largely devoted to documents. One might prefer to have such papers in volumes devoted to nothing else, but when they cannot be had that way, it is better to have them in a magazine than not at all.

The Georgia Historical Society was founded in 1839, for the purpose of preserving and dif. fusing information relating to the history of the State of Georgia in particular, and of American history in general." history in general." It has done something in the way of collecting, but very little in the way of diffusing this information. Only five volumes can be set down to its credit. These, however, contain pages of considerable importance. The last, issued under the auspices of the Savannah Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, contains the Proceedings of the first Provincial Congress, and of the Georgia Council of Safety, 1775–77. The society is fortunate in having for its librarian Mr. Hardin, a member of the Legislature, who will press upon that body the imperative need of funds.

The Alabama Historical Society was organized in 1850, but up to 1876 had published only a few pamphlets. The Alabama Historical Regis

ter was published under its auspices, 1879–84, with a total of twenty-nine numbers. In 1898 the society took on new life, and now issues Publications, the third volume of which is out. .These consist, for the most part, of prepared papers, but some documents are included.

The Mississippi Society was organized in 1890, but did nothing much except in the way of collecting until reorganized in 1897. It now enrolls a large and enthusiastic membership. Annual publications will be issued, three volumes of which have already appeared. It is the policy of the society to foster local affiliated organizations to facilitate the work of collecting material, and to arouse a more general interest in historical study. The contemplated work of the commission already alluded to is, judging by the tentative outline of its report, the most extensive of any that has come to the notice of the writer. Manuscripts, papers, and documents pertaining in any way to the history of Mississippi, such as archives and political papers, whether foreign, federal, of other States, or domestic, records of counties, municipalities, churches, colleges, benevolent institutions, industrial organizations, and literary remains of distinguished men, will receive attention. Prehis toric works, Indian remains, and places of historic interest, such as forts, battlefields, and historic houses, also will fall within its scope. In collect. ing manuscripts, pamphlets, etc., an effort will be made to index and bind them in such a way that they will be "available for almost immediate consultation by all interested parties." It is hardly necessary to add that the commission does not expect to finish its work in a day, nor in a year.

Apparently the youngest society is that of Texas, which dates only from 1897. Several gentlemen, long prominent in the political and educational life of the State, were instrumental in effecting its organization, and under their inspiration the society has developed rapidly. Its official organ, the Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Society, is of about the same scope as the magazines already mentioned. The regents of the State University have provided a fireproof vault in the university library for the use of the society.

Several other States have organizations, in name at least. That of Louisiana published two volumes about fifty years ago. Since then it appears to have remained inactive most of the time, but is now said to be in a state of hopeful vigor." It has recently undertaken to interest Congress in the publication of the documents now in Paris relating to Louisiana and the Mississippi Valley, a work which should elicit the sympathetic help of all interested in history.. Since its birth, in 1858, the Tennessee Historical

Society has published only a few pamphlets of minor importance, but it has done a valuable work in the way of collecting. A catalogue of the manuscripts in its possession reveals the whereabouts of some important ones which, it is to be hoped, will soon be laid before the public. The American Historical Magazine, published at Nashville under the auspices of the Department of History in the Peabody Normal College, will devote one number annually to the interests of the society. The Kentucky society does not appear to have published anything since 1882. The Filson Club, of Louisville, has done an invaluable service to Kentucky history, mainly in the way of collecting material. Its last publication, No. 16, relates to Boonesboro. The Missouri society has recently secured the valuable collection of Mr. F. H. Sampson, of Sedalia, who for, nearly thirty years has been engaged gathering historical material relating to Missouri, chiefly since Louisiana was purchased. The collection numbers over seven thousand, and will be made the nucleus of a great historical library which the society hopes to build up.

Two other societies deserve special mention. The Southern Historical Society, with headquar ters at Richmond, began the publication of its Papers in January, 1876, and has issued twentyeight volumes, all of which are concerned with the Civil War. Some of the later ones are of special value, being made up largely of reprints from Southern daily and weekly papers. Southern Historical Association was organized at Washington City, April 24, 1896, by a number of distinguished gentlemen, statesmen and edu cators in particular being prominent. Its Publi cations are issued bi-monthly, and make a very interesting volume.


Very few of these societies have libraries of any consequence, though two or three number as many as five thousand volumes to their credit. In this respect Georgia leads. The society occupies Hodgson Hall, a brick stuccoed building fronting Forsyth Place in Savannah. The ground floor is used for the meetings of the society; the second is given up to the library, and contains twenty-three thousand volumes, besides many pictures, curios, old newspapers, and several valuable manuscripts. The society also has an endowment of $2,100, the income from which is not to be expended until the endowment reaches $50,000. Unfortunately, however, there has never been any income. It is due to two noble women, Mrs. Hodgson and her sister, Miss Telfair, to say that Hodgson Hall was erected by them and presented to the society as a memorial to the former's husband.

A few comparisons may be of interest, though

That of

not very much to our credit, and may prove an incentive to better things. A bibliography of the historical societies in the Southern States in 1890-92 covered only 38 pages in the Report of the American Historical Association. Rhode Island alone covered 13; Pennsylvania, 44; New York, 55; and Massachusetts, 155. Whether the relative amount would be changed now the writer cannot say, but the Southern societies certainly could make a more creditable showing than they did ten years ago. However, this is not intended to encourage them to judge of the value of their material by its mass.

One of the most potent forces which have brought about this increased interest is the position taken by our colleges and universities in regard to historical study. Ten years ago the instruction given in this subject was shamefully deficient. The writer could name colleges of acknowledged respectability, with enrollments. of from two to three hundred, and with property worth several hundred thousand dollars, which gave little or no attention whatever to it. Where

it was noticed at all, the work generally was made a side issue to other departments. But happily those very colleges now have full departments of history and political economy, and others are following their lead as rapidly as their limited means will allow. The interest in several has become so great that the students maintain historical societies and issue publications. Those published by the Southern History Society of the Vanderbilt University have taken high rank as historical papers. A similar work is being done by several colleges in North Carolina.

Thirty years ago, in an address before the Georgia Historical Society, Dr. Richard M. Arnold said: "While it was and is our duty to collect material for the history of the late great contest between the North and South, this is not the time for publication. . . . Those who come after us have a high and holy task to perform. May they worthily fulfill it." If, as Professor Burgess says, the history of the United States from 1817 to 1858 can be written only by a Northerner, because the victor can and will be more liberal, generous, and sympathetic than the vanquished, and because the Northern view is, in the main, correct, it follows, for those very reasons, that the history of reconstruction must be written by Southerners, who were the ultimate victors in that life-and-death struggle. It is for that work, now one of the richest fields for investigation in American history, that the younger generation is being trained. The scientific spirit of the universities has largely di

vested them of inherited passions and prejudices, and they are going at the task of writing history with a simple desire to discover and tell the truth. At least one such book, The Reconstruction of Mississippi," by James Wilford Garner, 1901, has already appeared. That it is fair and adequate in its treatment is attested by both Northern and Southern reviewers. A similar work is waiting to be done in several other States. Doctors' theses dealing with such subjects are appearing every year.

The writer does not mean to convey the impression that no historical works of importance were produced by the old South. A few books of this kind, which deserve to rank with the best of their class, may be set down to her credit. But of late there has been a greater awakening to the importance of historical study, and within the last few years several notable books have appeared dealing with some period of Southern history. Dr. Alexander Brown's services in bringing to light the records relating to the settlement of Virginia have already met with deserved recog. nition at the hands of scholars. Of the regular State histories, perhaps the most important is that by Mr. Edward McCrady, of Charleston, whose third volume brings the story of South Carolina down to 1780. A history of the Southern Confederacy on the diplomatic side, first given by Dr. J. M. Callahan as the Albert Shaw lectures on Diplomatic History at the Johns Hopkins University, was published last year. Another, dealing with the same subject on the financial and industrial side, by Prof. J. C. Schwab, was issued as one of the Yale Bi-centennial Publications. From which it appears that the interest in Southern history is not altogether local.

For another proof that the South is interested in history the writer would call attention to the fact that for several years Southern men, as fellows and scholars, have been prominent as historical students at some of the best Northern universities. The Justin Winsor prize, given by the American Historical Association for the encouragement of historical research, was awarded last year to a Southerner at Columbia Uni. versity, Mr. U. B. Phillips, for his study on Georgia and State Rights." And when the daily papers in the South devote columns, and even whole pages, to matters purely historical, as do the Nashville American, the Chattanooga Times, and the Charleston News and Courier, we must believe that the interest is not confined to a few students, but that it is more or less general.






R. BALFOUR'S reconstruction of his cab


inet seems to have given very small satisfaction to his own party, or indeed to any one else. The most angry complaints are to be found in the National Review, the one Unionist organ. The editor gives a prominent position to an article by a contributor who signs himself "A Conservative, " and who speaks his mind with emphasis. His chief complaint is that Mr. Austen Chamberlain has not been made Chancellor of the Exchequer in order that Mr. Joseph Chamberlain, the one statesman of commanding influence in the ministry, should have the powerful support of his son in. the plans which he cherishes for drawing closer the bonds of empire. Instead of Mr. Austen Chamberlain, Mr. Ritchie is Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Mr. Ritchie is inert, a believer in shibboleths, and incapable of thinking out for the nation a new course of economic policy. Mr. Balfour's zeal for reform has evaporated at the first obstacle. Lord Halsbury and Lord Ashbourne have defied his wishes. It counts eighteen ministers, practically the same ministers, against twenty of Lord Salisbury's cabinet. It remains unwieldy, incapable of vigorous action, and out of touch with the country and the party, which is beginning to resent the appropriation of all offices by the members of a small clique.


The changes that have been made are by no means for the better. Lord Londonderry's appointment as President of the Board of Education affords the exact measure of Mr. Balfour's zeal for efficiency. The appointment was made as if to illustrate the absolute defiance of tradition and experience which is characteristic of Mr. Balfour's changes. Mr. Gerald Balfour has been allowed to remain at the Board of Trade, where his record may be summed up as one of apathy and inaction. Mr. Wyndham, who is full of promise, but who never gives any performance, enters the cabinet. Lord Selborne, under whom the navy has gone backward, and Mr. Brodrick, who has done little for army reform, retain their respective offices. Lord Cadogan has returned from Ireland without adding to his reputation, and the governinent's policy continues to be the negation of strength and determination. At the best, the new government will be a government of stagna


(President of the Board of Education.)

tion, tempered by such jobbery as its refusal to intervene in the London and Globe scandal. At its worst, if severely tried, it may wreck the party. Mr. Balfour's lack of foresight in foreign policy is proved by the permission which he has given to Mr. Brodrick and Lord Roberts to attend the German manoeuvres, which are being held in Poland under circumstances peculiarly distasteful to every Pole. The nation is weary, not of the policy of the government, but of its inadequate performance.


The editor of the National is quite as emphatic. New blood, he says, is conspicuous by its absence. The age of the members of the new cabinet averages fifty-four and one-half, as against fifty-seven in its predecessor. There is no reason to suppose that the new cabinet will be stronger and bolder in its policy than its two predecessors, and it has been received by the country with indifference or aversion. At least half a dozen of the old cabinet might have been dispensed with, without any loss to the ministry or to the coun


North Leeds indicates the discontent with which the great constituencies see the choice of Mr. Balfour as premier, and the complete indifference of the ministry to administrative reform. There is a fixed belief in Ulster that slowly but surely the government of Ireland is being surrendered to the Roman Catholics. Mr. Wynd. ham and Lord Cadogan have managed to make Ulster believe that loyalty does not pay, and all classes and sections are united in opposition to the government. Mr. Sloan's election is a spoke in Mr. Balfour's wheel. It is a thousand pities that Mr. Brodrick and Lord Roberts should be brought into a local quarrel in the German Emperor's train. The Russian heir-apparent refused to attend the manoeuvres, although he was first asked. This visit will not add to the popularity of the government in the country, and it will probably result in dust being thrown into the eyes of the British war minister and the commander-in-chief.

The Test of Efficiency.

"Calchas," in the Fortnightly Review for September, reviews in a very hostile spirit the changes which Mr. Balfour has made in his ministry. Apart from the appointment of Mr.


(Chief Secretary for Ireland.)

Austen Chamberlain, his readjustments are commonplace, pointless, and inept. The present op

position, even without Mr. Morley, Sir William Harcourt, and Sir Henry Campbell Bannerman, would supply a ministry with a larger number of efficients than are to be found in Mr. Balfour's cabinet. "Calchas" deals faithfully with Lord Rosebery's absurdly inadequate speech on the North Leeds election, which Calchas" says was a stupefying surprise to the victors hardly less than to the vanquished. After long immo. bility in national conviction. there can be little doubt that the nation is now prepared, as it has never been before, to change, and to change constantly, until it gets a ministry to its mind. A new political world has come into existence since 1900. The war has destroyed much which was in the national repute, the prestige of British shipping has been almost extinguished, and on the diplomatic side it has been discovered that the German Empire as the bed rock of England's external relations is a rotten foundation. England has completely lost the reputation of technical preeminence in industry and commerce. For the first time, perhaps, for two or three centuries there is no longer a department of national life in which anything like the old leadership of English intellect is recognized by the world.


THE ATLANTIC SHIPPING COMBINE. HEMorganeering" of British shipping is still a subject of discussion in the English reviews.

Mr. Edmund Robertson, M.P., contributes to the Pall Mall Magazine for September a lucid exposition of the shipping" combine." The fol lowing is his brief summary of the gigantic deal:

"The new company then will become the owner of all the shares in all the companies, and will, through its ownership of the shares, direct and control the combined fleets of all these concerns. It is important that this peculiarity of the combine' should be kept steadily in mind, for a good deal depends upon it. The flag of each company, whether British or American, will be the same as before, but a foreign corporation will be the owner of all the shares in all the companies."

The great difference between the BritishAmerican and the German-American mergers, the retention of the control of the German companies in German hands, -is one of necessity rather than choice. Mr. Robertson says that the German companies were prevented by their subsidies from entering the combine on the same terms as the English companies.

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