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From Black and White (London).



under the fairest conditions, and with a that gives it an official accuracy, the course hav. ing been marked out by the experts of the Coast Survey.

The best previous performance of the Arrow was a sprint at the rate of 36 statute miles an hour. In this country the yacht Vamoose had made a speed of 24 miles an hour, the torpedo boat Porter a speed of 33 miles, and in England, the turbine boat Viper had reached 42 miles in a private trial ; while the swiftest German torpedo boat had come within a fraction of this speed.

On September 6, the Arrow was stripped for the fray, and fed with several tons of the finest anthracite egg coal, in order that no power might be lost in imperfect combustion. Both of her boilers were utilized, instead of the single one or. dinarily used. At the stage of the tide known to maritime people as "high water slack,” the vessel dashed into the course, and covered the nautical mile in the astonishing time of 1 minute

and 32 seconds, or at the rate of 44.13 statute miles an hour.

Mr. Flint's wonderful boat is a twin-screw yacht 130 feet long, with a beam of only 12} feet; the displacement is 78 tons, and the two engines can develop 4,000 horse power. What such a power means in this slip of a boat can be imagined when one remembers that the screw engines of the Great Eastern of over 20,000 tons displacement, and therefore more than 250 times the displacement of the Arrow, developed only 4,000 horse power.

One of the most gratifying features of this remarkable exhibition, so far as it had any practi. cal significance as to torpedo-boat possibilities, was the excellent behavior of the little vessel under the fearful strain. She ran straight and true, with comparatively little vibration, and no ominous wake. With such an enormous power driving so light a vessel this is perhaps the most remarkable feature of the trial.



Photographed for Collier's Weekly.

MR. CHARLES R. FLINT'S BOAT "ARROW," THE FASTEST BOAT AFLOAT. (On September 6, the Arrow steamed over a measured course of a nautical mile in 92 seconds, or at the rate of 44.13 statute

miles an hour.)



(Secretary Park Commission, Rochester, N. Y.)

Ten years

FIFT 'IFTY years ago there were no great public years were obstructions to the extension and ma.

parks in this country, and most of the terial prosperity of many cities ; and, as these unlarge park systems have been developed within sightly and waste places were gradually imthe last twenty-five years. Of the 159 cities of proved and beautified, the value of land in those the United States, each having a population of neighborhoods soon began to rise. Twenty-two 25,000 or more, there are 37 that have no public officials, representing parks in thirty-three cities, parks. The population of these cities ranges state that real estate near their park territory has from 25,000 to 42,000. Forty - three cities increased in valuation greatly beyond the average with froin 30,000 to 102,000 inhabitants have increase in other parts of their cities. parks, the smallest park area being three- ago the Board of Park Commissioners of Boston fourths of an acre, the largest 48 acres, and the reported that the increase in the value of lands average park area for each of these 43 cities is near the « Back Bay" system had been over 300 10 acres.

per cent.; during the same time the value of The number of cities having parks and park lands in the rest of the city had increased in value systems varying in size from 50 acres up to but 18 per cent.

Land values have also risen Greater New York's grand system of parks, com- enormously near Central and other New York prising about 7,000 acres, is 79. Up to about parks; and everywhere, though perhaps not to 1866, when Central Park began to show some such an extent as in Boston and New York, apdegree of finish and beauty under the wise direc- preciation in the value of real estate near parks tion of park commissioners of high character and has steadily increased, and must continue to do intelligence and the almost magic touch of those so as parks are developed and grow more beautigreat landscape gardeners, Frederick Law Olm- ful. Many park systems are but partially imsted and Calvert Vaux, public pleasure grounds proved, and some years may be necessary to were generally considered undesirable, if not un. show their value in this direction. attainable, luxuries. But at this time the ques- The improvement and beautifying of any section of park making was not being seriously con- tion of a city by the erection of handsome build. sidered in many cities. Soon after Central Park ings, especially when surrounded by beautiful was opened to the public it became immensely grounds, immediately causes surrounding prop, popular, and was visited by thousands from all erty to become more valuable, and attractive parts of the country. From this time munici. public parks in a still greater degree have the palities seemed to gradually realize that liberal same effect.

The phenomenal growth of our expenditures for the purchase and improvement cities during the last ten years should arouse of public pleasure grounds were not only legiti. municipalities to the necessity of securing land mate, but were demanded in the interests of pub- for park purposes before the most desirable tracts lic welfare. In some cities a few strong men are taken for residential and manufacturing purworked persistently for parks, contending in poses.

There is little reason to fear that rapidly many cases against local newspapers, prominent growing cities will obtain more park lands than business men, and a united saloon influence. will be required, and the danger of delay in buy.

ing is illustrated in many cities which find, when

they are forced to consider the question of proBut in the end the park promoters were suc- viding public parks, that the cost of procuring cessful. Probably not one of the cities that did suitable land has increased enormously ; in some not take kindly to the creation of public parks cases the most desirable tracts, that could have when the agitation was at its height, but finally been bought at reasonable figures a few years accepted the idea, would, if it were possible, part ago, cannot now be secured at prices that will with its parks for twice their total cost. It has permit of their acquisition for park purposes. been found in some cities that the parks have There are in many cities large open spaces near earned money for the taxpayers, and from a poor and overcrowded sections which should be financial point of view are good investments. taken at once for park purposes and for great Attractive parks now occupy large areas that for playgrounds.





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granted in this country. There are 330 acres in

the four parks of Peoria. The method by which Perhaps there is no way in which men of

the parks of Paterson are annually maintained wealth could so directly benefit so large a num- would undoubtedly be the best one for nearly all ber of people as by gifts of land for public cities. The fixing of annual park appropriations pleasure grounds. Magnificent sums are given

would cease to be subject to the caprice or politto colleges, libraries, and other public institu

icai bias of city councils, and park boards would tions. Why should not money be as freely given be assured of certain amounts annually, thus being to create great parks for the betterment of " all

in a position to act intelligently and upon busisorts and conditions of men”? The accumula

ness methods. tion of great fortunes has been made possible only through the toil of those who most need the

EFFICIENCY IN PARK ADMINISTRATION. pure air and rest afforded by large rural parks.

The wonderful results in making and mainThe largest gift of land in this country for park taining parks that have been accomplished every. purposes was that of 3,717 acres to the city of Los Angeles, Cal. Hartford has received by

where by park commissions when entirely free

from hurtful political influences, have attracted gift 830 acres ; Minneapolis, 790 acres ; St.

general attention and praise. In many cases Louis, 435 acres ; Cleveland, 395 acres ; Spring large park areas have been secured, while funds field, Mass., 360 acres ; Allegheny, 313 acres ;

necessary for their development and annual mainToronto, Ont., 225 acres ; Detroit, 194 acres ;

tenance have been quite inadequate. But, forWorcester, 150 acres ; Peoria, 140 acres ; Omaha,

tunately, nearly all park boards have succeeded 130 acres, and Providence, 121 acres. A few

in conducting their departments on business other cities have received donations of land for

principles. parks varying in amounts from 2 to 90 acres.

Competent superintendents have usually been secured and retained. These superintendents

have employed and discharged park laborers It would be impossible to overestimate the with little dictation from any source, and honest, value of public parks to the physical and moral intelligent service has been the natural result. health of the people. The great urban pleasure Men employed in planting and caring for trees, grounds are coming to be considered as essential shrubs, and flowers ought to be something more to a city's welfare as are pure water, well-lighted than ordinary unskilled laborers, and should be streets, public baths, and public schools, and the trained to do special work. park officials of three-fourths of the cities which A very large proportion of the money exhave public parks say that the greater part of pended for the improvement and maintenance of their taxpapers favor liberal appropriations for parks is used for labor, and this labor cannot be the purchase of park lands, their improvement honestly and carefully performed when partially and proper maintenance. The legislative branches under the direction of outside influences. If the of nearly all city governments grant appropria- same degree of efficiency and application of busitions for the maintenance of their parks, the park ness principles had always been found in the departments annually stating to them the amounts various departments of our city governments as deemed necessary.

In some

cases maximum has prevailed in most of the park boards of this amounts have been fixed by State legislatures country, many municipalities would not now be beyond which appropriations cannot be made for carrying burdens of indebtedness so great as to parks in those cities. The parks of Hartford and suggest the possibility of bankruptcy. Of the San Francisco are annually provided with funds thirty largest park systems in the United States, raised by a tax of not less than one-half of a inill twenty-five are under strictly non-partisan comon each dollar of value of all property taxable for missions ; in the other five cities the administramunicipal purposes. Paterson, N. J., maintains tion of park work is less under the control of her parks with an annual appropriation obtained political organizations than any other departfrom a tax of two-fifths of a mill levied on as- ments of the city government, and but two of sessed valuation of taxable property. Minne. these have park commissions. apolis receives her annual appropriation for parks through a “ Board of Tax Levy," with a limit of one mill on the assessed valuation of property The management of park affairs under comto be taxed.

missions largely accounts for the economical The parks of Peoria, Ill., are maintained from and satisfactory development of our largest park an annual tax levy of six mills, which provides systems, and the feeling is general that full value her parks with the most liberal appropriation has been received for all park expenditures. In


30 cities representing the finest parks of this shrubs, and plants in profusion are costly and country, the average annual tax rate per $1,000 too frequently are out of harmony with their sur: for park improvement and maintenance has been, roundings. Large piantings of a limited variety for the last five years, 40 cents. The rate for of hardy trees and shrubs, naturalistic in their each of these cities varies from 13 cents in Cin. broad effects, cost very much less to grow and cinnati, with 422 acres of parks, to $1.33 in properly care for than the rare and striking ones. Peoria, with but 330 acres of parks. Choosing In some of our most attractive parks effective 10 cities that have especially fine park systems, plantings have been made of great masses of and whose park commissions have been indepen. dogwoods, viburnums, sumacs, and other native dent of corrupting influences, we find that their shrubs ; these are easily, quickly, and cheaply tax rate on $1,000 has been but 30 cents.


grown, and are always pleasing. The parks that these 30 cities the average annual cost per capita the American public enjoy best are those that for improving and maintaining parks during the have cost the least to improve and sustain. last five years has been 34 cents. It should

HARMONY IN DESIGN THE GREAT DESIDERATUM. he remembered that park commissioners, usually busy men of affairs, have given years of gratui. These are the great public pleasure grounds tous service in this work, but have often received created by men who have worked lovingly and harsh and unjust criticism. While the position wisely on Nature's canvas, having clearly in of park commissioner is everywhere considered their minds pictures of one harmonious whole an honorable one, and the organizers and mem. that could only be realized after many years. In bers of park boards are generally men of broad some cities it has been difficult to prevent the and philanthropic aim, their official lives have placing of many things in public parks that were been filled with many vexations.

not considered in the original designs, and the The work of laying out and improving parks question is continually arising as to whether is being done in nearly all cities under the direc- there shall be a strict adherence to the carefully tion of efficient landscape gardeners. Commis. prepared plans of those who have for years sioners accept the plans made by these men and studied the essentials of great parks. There endeavor to acquire lands and improve them as should be no difference of opinion in this matdirected by their retained advisers. These plans ter. When plans drawn by professional land. require large expenditures of public money, and scape gardeners of acknowledged ability are acas years are necessary for plans to materialize, cepted, they should be closely followed. From partly because of lack of funds and because trees a business point of view, nothing less can be done. and shrubs and good roads will not spring into existence in a year or two, some citizens are unreasonable and demand results that only time In many large park systems the police forces and fair appropriations of money can accomplish. are small. On Sundays, holidays, and special

. occasions immense throngs gather in the parks, yet the order generally maintained is good and the

harm done to everything that beautifies is slight. Because of the constantly increasing expenses The development of a strong public sentiment of modern municipalities, and through an imper- which frowns upon depredations and hoodlum. fect and crude understanding of legitimate park ism in public parks has apparently kept pace needs, it is difficult in many cities to secure an- with the growth and embellishment of the parks. nual appropriations large enough for anything When park property has been injured, the of. beyond the bare maintenance of the parks. This fenders have not always been found among the socondition of things in so many cities should lead called “ lower classes.” Women riding through to the making of parks where the strong features parks in their luxurious carriages have been are quiet landscapes with great stretches of mead. known to order their coachmen to gather flowers, ow, and where the naturalistic planting is rest. and have calmly directed the despoiling of shrubs ful to all the senses. The cost of developing and trees. and maintaining great urban pleasure grounds A little more than one-half of the parks of this where the pastoral idea is uppermost is very country are policed by men under the control of much less than for the making of those that are and paid by the park departments. In the other more pretentious and artificial. Park roads and cities regular policemen are detailed for park duty. walks must be made and a few buildings erected ; In four good-sized park systems there are no but the true artist limits their number to the regularly detailed police, but from the employees bare necessities of the case, and conceals them as of each park are chosen a sufficient number who far as possible by skillful planting.

Rare trees, are commissioned as special peace officers.






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