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The sun bath as a complete health restorer, however, is as yet a matter of the future. This much Professor Finsen himself admits.

If the visitor, like the writer, is fortunate enough to gain admittance to the great laboratory, here he is brought face to face with what may be termed the cause, the effect of which is to be met with everywhere in the Finsen Medical Light Institute. By day or by night, as circumstances decree, the professor and his associates here pursue their studies in the realm of microcosm. Whatever new problems are to be solved by Professor Finsen, this splendid laboratory will assist in making practicable. For it is not for the sake of experimentation, but because he wants curative results, that Professor Finsen has sacrificed his own health and comfort that others might be benefited through his researches.

Niels R. Finsen was the son of a well-known Icelandic functionary; he was born some fortytwo years ago on one of the Faroe islands. His early education took place in Iceland, and from here he went to Copenhagen and entered the university for the purpose of studying medicine.

It was in a small attic room of the old chirur gical academy building that Professor Finsen began his first investigations touching the effect of light on the human organism. Sophus Bang, a fellow student, now considered one of Europe's first anatomists, shared Finsen's enthusiasm as regards a complete reform of medical therapeu tics. All kinds of schemes for the betterment of mankind were constantly discussed by the young students. Then ill health came to both. Bang sought refuge in Switzerland, where he gradually regained his strength, while Finsen remained at home to fight his battle single-handed against the disease that ever since has held him in its relentless grasp.

But ill health, which left him a badly shattered constitution, did not deter from pursuing the studies he had begun of his own accord. He was considered little short of queer when he began discussing the influence of sunlight on the human organism. True, it was admitted by the medical world that light influenced all animal life, but Finsen was alone in declaring that sun rays held the keys to a new method for treating certain diseases.

In 1890, Professor Finsen graduated from the Copenhagen University. Gradually it became clear to the skeptically inclined that there was much of common sense in what Finsen claimed for his discovery. Then, in an article, "The Influence of Light on the Skin," published in Hospitaltidende for July, 1893, he aroused general attention by declaring that in cases of small

pox cures could be effected by placing red curtains before all the windows of the sick room. This was the beginning of what was to prove Professor Finsen's reward. In 1894, the year following the publication of his article, smallpox became epidemic in Copenhagen. Now was the time to put the matter to a test. Shortly previous, Dr. Svensen, of Bergen, acting on the suggestion, had tried the red-room treatment with splendid results. Professor Fjellberg now did the same thing with the Copenhagen smallpox cases. Everywhere the medical fraternity applauded the results obtained; especially because, by preventing suppuration, the disease could run its course without leaving those dreaded scars.


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While medicine had gained a grand victory, to Professor Finsen the "red-room treatment was only a negative result. Instead of exclud ing the light rays, as in smallpox treatment, he wanted the "positive" side made applicable; the best use of the chemical light rays for curative purposes. To gain this end he experimented on a lupus patient at the electric light station. The sufferer, who for more than eight years had tried every remedy to get rid of his distressing malady, but without success, was restored to health through the concentrated light cure. And now both moral and monetary assistance came to the discoverer of the treatment.

In 1896, the Municipal Hospital of Copenhagen placed a piece of ground at the disposal of Professor Finsen. Here were erected several buildings,-unpretentious, it is true, but sufficient for the time being. The Finsen Medical Light Institute was organized through the munificence of Messrs. Hagemann and Joergensen, two wealthy residents of Copenhagen. The Danish Government likewise gave a considerable sum for the furtherance of the institution which, beginning with two patients, now treats hundreds daily. On an average, the cases treated are of eleven years' standing; one individual, having suffered from lupus forty-five years, likewise showing marked improvement. But, as a matter of course, where the concentrated-light treatment is begun in the earlier stage, improvement and permanent cure follow much more rapidly.

With its removal to its present quarters in Rosenvaenget the Finsen Medical Light Institute has entered on its career of real stability, Every department is organized on a basis of best results. Professor Finsen has himself charge of the laboratory, with Dr. Forchhammer as chief physician, and Dr. Reyn the first assistant. The staff includes chemists of national renown, expert electricians, and nurses whose work is absolutely unique in the profession of healing.



[Professor Jenks, of Cornell University, has returned to this country after a year spent in studying colonial administration in the Orient, with particular reference to Philippine problems; and he was engaged last month in putting the finishing touches upon a valuable report he is making to the Government at Washington. We are glad to print here Professor Jenks' tribute to the thoroughness and excellence of the new constabulary system of the Philippines as devised and carried on under the direction of one of our typical army officers. Next month we shall publish from Professor Jenks' pen a comparative résumé of the systems of civil administration now existing under the Dutch in Java, the British in the Straits Settlements, the French in Indo-China, and the Americans in the Philippines, with perhaps some other examples of colonial government.—THE EDITOR.]

THE attention of the American people has, for

the last few years, been so steadily directed to the work of the American army in the Philippines, that few have thought of the native Filipino army loyal to the United States, which at the present time, practically throughout the islands, has largely taken the place of the American army. When the last work of the American army against organized opposition in the Philip pines, the hiking " after small scattered troops in the forests and mountains,-had ended, there fell to the new Philippine constabulary the work of seeking out and bringing to justice the small bands of brigands which lurk in the neighborhood of the larger places. Such bands flour. ished in certain localities in the Spanish days, and it was to be expected that they would be found in the Philippines, as in every country, following a period of disorder.

Realizing this fact, the Philippine Commission passed a bill on July 18, 1901, providing for an insular constabulary under the supervision of the civil government, whose function it should be to "maintain peace, law, and order in the several provinces." The body was to consist of not less than fifteen or more than one hundred and fifty Filipino privates, properly officered, for each province, together with an American chief, upon whom should rest the duty of organizing and commanding this body, and various American assistant chiefs and inspectors. The minor officers, sergeants, corporals, etc., were to be natives selected from the provinces in which they were to do their work.

This plan of having order kept among a semilawless people by a military police selected from the neighborhood is distinctly contrary to that followed in most of the colonies of England and Holland in the far East. In those countries it is thought unsafe to trust natives to fight their own neighbors; and the native police who serve

in British or Netherlands India are invariably recruited from remote provinces. Our government, however, believed that plenty of recruits could be found loyal enough to the Americans and determined enough to secure good order, so that they could be trusted to quell disorder and bring criminals to justice, even in their own neighborhood, while their knowledge of local conditions would give them a decided advantage over any troops brought from a distance. Experience has justified this belief.

The task of organizing and commanding efficiently such a semi-military body,-whose work, nevertheless, was to be much more varied, no less dangerous, and no less important than that of the regular soldier,-demanded military and executive ability of the highest order. The selection of Capt. Henry T. Allen, of the Sixth United States Regular Cavalry, formerly senior major of the Forty-third Volunteer Infantry, showed the good judgment which has been so generally employed in filling positions of respon sibility in the Philippines. Captain Allen is a distinguished example of the high type of men that have been placed at the disposal of our civil and military governors in the Philippines. His record shows also what opportunities are given to men of ability and character in our army.

Born in Kentucky in 1859, after completing his course at West Point, he served, during some period of his active service before going to the Philippines, in Idaho, Montana, and other parts of the West. In the years 1884-85, he was put in command of an exploring expedition in Alas ka, where, amid what for ordinary men would seem to be insuperable obstacles of cold and ice, fatigue and starvation, he carried out against desperate odds the work assigned him by the government. His fellow officers, even to-day, say that nothing but the courage and resources of this young lieutenant of twenty-five years saved

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the lives of the party. The simple, business-like narrative of this work in Alaska gives to any one who has power to read between the lines an insight into the possibilities for showing heroism and endurance that are called for from our soldiers in time of peace. Such work is a new kind of "victory of peace" that calls for courage and daring, physical as well as moral. The commendation of his commander, "for courage, fortitude, tenacity, and ability in exploring the unknown regions of Alaska," is the brief mili tary compliment which most civilians would have expanded into a eulogy.

Owing to Captain Allen's uncommon gifts as a linguist, and to his attainments in military science, he was made one of the instructors at the Military Academy in the year 1890. Afterward he was sent to St. Petersburg as military attaché in the years 1890 to 1895; and later he was given a similar position in Berlin, where the Spanish war found him.

A man who is spoken of as "having a special knowledge of diplomacy," who reads and speaks readily French, German, Russian, and Spanish," besides having some knowledge of Swedish," and some experience in banking, as well as



in scientific exploration, is a man peculiarly well fitted for the important semi-diplomatic position of military attaché in an important foreign embassy.

His more strictly military record is scarcely less striking than his scientific. In the Cuban war he was commended for his "great gallantry and his conspicuous example and energetic measat an attempt of the Spaniards to surprise our troops near Santiago de Cuba. He was recommended for promotion on account of "distinguished gallantry" at El Caney.



In the Philippines he was recommended for advancement for "distinguished and meritorious services, military and civil," while in command of the island of Samar, and similarly recommended, for like reasons, for his services while commanding the island of Leyte. In all these cases he was in command in arduous and dangerous expeditions against the enemy, showing everywhere energy, gallantry, and military skill. One of his superior officers speaks of him as One of the best officers I know." Another says He is an officer of the highest qualifica tions, and a gentleman in the highest sense of the term."

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stabulary has under his oversight in the neighborhood of twenty thousand men. Under the same officer falls the distribution of supplies to the constabulary as well as to the insular and provincial officers of the islands. The constabulary administers in certain provinces the provincial jails, together with all telephone and postal lines, and practically, in certain quarters, the telegraph lines as well. The necessity of keeping track of all movements against the public peace compels the higher officers to follow the press of the archipelago, in order to keep in touch with the various movements of dangerous agitators, as well as to do the more direct work of watching well-known criminals. Attempts are made from time to time by some of the more ambitious of the criminal leaders to organize not merely a local band of brigands, but also a widespread outbreak, in order that their opportunities for plunder may be increased. These attempts, for the last year or two, have been practically all discovered by the constabulary and promptly suppressed by the arrest of one or two leaders long before they have reached the stage of any serious disturbance of the peace.

No one can appreciate the difficulties of our new work in the Philippine Islands, and the skill and boldness with which those difficulties are met and overcome, who does not look carefully into the working of this scheme of organizing and managing what is practically a loyal native army enlisted, to a considerable extent, from the ranks of the insurrectos themselves. So, too, nothing can make an American prouder of his country than to see that, serving modestly in inconspicuous places in our public service, we have men like Captain Allen.



HE Primate of the English Church, the

bishop of Canterbury, who was so prominent, and, in his touching physical weakness, so pathetic a figure at the recent Coronation of King Edward, has been a power in the religious life of the English Church for well-nigh half a century. He is the son of Major Octavius Temple, who, at the time of his birth, November, 1821, was resident in the Ionian Islands, then part of the British Empire. They were ceded to Greece in 1864. The future archbishop's education, however, was entirely English,-first at Tiverton, in

Devon; then at Balliol College, Oxford, which in those days, as now, was distinctively the resort of honor-men, among whom Frederick Temple won distinction, gaining a first class in classics and mathematics, and as a result of this, a fellowship, which he held from 1843 to 1848. The educational career then attracted him. He became principal of Kneller Hall, and, after eight years of growing distinction, was appointed inspector of training colleges in 1856, and headmaster of Rugby,-a school that had attained world-wide renown under Dr. Arnold,-two years later. This office he held for eleven years with

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