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be at Manila, where a papal aelegate will represent the Vatican. The Spanish friars will have no further career in the Philippines, the friars' lands will be paid for honorably at a fair valuation, and religious associations will have neither more nor less position and authority in the Philippines than they have in the United States.


The "Orders

The position of the United States and and the State its dependencies in the treatment of in France. such questions seems a very fortunate one when compared with the agitation and strife into which other countries are plunged by complicated relations between governmental and ecclesiastical authorities. For example, two great European nations,-namely, France and Eng land,-were last month principally absorbed with topics of this character. Hysterical excitement prevailed for a time in Paris, and later in more remote provinces of France, over the enforcement by the new ministry of the law relating to associations which was passed under the auspices of Premier Waldeck Rousseau about a year ago. As explained to our readers at that time, this law was aimed at the existence in France of a great number of conventual establishments to which some 30,000 or 40,000 monks belonged and about 135,000 nuns. Some of the orders to

which these persons belonged were duly authorized by law and registered; but many others were not authorized, and there seemed to be many good reasons of public policy why such associations should all conform to the terms of some general law. It is a total mistake to assume that the new associations law contemplated the brutal expulsion of members of religious orders from France. To an American, its requirements would not seem unreasonable. The associations were asked to apply for registration, and, in doing so, to set forth what we should call the articles of agreement which held them together as a corporate body, and to meet further requirements of a general nature. Rather than meet these requirements, a number of religious orders withdrew altogether from French soil; some that remained have acted in disregard of the law.

and the Nuns.

The agitation last month was due to The Schools the closing by the government of the schools carried on by members of orders, mostly women, who had not complied with the law. To make such schools legal in. France it is requisite that an application should be entered, and certain other formalities complied with. The closing of schools in some instances led to physical conflict, and there were

street demonstrations and no little violent haranguing. The semi-political agitation on behalf of the priesthood naturally led to anti clerical demonstrations on the part of the socialists and advocates of an extreme policy. The Vatican has observed silence throughout this struggle in France. Perhaps it is perceived in Rome that it would be better for the French Catholics in the long run if something like the American system could be worked out. The newspaper reports to the effect that the enforcement of the associations law was likely to lead to a revolution that would overthrow the republic are, of course, absurd. France is accustomed to the ministrations of the many scores of thousands of women who belong to the religious orders, and will not dispense with them. But there is no good reason why their schools should not be registered and authorized, and brought into some sort of conformity to required educational methods and standards. The government ought, however, to have been tactful and tolerant. Religious fanaticism is at least more excusable than fanaticism on behalf of so-called liberalism or secularism. It was not obligatory upon Premier Combes to close all the unlicensed schools carried on by nuns of the teaching orders, but merely permissive. Thousands of these very schools had already shown deference to the new law by entering their applications. It would have been more statesmanlike to avoid conflict by allowing ample time for the law to take effect.

in England.

While America has given remarkable The Agitation evidences of late of its progressive spirit in educational matters, and while the French are resolutely working out a more modern school system on an educational rather than an ecclesiastical basis, England has presented the pitiable spectacle of a persistent attempt on the part of the present Tory government to break down the elective public school boards, and to drive the system of elementary education back under the control of the authorities of the Church of England. With a huge majority at its back in the House of Commons, the government has, however, been obliged to throw its educational bill over to the next session. The shattered Liberal party had gratefully discovered that the Tory government's slight tax upon imported grain, and its official determination to put the schools under ecclesiastical control, was providing a basis upon which the Liberals could come together again with conviction and enthusiasm. The effective Liberal opposition shown in the House of Commons debates, while calculated to retard somewhat the progress of the measure, was nothing as compared with the object lesson furnished in a special election to fill a vacant Parliamentary seat for the North Leeds district. This constituency had been Conservative by a very large majority; but when its member of the House was promoted to the peerage the other day, the Liberals seized the



production. President McKinley, the great apostle of protection, had arrived at the opinion that the time had fully come for a modification of our policy. His last speech at Buffalo was a plea for enlarged commercial relations through a system of reciprocity treaties. Free trade with Cuba and the Philippines would be a good starting point, and reciprocity amounting practically to a zollverein, or commercial union, between the United States and Canada might prove to be an act of the most far-reaching statesmanship. A revision of the iron and steel schedules would not hurt this highly developed American industry, and the same thing might be said of several other schedules. Republican business men in almost every community of the country would like to see some conservative modification of the tariff, provided it could be done without political agitation and clamor, and provided certain members of the United States Senate would not take advantage of the rules of that body to prevent conclusions by interminable debate.

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the other hand, supported by local opinion from almost every part of the State, held tenaciously to the view that if the tariff is not soon revised by Republicans in a cautious and friendly way, it will be revised by anti-protectionists in a hostile and radical way. Governor Cummins believes that, although it is only five years since the Dingley tariff was adopted, our industrial conditions have made greater changes in this period than in a preceding term of twenty years. The Iowa platform stands by "the historic policy of the Republican party in giving protection to home industries;" but it favors such changes in the tariff from time to time as become advisable through the progress of our industries and their changing relations to the commerce of the world." The platform endorses the policy of reciprocity, and favors "any modification of the tariff schedules that may be required to prevent their affording shelter to monopoly." The Iowa Republicans do not mention any particular sched

ules, nor set any time for action. It is well known that in Wisconsin and several other Northwestern States, there is much the same feeling as in Iowa in favor of conservative tariff revision. Many Republican newspapers throughout the country have commended the Iowa platform, although there seems very slight disposition on the part of any Republican leaders to come forward with more specific suggestions.



Mr. Babcock, of Wisconsin, who is General Party chairman of the Republican CongresAttitude. sional Committee in charge of this year's campaign, has heretofore been exceedingly active in an endeavor to reduce the tariff on articles which enter largely into our éxports, or which are controlled in the domestic market by trusts or combinations of capital. But his position at present is one of general defense of the tariff system, as against Democratic attacks upon it led by Mr. Griggs, of Georgia, chairman of the Democratic campaign committee. The Secretary of the Treasury, Mr. Shaw of Iowa, while undoubtedly appreciating the fact that business conditions have grown quite away from the Dingley tariff, does not believe it worth while to agitate the subject now, because he sees no prospect of tariff revision until after the next Presidential election, unless, indeed, the Republicans

HON. JAMES M. GRIGGS, OF GEORGIA. (Chairman of the Congressional Democratic Campaign Committee.)


(Chairman of the Congressional Republican Campaign Committee.)

should be taught quite emphatically in the Congressional elections this fall that the people demand an earlier revision. Undoubtedly, the position now held by such men as Mr. Payne, chairman of the Ways and Means Committee, Speaker Henderson, and Mr. Grosvenor of the House, and Messrs. Hanna, Aldrich, and other influential leaders in the Senate, is that tariff revision ought not to be undertaken by the Congress to be elected this year, but ought to be deferred for its successor, to be chosen in the Presidential year 1904. The Congressional elections will be held under the new apportionment based upon the census of 1900. Under the new apportionment the total membership of the House will be 386, instead of 357, an increase of 29 members. The object of this change was to enable every State to keep at least its present representation. New York, Illinois, and Texas each gain three members, while Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Minnesota gain two apiece. Fourteen States gain one member each, these States being scattered East, West, North, and South.


pointment or

The President The White House at Washington has and an Ap- been undergoing extensive alterations Two. and repairs, and President Roosevelt has spent as much as possible of the summer at his own permanent home at Oyster Bay, on

Long Island. His plans comprise a twelve days' journey through the New England States, to end on September 3, and a visit to the West to attend soldiers' reunions, and for some other similar objects, beginning on September 19, and

JUSTICE HORACE GRAY, OF MASSACHUSETTS. (Retiring from the United States Supreme Court.)

continuing for two or three weeks. With Congress adjourned, and no very critical problems pending, either of domestic or foreign concern, it has been possible for high government officials, from the President and his cabinet down, to relax somewhat through the summer months. There have been no cabinet changes, and no rumors of any. The most important appoint

ment of last month was that of Oliver Wendell Holmes, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts, as a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, to succeed Justice Horace Gray. Several months ago Justice Gray, who is seventy-four years old, was stricken with apoplexy, and it was known that he would not again appear on the bench. Justice Holmes, his successor, has served for twenty years on the bench in Massachusetts, and is sixty-one years old. He is a man of brilliant and varied attainments, and an eminent legal scholar, of a thoroughly independent and modern order of mind. We present elsewhere in this number an interesting sketch of him from the pen of an esteemed contributor,

Mr. Morris. Justice Gray, who now retires, was also Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts when appointed twenty years ago. It has been known for some time that Justice Shiras intended soon to retire from the Supreme Court, and it was authoritatively stated last month that he would resign next spring, having attained the age of seventy years. It was also announced that, with the completion of his threescore and ten years, Dr. Andrew D. White would soon resign as ambassador at Berlin. While no formal announcement was made, it was commonly believed that the position at Berlin would be filled by the transfer thither of some other prominent member of the diplomatic service, those most frequently named being Mr. Charlemagne Tower, now ambassador at St. Petersburg, and Mr. Bellamy Storer, now minister to Spain and recently minister to Belgium. Dr. Andrew D. White is the best known and most conspicuous man in the American foreign service, and his retirement will be much regretted, although his return to the United States will doubtless result in his being drawn into various activities of a literary, educational, and philanthropic nature.


In the domain of political personalities the summer has brought forth little of special note or interest. It is to be said, however, that the emphatic voice of the country regarding the value of the services of Senator Spooner at Washington has had its due weight in Wisconsin. Spooner clubs have been forming all over the State. It is now practically certain that Mr. Spooner will be the Senatorial choice of the Republican members of the new Legislature, without any regard to those qualifications in its endorsement of him that the Republican State platform contains. It does not follow that Governor La Follette's strong support throughout the State has weakened in the least, or that the dominant element of Wisconsin Republicanism is any the less devoted to the projects of tax reform and nomination reform that are set forth in this year's platform; but it begins to see the impropriety of forcing local tests upon a Republican like Senator Spooner, whose duties at Washington have nothing to do with State issues at home. The perennial struggle about Addicks has broken forth with renewed vigor in Delaware, which remains without any representation at all in the United States Senate, through the stubbornness of the Addicks deadlock. The death of that silent but powerful Republican Senator, Mr. McMillan of Michigan, has made a vacancy for which the ex-Secretary of War, General Alger, was much

Some Political Personalities.

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