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thorough adaptation of school work to actual New England, and the North in general, the problems and conditions were constantly em- problem of the country school must be faced, as phasized at Knoxville, and President Dahney unquestionably it will be, with ever-increasing is one of the foremost exponents of these modern comprehension of its importance. Meanwhile, views to be found in the entire country. While in the Northern cities the vacation schools have this summer school at Knoxville was undoubtedly made much progress in this past summer. the center for the country, this summer, of en. thusiasm for rural civilization and progress in the

The great yearly convention of the

Platforms of half of the country that most needs school re. the Teaching National Educational Association, form, it should not be forgotten that an admi

Profession. which was held at Minneapolis in rable summer school for Virginia teachers was July, seemed to us to touch high-water mark in carried on at the University of Virginia, at its appreciation of the vital needs of our schools, Charlottesville, with nearly a thousand members and in its consciousness of the duty and opporenrolled ; that South Carolina had an excellent tunity of the teaching profession. In its series summer school for teachers at Rock Hill, with of general resolutions it declared that the comleadership of great earnestness, and that sev. mon schools of this country " are the one great eral more strictly local assemblages of teachers agency upon which the nation is to rely for a were in session for a period of several weeks in barrier against the setting up of class distincNorth Carolina, Alabama, Louisiana, and other tions which have no place on American soil.' Southern States. The great summer schools of Having expressed its ideal of the "complete the North, -as, for example, those held by (o- education of the child,” it declared as follows lumbia University, Harvard, and the l'niversity concerning the country schools : of Chicago, —have had prosperous seasons, and these, together with the Chautauqua assemblies We believe that it is both just and possible to keep and other conferences and gatherings of an edu

the country schools in the foregoing, and all respects, cational nature, have added something to the

up to the highest standard of excellence and efficiency.

The movement to consolidate the weaker districts in the training and much to the ideals and inspiration

country, and to provide public and free transportation of many thousands of Northern and Western

for the pupils to and from the schools, tends to that end. teachers. But, generally speaking, it is the wellpaid teacher of the towns and more prosperous

It made other declarations in consonance with villages who can afford to attend these fine sum- the new movement for vitalizing school life and mer schools. For New York, Pennsylvania. work, and bringing it all into direct relation with

the moral and material welfare of the commu. nity. The Summer School of the South at Knox. ville, to which we have referred, in its declaration of principles included the following sentences, which seem to us to sound the keynote of the new school movement not merely for the South, but for the whole country:

If an increased expenditure of money is to be of lasting value, a more intelligent public interest must be brought to bear upon our schools. But even greater than the need of money and interest is the need of intelligent direction.

A mere extension of the present school term with the present course of study will not meet the needs of the children. The lines of development in the South must be both agricultural and mechanical. Our people must bring a trained brain and a trained hand to the daily labor. Education should be a means not of escaping labor, but of making it more effective.

The school should be the social center of the community, and should actively and sympathetically touch all the social and economic interests of the people. In addition to the usual academic studies, therefore, our courses should include manual training, nature study, and agriculture.

To secure more efficient supervision, to encourage grading, and to broaden the social life of the children, we favor the consolidation of weak schools into strong central schools. It is better in every way to carry the child to the school than to carry the school to the child. We endorse the movements recently made by the women of the South for model schools, built with due regard to sanitation, ventilation, and beauty.

Teaching should be a profession, and not a stepping-stone to something else. We therefore stand for the highest training of teachers, and urge the school authorities of every State to encourage those who wish to make the educating of children a life profession. We call upon the people to banish forever politics and nepotism from the public schools, and to establish a system in which, from the humblest teacher to the office of the State superintendent, merit shall be the touch

self chiefly in the gratification of physical wants and material aims, is as untrue to the facts as could well be. Mr. Michael Sadler, who is director in the British Education Department, has recently spent several months in study. ing educational work in this country, and he repeatedly expressed his admiration and astonishment at the comparative devotion of the United States to intellectual and inoral objects, and especially at the unprecedented de. velopment of educational work of all grades. In occasional visitor of great insight, like Mr. Sadler or Mr. Bryce, discovers the paradox of American life, which is that the abounding material prosperity of this country has grown out of its idealism,-its search for things not material. Russia has a vast population and a tremendous agricultural area, but its people lack the intelligence needed to develop their resources. Ameri. can devotion to the principles of equality and democracy, and to the policy of the universal training of the young, have given us our pros. perity. We must, in turn, make it more than ever our business to utilize our abounding material resources for the more perfect and more com. plete work of adapting school training to the needs of every child.



The South will have a great work on its hands if, indeed, it is to make good the brave determination of its new educational apostles ; but its school reforms are in the hands of men who have earned the right to lead, and who have already won the prestige of success in their individual undertakings.

Thus the prevailing Eu. Ideals of American Life. ropean idea that American life is

synonymous with greed and Mammon worship, and that the superior prosperity of the United States expresses it



EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. (Beginning at the left hand, the seven men are: 1, Aaron Gove, suporin

tendent of schools, Denver, Col. ; 2, Edwin A. Alderman, president of Tulane University; ö, E. O. Lyte, principal of the State Normal School, Millersville, Pa.; 4, Nicholas Murray Butler, president of Columbia University; 5, John A. Green, manager of the American Book Com. pany; 6, Michael E. Sadler, of England; 7, N. C. Dougherty, superintendent of schools at Peoria. Messrs. Gove, Lyte, Butler, and Dougherty have each served as president of the National Educational Association.)


Communities, whether rural or urban, Nor will the country be likely to find any Decline of that are engaged in advancing these

radical difference between the parties as respects Partisanship.

local measures for the common good, such a cestion as how to deal with trusts and may well be a trifle reluctant to drop it all at the great combinations. Experience and study, ob. beck and call of the politicians, and to separate servation and discussion, are giving us a clearer for the electoral season into rival camps under understanding of these problems every day. the standards ór

Republican " and " Democrat." Meanwhile, there is no great divergence in the Efficiency, rather than partisanship, seems to be avowals of the two parties on the trust question, the demand of the day. Thus, Massachusetts ap- and certainly President Roosevelt and the proves of Governor Crane and his administration Attorney-General have not hesitated to attempt as thoroughly as possible, —not so much because the enforcement of existing laws. Nor, finally, he happens to be a Republican as because he has is there much use in trying any longer to make shown himself a thoroughly upright, business- the tariff question the football of politics. Busilike, and capable governor of Massachusetts, in ness men of all parties and all sections arise in whose hands the executive affairs of the common- their might and demand that the tariff issue serve wealth are so honorably and so abiy conducted no longer as a mere party convenience. When that everybody admires and nobody finds fault. the Democratic politicians had their opportunity In New York, Governor Odell has so carried on to reform the tariff a decade ago, they modified his administration that many of his strongest it a little here and a little there, but they left it supporters belong to the class of independent in general what it was before,—namely, a characvoters. He has been business-like, and, so far teristic American high protective tariff. If they as we know, the Democrats are not really finding were given the opportunity again in the near any serious fault with him. They are trying to future, they would mutilate the Dingley schedharmonize their factions and find a candidate ules a good deal, no doubt ; but when they got upon whom all can unite, chiefly because it is their through, there would remain an American pro. business as politicians to hold the party together tective tariff. Meanwhile, however, there would for the sake of the future. They will, neverthe. have been agitation and uncertainty, with the less, undoubtedly recognize the spirit of the period consequence that various important industries by selecting a candidate who, like Mr. Odell, would curtail operations, and with harmful indi. will commend himself to the judgment of the rect effects extending throughout the business life community as an efficient man, and who, if of the country. elected, would carry on State affairs in a business-like rather than a partisan manner.

Yet the present tariff is by no means

Tariff be the best that could be devised. The Local issues of various sorts are quite

principal thing in its favor is the fact What are the Party sure, under these circumstances, to that business conditions have adjusted themselves play a larger part than usual in the

to it, that the Treasury Department understands political campaigns of the present season through- its qualities as a producer of revenue, and that out the country. It is not very easy to find an the reasons for disturbing it are of a general intelligent man who, in friendly, private conver- nature rather than practical, specific, and imme. sation, can at present show any great zeal of par- diately urgent. On the other hand, it is a simtisanship. The war with Spain was as much the ple fact that American industrial development work of one party as of the other, and the ratifi- has reached that condition of maturity to procation of the treaty by which we acquired the mote which the protective system was originally Philippines was not wholly a Republican act. devised. We are becoming a great exporting Whatever distinctions certain learned individuals nation, and foreign countries are growing more may make, the country as a whole will not now and more uneasy and disturbed over the invasion find it easy to make any sharp issue between the of their markets by American goods, while this parties out of existing differences of opinion as to country keeps up its high barriers against forour present Philippine policy. Some of the Dem- eign commodities. Furthermore, some at least ocrats say that we ought to declare to the Fili- of our protected industries,-like tin plate, for pinos that we intend in the future to give them example,-have passed under the control of a self-government; but the Republicans reply that partial or almost complete monopoly ; and in we are actually giving them self-government just these cases, it is urged, tariff protection should as fast as it can be forced upon them, and that be considerably reduced, if not altogether withwhen you are doing your best to teach a child to drawn. The fact is, that the American wage walk, there is no particular use in proclaiming to system is no longer dependent chiefly upon the him daily that he shall some time be permitted to tariff, but upon the efficiency of labor in actual

Should the

Revised ?

Issues ?

gress. These men had naturally become imbued with the idea that, as a practical matter, any change of the tariff is a difficult thing to bring about, and with the further view—prevailing in conservative Republican circles at Washingtonthat present conditions do not justify a reopening of the tariff question. Governor Cummins, on

production. President McKinley, the great apostle of protection, had arrived at the opinion that the time had fully come for a modification of our policy. His last speech at Buffalo was a plea for enlarged commercial relations through a system of reciprocity treaties. Free trade with Cuba and the Philippines would be a good starting point, and reciprocity amounting practically to a zollverein, or commercial union, between the United States and Canada might prove to be an act of the most far-reaching statesmanship. A revision of the iron and steel schedules would not hurt this highly developed American industry, and the same thing might be said of several other schedules. Republican business men in almost every community of the country would like to see some conservative modification of the tariff, provided it could be done without political agitation and clamor, and provided certain members of the United States Senate would not take advantage of the rules of that body to prevent conclusions by interminable debate.


This feeling among Republicans was Republican Opinion in the expressed very strongly in the Iowa Northwest.

State convention a month ago. The platform, as finally adopted, was the same one which had done service in the State campaign of 1901. There was, nevertheless, a good deal of opposition to it this year, led chiefly by the influential gentlemen who represent Iowa in Con





the other hand, supported by local opinion from almost every part of the State, held tenaciously to the view that if the tariff is not soon revised by Republicans in a cautious and friendly way, it will be revised by anti-protectionists in a hos. tile and radical way. Governor Cummins be. lieves that, although it is only five years since the Dingley tariff was adopted, our industrial conditions have made greater changes in this period than in a preceding term of twenty years. The Iowa platform stands by the historic policy

" of the Republican party in giving protection to home industries ;" but it favors such changes in the tariff from time to time as become advisable through the progress of our industries and their changing relations to the commerce of the world.” The platform endorses the policy of reciprocity, and favors “any modification of the tariff schedules that may be required to prevent their affording shelter to monopoly." The Iowa Republicans do not mention any particular sched


SPEAKER HENDERSON: “Hi there! Clear the track ! You're scaring my elephant!" Gov. CUMMINS: “The elephant'll have to get use to it."

From the Journal (Minneapolis).

ules, nor set any time for action. It is well known that in Wisconsin and several other Northwestern States, there is much the same feeling as in Iowa in favor of conservative tariff re. vision. Many Republican newspapers throughout the country have commended the Iowa platform, although there seems very slight disposition on the part of any Republican leaders to come forward with more specific suggestions.


Mr. Babcock, of Wisconsin, who is The General Party chairman of the Republican Congres

Attitude. sional Committee in charge of this year's campaign, has heretofore been exceedingly active in an endeavor to reduce the tariff on articles which enter largely into our exports, or which are controlled in the domestic market by trusts or combinations of capital. But his position at present is one of general defense of the tariff system, as against Democratic attacks upon it led by Mr. Griggs, of Georgia, chairman of the Democratic campaign committee. The Secretary of the Treasury, Mr. Shaw of Iowa, while undoubtedly appreciating the fact that business conditions have grown quite away from the Dingley tariff, does not believe it worth while to agitate the subject now, because he sees no prospect of tariff revision until after the next Presidential election --unless, indeed, the Republicans

HON. JOSEPH W. BABCOCK, OF WISCONSIN. (Chairman of the Congressional Republican Campaign


year 1904.

should be taught quite emphatically in the Congressional elections this fall that the people demand an earlier revision. Undoubtedly, the position now held by such men as Mr. Payne, chairman of the Ways and Means Committee, Speaker Henderson, and Mr. Grosvenor of the House, and Messrs. Hanna, Aldrich, and other influential leaders in the Senate, is that tariff revision ought not to be undertaken by the Congress to be elected this year, but ought to be deferred for its successor, to be chosen in the Presidential

The Congressional elections will be held under the new apportionment based upon the census of 1900. Under the new apportionment the total membership of the House will be 386, instead of 357, an increase of 29 members. The object of this change was to enable every State to keep at least its present representation. New York, Illinois, and Texas each gain three members, while Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Minnesota gain two apiece. Fourteen States gain one member each, these States being scattered East, West, North, and South.

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HON. JAMES M. GRIGGS, OF GEORGIA. (Chairman of the Congressional Democratic Campaign


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