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THE CONTINENTAL REVIEWS.
REVUE DES DEUX MONDES.
ingly much is being published which throws a strong light on many events which at the time appeared utterly mysterious and incomprehensible. The place of honor in the first June number of the Revue des Duex Mondes is given to an article entitled "The Biarritz Interview," written (wherein lies its special interest) by M. Ollivier, the French statesman who has remained notorious as having used in 1870 the unfortunate phrase, "The French army is absolutely ready to go into action, even to the last button of the last gaiter." Here, apparently for the first time, is told fromthe French point of view the inner story of the negotiations which preceded the Schleswig-Holstein struggle, and students of modern history will find much that is valuable in these pages. At the present moment one reads with melancholy interest the vivid description of how great a part deadly disease played in the life-story of Napoleon III. During the last seven years of the empire the emperor was constantly ill; but the fact was more or less hidden from those around him, although his ministers were, of course, aware that often the extremity of pain which he was enduring compelled him to leave the councils over which he used to preside with the greatest regularity and intelligence. M. Ollivier, in the second number, continues his diplomatic and political confessions with a long account of the first Hohenzollern candidature-in other words, the history of how the present King of Roumania, a prince of the house of Hohenzollern, became sovereign of the eastern state over which he still reigns, and to which the heir is his nephew, equally allied by marriage to the British sovereign. M. Ollivier is apparently of opinion that Bismarck hoped to plant out cadets of the Royal Prussian family all over Europe, and that, emboldened by the success of this attempt in Roumania, he plotted the disastrous Hohenzollern candidature to the throne of Spain, which practically led to the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War.
THE CENTENARY OF COMTE.
Auguste Comte, one of the comparatively very few thinkers who may be said to have founded a new religion, was born a hundred years ago, and his centenary has inspired M. Brunetière, the distinguished French philosopher and critic, to write a courteous analysis of Comte's theories, writings, and general opinions on the intellect of some thinkers who may be said to have been even greater than himself. He points out that Comte had a great respect for all that had gone before, in this matter differing from any of his disciples, who seem far more anxious to destroy than to preserve the edifices built up in the course of ages.
Other articles include a short scientific summary of the world's volcanic eruptions, by M. Dastre; a detailed account of the battle of Oudenarde, by the Comte d'Haussonville; and yet another section of M. Lenthério's picturesque and yet most detailed description of the northern coast-lines and seaport towns of France.
S usual the Nouvelle Revue for June is composed of a very great number of short articles, of which perhaps the best is that, by M. Buret, entitled "The Rights of War, and the Rights of the Wounded." Next May, at St. Petersburg, will take place a great international congress of Red Cross societies. The last was held at Vienna in 1898, at a moment when none foresaw the grievous struggle which has just come to an end. It is said on the Continent that, in view of recent events in South Africa, certain articles of the Geneva Convention will be there revised. This will be more necessary owing to the fact that the famous convention omitted to deal both with the captive wounded, and with the case of prisoners of war. During the Franco-Prussian War the German military authorities complained bitterly that certain articles of the convention made it easy for active combatants to pose when convenient as doctors and ambulance men, and the same complaint was made in Great Britain apropos of the many Russian, Dutch, and American ambulances which attempted to make their way into the Boer lines.
THE MARTINIQUE DISASTER.
The Martinique disaster is the subject of a paper by M. Desmarest, who gives some little-known details concerning the doomed town of St. Pierre. He points out that many of the houses were made of wood, and so caught fire almost at once. The one survivor, a negro, happened to be confined in an underground prison, and so escaped. It is clear that the island had had ample warning, for during the last hundred years several terrible earthquakes took place, that of 1830 completely destroying Fort de France. Many ancient prophecies foretelling the awful eruption of this spring were current in the island, but even the more superstitious inhabitants fully believed that this would not occur for at least another thousand years.
THE JAPANESE WORKMAN.
According to M. Dumoret, the Japanese workman is far more pleasantly situated than his European brother. In the country of flowers, strikes are absolutely unknown, for as yet trade unionism has made no way in the East. Every man makes the best bargain he can for himself, and, as a rule, for a time exceeding three years. A bad element in the working life in Japan is the existence of a professional intermediary who acts as go-between between men and masters, and who obtains a commission from both sides. Yet another regrettable fact is the immense number of children employed in the various factories. On the other hand, every house of business in Japan is regularly inspected by a government official, and as it is the custom to provide food for workers inside factories and workshops, this also has to be inspected and of good quality. The hours are very long, only one hour being allowed for meals during the whole day. Japan has long had something very like the British Employers' Liability Act in force, and the sick worker has a right to the best of hospital treatment. The Japanese, as America has discovered to her cost, is a first-rate emigrant, and soon becomes a formidable competitor to the native-born workman; for one thing, the Jap artisan is very sober, and lives mainly on rice and fish. In Japan great resentment is felt as
to the fact that both in America and in Australia the Japanese are regarded as belonging to the same strata of humanity as do the Chinese. The Japs consider themselves, and justly so, very superior to the other yellow races, and would like to feel that they were welcome in those new countries where good workmen are
REVUE DE PARIS.
HE June numbers of the Revue de Paris are ex
Aulard's account of the Legion of Honor.
THE COST OF THE BOER WAR.
M. Viallate offers a careful analysis of the effect on British finance of the South African war. The French writer has long made a study of the British financial system and of British taxation, and he points out that there was practically no provision made for such a war as that which has just been concluded. When, in the October of 1899, the ministers were obliged to go to the country for money, they did so feeling certain that a comparatively small sum would suffice to cover the cost of the then small expedition to South Africa. Three months later, however, Parliament had again to be asked for money; and more than a year later,—that is, when the budget of 1901 had to be presented to the country,-the Chancellor of the Exchequer was compelled to admit that the war was in no sense a small war; but, in point of view of finances, a very great war. In two years and a half the war, which was at first spoken of as a trifling matter, had cost the country more than twice the immense sum spent over the Crimean War. The French writer does not consider that with the end of the war will come an end of the supplementary expenses connected with the late struggle; he points out that even the Liberal Imperialists are extremely desirous of promoting costly army reforms, and of adding yet further to the navy; and he says that had it not been for the death duties imposed by Sir William Harcourt in 1894, Sir Michael Hicks-Beach would have had to discover new sources of taxation, and, even as it is, he believes that soon British free trade will be but a name.
THE RUIN OF A CITY.
M. Charléty contributes a striking historical article of the kind French writers so delight in. In it he describes the ruin of the one-time prosperous medieval city of Lyons during the reign of Louis XIV. The story is a curious one, and shows clearly why the Revolution found so many ardent adherents in the famous silk-making town. Unfortunately, Lyons was known to be a wealthy city; accordingly, whenever the Sun King went to war, built a palace, or led a campaign against heresy, he immediately taxed the unfortunate townspeople as heavily as possible. Even in those days there was a great dislike to direct taxation; accordingly, the new tax was not called a tax, but by some other name. Office-holders were compelled to buy in their offices; the town had certain rights, and it was asked to pay for the privilege of keeping them. Then the revocation of the Edict of Nantes proved a terrible blow to the silk industry. When the municipality begged leave to light up the streets, the king said he would allow this to be done if his government was given, as it were, the job. The townspeople were informed that they must pay a huge sum, but that in exchange the town would be thoroughly well lighted; the sum was
paid, but only a thousand lamps were provided. And this was but one example out of many. At last the industry by which the town lived was attacked,—that is, it was heavily taxed. Every weaver had to pay for the right of working his loom; and so, little by little, came ruin, and in 1715 the whole town became bankrupt. The great manufacturers,-for even in those days there were great manufacturers,-closed their manufactories, their workpeople emigrated or became beggars on the high roads, and the population dwindled. The facts concerning this extraordinary tragedy—for tragedy it was-have been carefully gathered together by M. Charléty after prolonged study of the archives of the town of Lyons, and they should be carefully studied by all those who wish to know why France parted with so little struggle from her monarchical system.
NAPOLEON AND THE POPULAR DRAMA.
That many-sided genius, Napoleon I., is still ever providing entertaining copy. M. Albert describes the great soldier's delight in the drama. He believed that the theater has a great influence on popular imagination, accordingly he greatly encouraged all those actors and actresses who made a point of playing patriotic plays. He did not care for literary comedy. To give an example: he was quite indifferent to Molière; but he delighted in the cheap drama,—that is, in those plays which celebrated his victories, and which predicted his future triumphs.
THE SHIPPING COMBINE.
Under the name of "The Ocean Trust," M. de Rousiers attempts to give his French readers an account of the great shipping combine. He declares that in England the fact has escaped most people that the shipping combine is really intimately associated with the great American railway systems, and he attempts to analyze the effect of the combine on any future European war.
THE SPANISH MONARCHY.
Spain is of more importance to France than she is to any other European country. Many patriotic Frenchmen hope that the day will come when the most fertile and most ill-governed of European countries will become French soil. Accordingly, the course of the Spanish monarchy is closely watched and criticised in France. M. Bérard gives a sad account of the relations existing between the Spanish court and the Spanish people. Madrid, where the young King has lived most of his life, is absolutely the capital suited to an autocratic monarch. The stately city is far from the commercial centers of Spain, and during many centuries the great Spanish empire was governed from Madrid. Now, however, Spain, shorn of her colonies, is less willing to take her orders from Madrid. Even the country clergy have no love for the young king and his mother; and were it not for the strong personal support of the Pope, they would find in each country priest a more or less disguised enemy. M. Bérard gives a curious account of how great a part the colonies played in the life of the modern Spaniard. Apparently the Zollverein theory was in full force; a Spanish colony was practically compelled to deal with Spain only; even absolutely foreign produce reached each Spanish colony via a Spanish port. During the last four years, thanks to the intervention of the United States, the colonial source of revenue has practically come to an end, and this has disorganized the whole of Spanish trade. From one
M. Emile Faguet, of the French Academy, discusses duelling. French duels, he says, become rarer and rarer, and are seldom fatal, one great reason for which is the excellence of the French seconds. Many Russian, Austrian, and Italian duels, however, are still fatal. Therefore M. Faguet believes in the usefulness of the
for power and success, are also all prolific fathers of
But, although rarely, temptation to lie comes through kindness, charity, and self-sacrifice.
And yet M. Mélinand considers it possible to be absolutely truthful, never to lie in any of the senses in which he uses the word. In children lying should be more severely punished than any other fault.
Many of the other articles are excellent. Carmen Sylva writes idealistically of the nobleness of woman, an article refreshing by its Excelsior" spirit. M. Novicow writes of the alleged superiority of the AngloSaxons, an article by no means always just. Mr. J. A. Pease and Sir Charles Dilke write of slavery in English lands, chiefly Zanzibar and other parts of Africa. M. Henry Bérenger greatly admires "Monna Vanna."
THE GERMAN MAGAZINES.
HE June number of the Socialistische Monats
recent "Ligue contre le Duel" in France. He has joined hefte deals almost entirely with the great prob
himself, and obtained the expected reward – being called a coward. The objects of the league are "to preach every where the stupidness of the institution, and afterward obtain legislation."
As punishments for duellists, he suggests depriving them of their rights of citizenship and a little prison— both for conqueror and conquered. The provoker of the duel shall not escape, nor le provoqué. As for the seconds, they are accessories; make it dangerous and difficult to be a second, and you strike a fatal blow at duelling.
But M. Faguet would not entirely abolish all duels, only "tous les petits duels bêtes," and all futile duels; he would allow them for "very grave causes, for those matters which no one would willingly bring before the courts, and which it would be undesirable to have so brought forward."
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LYING.
After reading the article by M. Camille Mélinand on this subject, one realizes as never before that all men (and all women and children) are liars; and that in our own days it is extraordinarily difficult to be otherwise. For M. Mélinand would class as mensonges any word or act (negative or positive) which caused another either to be ignorant of anything, or to get the slightest erroneous impression. Extremely sincere people are often extremely blunt and unpopular, but M. Mélinand thinks this difficulty can be overcome. All suppression is a form of lying,-negative lying. Politeness forbids our saying what we think; modesty and reserve make us conceal our feelings or assume indifference when we are acutely anxious,-all is lying.
The following classification of lying is interesting. There is first lying by making up something entirely. This is the only kind of lie universally so-called,-a real out-and-out lie. It is also the most dangerous kind, and thus the rarest. Lying may also be done simply by suppression of something, or by exaggeration, or by embroidering facts, the most common form of all.
As for the motives which tempt to lying, cowardice is far the commonest. We are not brave enough to face the natural consequences of our conduct. Passion is responsible for an indefinite number of lies, hatred and detraction in particular. And as for love, lovers lie endlessly. Party spirit, the passion for money and
lem of strikes. The opening paper is by Edouard Anseele, of Ghent, and tells the story of the fight for universal suffrage in Belgium. Strikes have played an important part in the struggle, which, although not yet quite successful, will be so, he says, in the course of a year or so. Edward Bernstein, of Berlin, continues the subject, going more into the details of that particular political strike. The strike problem in Sweden is dealt with by Hjalmar Brunting, of Stockholm, who rejoices in the great victory of the workmen when last on strike. This appears to have been the first general strike the country has experienced. Some 116,000 workmen "came out," and the town became paralyzed in consequence. No electric cars, no omnibuses, no cabs, no vehicles of any sort could run, all factories and warehouses being at a standstill. All this was effected by careful organization for over fifteen years.
An interesting article upon the language question in Bohemia is contributed by Leo Winter, of Prague.
In the Deutsche Revue, Lady Hely Hutchinson describes some of the good work done by women in South Africa during the war. As wife of the governor, she had naturally many opportunities of coming into personal touch with those who were engaged in work for the sick and fighting soldiers. After describing many little acts of kindness for which there can be no reward save that coming from their performance, Lady Hutchinson protests against those women who went up to the battlefields, not to assist, but to see what could be seen. In Cape Town she says that for eighteen months a band of devoted ladies met in a bare room, and every day from ten to four prepared comforts for "Tommy." The nurses naturally come in for a special word of praise.
A German diplomatist writes upon the value of England to Germany. He says that, according to the German newspapers, there is absolutely no value, but those who reflect and study the question are bound to admit that there is a great deal. England's action in 1848, 1864, 1870-71, in the Samoan question, and in the stopping of German ships in African waters, has excited a bitter feeling against her; but in the diplomatist's opinion, it in no way excuses the opposition to everything English which has been going on in Germany during the last three years. England's chief use, however, seems to be to keep the balance even in European politics.
THE NEW BOOKS.
NOTES ON RECENT AMERICAN PUBLICATIONS.
SUMMER READING ABOUT NATURE.
"Nature Portraits" (Doubleday, Page & Co.) is a portfolio of studies with pen and camera of American wild birds, animals, fishes, and insects. There are fifteen large plates and many smaller illustrations by the most skillful nature photographers, among whom Mr. A. Radclyffe Dugmore and Mr. W. E. Carlin easily rank as experts. The accompanying text is by Professor Bailey, the editor of Country Life in America, and is written in his usually happy vein. The work, as a whole, represents the high-water mark of American achievement in the interpretation and presentation of animal life.
The "American Sportsman's Library," edited by Caspar Whitney (Macmillan), is an unusually attractive series of books, and will interest not only the amateur sportsman, but every American nature-lover, whether he be a devotee of rod and gun, or not. The volume on "The Deer Family," written by President Roosevelt, T. S. Van Dyke, D. G. Elliot, and A. J. Stone, appeals more especially, perhaps, to the dweller in northern latitudes, where the animals described in this volume have their habitat. President Roosevelt describes the various species of North American deer and antelope, with which he has for many years been familiar through his expeditions in the West, especially in the Rocky Mountain region. Mr. Van Dyke contributes sketches of the deer and elk of the Pacific coast. The caribou is described by Dr. Elliot, and the moose by Mr. Stone. In a volume on "Upland Game Birds" there are excellent descriptions of various varieties of quail, partridge, grouse, ptarmigan, turkey, woodcock, plover, and crane, with a special chapter on the quail and grouse of the Pacific coast. These chapters, written by Mr. Edwyn Sandys and Mr. T. S. Van Dyke, not only give accurate descriptions of the birds considered, but add full information regarding the regions to which they are native, and all other matters that the hunter needs to know relating to the birds and their habits. A volume to which the late Dean Sage and Messrs. C. H. Townsend, H. M. Smith, and William C. Harris have contributed is devoted entirely to "Salmon and Trout." The book is full of practical suggestions to anglers about the casting and working of flies, selection of tackle, and all the approved methods of fishing for these "gamest" of American fish.
For a comprehensive account of all the species of fish found in America north of the equator, we take pleas ure in referring the reader to the new volume on "American Food and Game Fishes," by President David Starr Jordan, of Stanford University, and Dr. Barton W. Evermann, of the United States Fish Commission (Doubleday, Page & Co.). While this book is the work of eminent specialists, its aim is to furnish information to the multitude, and it may be truly described as a "popular" work. The book takes for granted on the part of the reader, as the introduction states, "a knowledge of ordinary English as used by Americans of fairly good education, and a willingness to make an honest effort to find out more about the food and game fishes
of our country." The book is technical only so far as is necessary to enable its readers easily and readily to identify any American fish that is used as food or game. Two sizes of type have been used in printing the book, the smaller size for those who would study fishes with specimens in hand, and the larger for those who read about fishes, whether the fishes themselves are present or not. The book also gives an account of the geographic distribution, habits, life-histories, and commercial and food value of fishes, together with many points of interest to the angler. Many photographs of live fishes were taken for this work by Mr. A. Radclyffe Dugmore, and the plates made from these photographs greatly add to the value and attractiveness of the book.
Another book that has special attractions for anglers and naturalists is "The Brook Book," by Mrs. Mary Rogers Miller (Doubleday, Page & Co.). This is an interesting study of the various activities of brook existence throughout the four seasons of the year. It is a presentation not only of the life of the brook itself, but of its manifold accompaniments and of the varied forms of nature with which the brook's rise and progress is associated.
In a little work entitled "Among the Waterfowl" (Doubleday, Page & Co.), Mr. Herbert K. Job gives an account of many of the waterfowl found in the Northern and Central States of the Union, accompanied by numerous photographs from nature, most of which were secured by the author himself. The whole influence of Mr. Job's book is to discourage the shooting of living birds, and to substitute as a pastime the practice of "hunting with a camera." Mr. Job's pictures are remarkably successful, and the enthusiastic amateur will be tempted to make some similar efforts on his own
Mrs. Martha McCulloch-Williams' "Next to the Ground" (McClure, Phillips & Co.) is a delightful series of chronicles of country life, including not a few suggestions of curious and out-of-the-way information, all of which is related in the most entertaining fashion. If we cannot locate precisely the American farm which Mrs. Williams describes, and where all the experiences of her book took place, we are at least assured by the writer that it was a Southern countryside somewhere between the Alleghanies and the Mississippi, nearly midway between the mountains and the river. The things that Mrs. Williams writes about are every-day happenings about the farm, but seldom have they been recounted in so vivacious a record.
There is a further revelation of boy-and-girl life on the farm in a little book entitled "The Travels of a Barnacle," by Mrs. James Edwin Morris (New York: The Abbey Press). The main purpose of the book, however, is to present a series of studies of sea life, for which materials were gathered by Mrs. Morris in the course of observation tours in a glass-bottomed boat in the Bay of Avalon, off the coast of California. Besides these studies of the crab family and their neighbors, there is a chapter on A Day With the Birds," and one on "Life in a Marsh."
Among the new books that appeal to the amateur gardener, one of the most exhaustive is "The American Horticultural Manual," Part I., by Prof. J. L. Budd, of the Iowa State College of Agriculture, assisted by Prof. N. E. Hansen, of the South Dakota Agricultural College (New York: John Wiley & Sons). This work comprises a full statement of the leading principles and practices connected with the propagation, culture, and improvement of fruits, nuts, ornamental trees, shrubs, and plants. It is illustrated by more than one hundred figures and explanatory designs.
Of English gardening lore there is a full supply in John Lane's numerous publications adapted partioularly to the wants of English country gentlemen, the latest of which is entitled "In My Vicarage Garden and Elsewhere," by the Rev. Henry N. Ellacombe.
"Content in a Garden" is the title of a beautifully printed volume of essays and botanical studies by Candace Wheeler (Houghton, Mifflin & Co.). The marginal decorations of the volume are supplied by Dora Wheeler Keith. In the main the book is a pleasant description of a garden in the Catskill Mountains, where the writer delights to attempt the interpretation of the thoughts and feelings which she fancifully attributes to all her flowers.
Mr. James H. Emerton indulges in the fond hope that his book on "The Common Spiders of the United States" (Ginn & Co.) will help to lessen the popular prejudice against spiders,-and lead the public into some such acquaintance with these insects as is now enjoyed by many students with birds and butterflies. Mr. Emerton states that in the neighborhood of any city in this country there are at least three or four hundred species of spiders, and that thus far there have been very few collections made. Mr. Emerton describes in this book only those species that are well known and have been described before. He omits all rare and doubtful species. The book is illustrated from drawings and photographs made by the author, who has been an enthusiastic collector for many years.
Two excellent school readers, which will do much to encourage nature study in this country have recently come to hand-"Seaside and Wayside," No. 3, by Julia McNair Wright (Boston: D. C. Heath & Co.), and "Trees in Prose and Poetry," by Gertrude L. Stone and M. Grace Fickett (Ginn & Co.).
BOOKS OF TRAVEL AND DESCRIPTION. For a full and up-to-date account of the extension of Russia's influence in northern Asia we are indebted to Prof. George Frederick Wright, of Oberlin College, whose two-volume work on "Asiatic Russia" has just appeared (McClure, Phillips & Co.). An article by Professor Wright, on "The Russian Problem in Manchuria," appeared in the REVIEW OF REVIEWS for July, 1901, and formed an important contribution to our knowledge of present-day conditions in the far East
from the American point of view. As Dr. Wright is a geologist, it was natural that in the extended journey which he made through the region described two years ago he should have an eye primarily for the physical conditions of the country. Dr. Wright is, however, a student of people as well as of rocks and water-courses, and his views of the modern development of this wonderful land are extremely interesting to the sociologist. As our readers may have gathered from Dr. Wright's REVIEW article, to which reference has already been made, his predilections toward the Russian administration are favorable rather than otherwise. His grounds for this belief are well set forth in his chapters on social, economic, and political conditions in the present volume. While his account of the various features of the Russian occupation of Siberia is full of information, much of which has never before been accessible to American readers, there are also interesting chapters on the geological history, the climate, and the flora and fauna of the land. Altogether these two volumes sum up the impressions of an exceptionally shrewd observer of political and social conditions as affected by physical environment.
"Highways and Byways in Hertfordshire," by Herbert W. Tompkins (Macmillan), is a volume well packed with minute information about a region of England comparatively little known to the traveler from other lands. Like other books in the same series to which we have made allusion from time to time in these pages, this new volume is a combination of the better class of guide-books, with a condensation of local history of the highest order. We can hardly imagine the time when such books will be written about any portion of the United States; but in a country like England, rich in historical associations, they fill a distinct niche. The illustrations for the present volume were furnished by Mr. Frederick L. Griggs.
"The World's Shrine" is the title chosen by Virginia W. Johnson for her sketch of Lake Como (New York: A. S. Barnes & Co.). In her description of this beautiful Italian lake the writer traces some of its historical associations, especially those connected with the life of the younger Pliny on the shores of Como.
Hilaire Belloc's "The Path to Rome" (Longmans) may perhaps be counted as a book of travel, although the most cursory examination leads one to conclude that that was not the author's primary purpose. There is in the story, however, a suggestion, at least, of actual journeyings, and for lack of any definite basis of classification we may group the book among the travel tales. To those disposed to take the author seriously, -as he himself does not, we may say that the journeyings began at Toul on the Moselle, and ended at Rome. The tedious portions of the way are enlivened by the writer's inexhaustible fund of song and story, and the individuality of his style so enchains the reader's attention that the work's deficiencies as a guide-book are soon forgotten.