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M. Santos-Dumont contributes an autobiographical sketch under the title, "How I Became an Aeronaut." The balloonist is only twenty-nine years old. He was born in Brazil. He says he was an aeronaut by nature, and his playmates used to tease him about his propensity to flying kites when he was a little boy. He has, in fact, evidently been studying the principles of human flight his whole life. M. Santos-Dumont has decided in favor of a petroleum motor, and the fundamental principle of his experiments has been the effort to minimize weight. Early in his experiments he constructed a 3% horse-power motor weighing only 66 pounds, a very remarkable engine at that time.

The balance of the August number is composed of fiction, including a daring but delicious little idyl by Stewart I dward White, "The Life of the Winds of Heaven."



N the August Cosmopolitan, E. A. Bennett has a sketch of H. G. Wells and his work. "Anticipations" is not the work of a Jules Verne, this writer explains. "The great difference between Jules Verne and Mr. Wells is that the latter was trained in scientific methods of thought, while the former was not. Before Jules Verne took to romances he wrote operatic libretti; before Mr. Wells took to romances he was a pupil of Huxley's at the Royal College of Science. He graduated at London University with first-class honors in science, and his first literary production was a textbook of biology."

plays the violin. Aside from that, he is exemplary in his private relations."

fens, and a study of "Mont Pelée In Its Might," by Prof. Angelo Heilprin, from both of which we have quoted in another department.

Miss Stone's account of her experience among the

brigands is followed this month Mrs. Tsilka's IN

of the little baby that was born while that lady was sharing Miss Stone's captivity.

The Cosmopolitan continues its sketches of "Captains of Industry," with articles on William Rockefeller, Charles T. Yerkes, H. M. Flagler, W. C. Whitney, and A. J. Cassatt, president of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Of William Rockefeller, Mr. S. E. Moffett says he is noted among ..s associates and subordinates for his perfect mastery of all the details of the operation of the company, his clear and sound judgment, and his keen critical faculty. "He is not a physical weakling, like his formidable brother. The steam that drives his mental machinery comes from a capacious material boiler. His physique is of the robust, J. Pierpont Morgan type. He is an enthusiastic horseman, and a lover of the fields and woods. But, like all the Rockefellers, he is devoutly religious. He has only one vice,-he

Mr. Charles S. Gleed gives Mr. Cassatt, the president of the great Pennsylvania system, credit for a wonderful faculty of selecting the important thing, and of leaving the next most important for another time or another man. Mr. Cassatt was highly educated, and then went through a rough-and-tumble experience as a surveyor's rodman on the Pennsylvania road.

Mr. Rafford Pyke, in an essay on "What Men Like in Men," places the quality of "squareness" first, then reasonableness, then courage, generosity, modesty, dignity, and tenderness, in the order named. There are articles on "London Society," "Diversions of Some Millionaires," "The Organization of a Modern Circus," "City Ownership of Seaside Parks," and the love story of Heine and Mathilde.


N the August Munsey's, Donald Mackay, writing on "The Cow Puncher at Home," tells something of the life of the cowboy, who is, he says, practically the same to-day as in the early development of the West and Southwest. Cowboys are Americans generally, and sometimes English; "no man has ever seen a German cowboy, or a French." The cow puncher gets $30 to $75 a month, and saves it up for a considerable time, until he gets to the city, where it does not take long to separate himself from it. In the round-up each outfit consists of a cook wagon, a cook, two horse hustlers, and eight riders. Every 5,000 head of cattle requires such an outfit. Each rider possesses eight horses, three of which he uses every day. The cowboy country extends over the great prairies of Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico, and thence northward to Wyoming and Dakota. Mr. Mackay says that in Texas women have taken to ranching, and that one of the most successful, Mrs. Pauline Whitman, owns a ranch of 200,000 acres in the Pan Handle. She raises 15,000 cattle annually, and requires twenty cowboys for their handling.

Mr. Oscar K. Davis, formerly the New York Sun's correspondent in the Philippines, contributes an article on "The Moros in Peace and War," which is timely in view of the recent peacemaking with the Moro people. Mr. Davis says the Moros are the most formidable of the native tribes in the Philippines, and a campaign against them must be a serious affair. The center of Moro population in Mindanao is about Lake Lanao, in a fine upland country, where the natives cultivate great fields of rice and sweet potatoes. The Spaniards fought their way to this lake from the north coast in the face of tremendous resistance. They opened a road, which they protected with numerous blockhouses, and up which they lugged three small gunboats built in sections. The boats were put together at the lake and launched, but never saw much service, and were finally scuttled. Mr. Davis says the Moro fighters are very differ at from the Filipinos. Although they are poorly arme 1, they use with deadly skill and energy terrible kniv 3 which they make themselves, and with which they can easily cut a man's head from his shoulders by one bow.

The 3 are other articles in this number of Munsey's on "Country Life in England," by Lady Colin Campbell; the Stony Wold sanatorium for consumptives being established in the Adirondacks; "The New Photography," by Charles H. Caffin; and "College Girls' Dramatics," by Alice K. Fallows.


N the August World's Work there is an article by

in America, which we have quoted from in another department. The August number of this magazine is taken up largely with sixty or seventy pages of pictures and text descriptive of recreation grounds of the American people. To show what important financial terms the recreation of to-day is sometimes expressed in, the writer of the sketch "Across the Canadian Border" says that Mr. J. J. Hill pays for the privilege of fishing in the St. John River $3,000 a year, with $500 more for the St. Paul. Mr. H. W. de Forest has leased for himself and his associates the fishing in the Grand Cascapedia for $7,500 a year; Mr. I. W. Adams, of Boston, has paid $30,000 outright for the privilege of fishing in the Moisie, and half as much more for another stream; Mr. Lewis Cabot refuses $50,000 for his salmon-fishing rights in the Gaspe. The Restigouche Salmon Club, composed entirely of Americans, is so much sought for that its membership shares are worth from $7,500 to $10,000 each.

Mr. Frederick Palmer writes of "West Point After a Century ;” O. P. Austin asks the question, “Will Our Commercial Expansion Continue?" and gives his opinion in the affirmative; and Mr. Russell Doubleday describes, in "New York to Chicago,-20 Hours," a trip on the new trains of the Pennsylvania and New York Central, that make the fastest long run in the world,-enabling a man from one city to do business in the other and be gone only one day.



N Country Life for August there is an article on "The Automobile," with some instructions for beginners. This writer does not attempt to award the palm to one or the other of the different types of automobiles in use now,-electric, gasoline, or steam. He calls attention to the fact that whereas the gasoline machine is very convenient and practical, and is easy to start, and can run for a long distance,-one or two hundred miles, on one filling of gasoline and water, -on the other hand, steam vehicles have remarkable hill-climbing power, and give an extraordinarily delicate control of the carriages and their speed. They run quietly, too, without vibration. But the steam vehicles must be replenished with water about every twenty-five or forty miles. As to prices, this writer does not seem to think there will be any radical lowering of prices in the near future. Steam and gasoline autr mobiles may now be purchased as low as $600 or $700. Well-built machinery is expensive; cheap and flimsy machinery is out of question on an automobile. He reminds us that the price of bicycles would show that automobiles are rather cheap, for a bicycle in its best form is built today for about two dollars a pound, whereas an automobile costs only about one dollar a pound. He advises beginners to buy second-hand machines and paint them up.

Mr. Clarence A. Martin writes in the series on "The Making of a Country Home," and gives some general advice as to "The Main Features of the House." William L. Underwood tells how to make a water garden and how to keep it free from mosquitoes. T. W. Burgess describes the wonderful country home of Mr. E. C. Benedict at Greenwich, Conn., which is one of the favorite haunts of Ex-President Grover Cleveland. W.

C. Egan gives good practical directions "How to Make a Garden," and there are various pleasant suggestions for vacation-seekers and nature students at home.



N the August Frank Leslie's there is a description of "The Birds of Farthest South," by C. E. Borchgrevink, the explorer and discoverer of the Antarctic Continent. The penguins are the most characteristic birds within the South Polar circle, and these are found in great numbers on land and on sea. The legs are placed so far back on the penguin that when the bird is walking it stands upright, and the wings are so rudimentary that they are more like flippers. When they wish to leave the water, they put on a great spurt of swimming speed, and then, with a mighty flapping of their wings, they rise two or three yards in the air. Mr. Borchgrevink shows some remarkable photographs of the populous penguin colonies of the Antarctic Continent, and some curious incidents in the birds' life. Their great enemy is the skua gull, which hangs around the desert islands, trying to steal the eggs and young ones. The penguins live on the edge of the ice-pack in winter time, and live off of fish and crustaceans, the flesh being so unutterably oily that a human being cannot stand it.

There is a brief sketch of Otis Skinner, the actor, by Franklin E. Fyles, who calls his subject the best elocutionist on the American stage, with the exception of Mrs. Le Moyne. The remainder of this number is devoted to fiction.



HE August number of Everybody's Magazine contains a description of the sheep-dog trials in the north of England, by A. R. Dugmore, which we have quoted from in another department. The magazine begins with a harvesting idyl in prose by Martha McCulloch Williams, whose recent volume of nature studies, "Next to the Ground," has been so handsomely received.

Arthur E. Johnson tells of a welcome invention by the chief of the United States Weather Bureau, "A Summer-Time Stove." This curious contrivance turns in an instant air of the temperature of a hundred degrees to a temperature below freezing point, and Mr. Johnson thinks it promises to become a factor of no mean importance in furnishing not only comfort to humanity in general, but aid to the manufacturing world, where room temperature is an item in the protection of goods. Professor Moore calls the novel refrigerator a gravity cooler. In outward appearance it is a plain round cylinder, connected with the outside air by a pipe of generous diameter, and having a similar pipe extending from beneath. Mr. Johnson's account of the scientific principles involved is not very elaborate or convincing. "Place your hand in front of the discharge pipe near the floor and you can feel ice-cold air coming forth in a strong draught. An anemometer, a machine for measuring air, placed in front of this pipe announces that air is coming out at the rate of 200 cubic feet a minute, or 12,000 feet an hour. Turn a damper in the pipe which leads to the outer air, and the wheels of the anemometer immediately cease turning. This seems to prove that the air enters the machine from the top and goes through it of its own sheer weight, being made heavier as it is cooled."

Holman F. Day describes "The Day's Work of a New England Farmer," there is a dramatic story by Frank Norris, "A Deal in Wheat," and other summery contributions.



ROM the August Atlantic Monthly we have selected the excellent travel sketch describing Pygmy life in Central Africa, by Mr. Samuel Phillips Verner, to quote from among the "Leading Articles of the Month."

An appreciation of Bret Harte by H. C. Merwin places that author very high among the literary artists America has produced. Mr. Merwin thinks Bret Harte would still have been a genius and great writer if gold had never been discovered in California. Mr. Merwin says that Bret Harte at his best had in the choice of words, the balance of his sentences, and the rhythm of his paragraphs, a very nearly perfect style. He was essentially an artist with the artistic incapacity to deal with abstract notions or general propositions. Mr. Merwin thinks that Hawthorne himself could not have conceived a purer character, or have told the story more delicately, than Bret Harte in "The Idyl of Red Gulch." The deficiency in Bret Harte's work was a certain limitation of creative power, which prevented Bret Harte, as it prevented Kipling, from writing a successful novel. Mr. Merwin thinks Bret Harte's one sustained effort, "Gabriel Conroy," is a nightmare.

In discussing "The Revival of Poetic Drama," Mr. Edmund Gosse thinks it is safe to say that since the days of Shakespeare we have not before seen an occasion upon which two dramatic poems of real and high literary merit, by the same author, have enjoyed runs and success at the same time upon the London stage. Mr. Gosse refers, of course, to the "Ulysses" and "Paola and Francesca" of Mr. Stephen Phillips. Mr. Gosse thinks the reason why poetic drama has always failed in England since the seventeenth century is that it remains faithful to the Elizabethan tradition. Accordingly he places his greatest hope for the newest revival of poetic drama in England in the fact that it is independent of the Elizabethan tradition. While he thinks Mr. Phillips "has been the victim of more injudicious praise than is often poured out upon young writers even in this crude and impetuous age," still he gives him credit for having produced already "one of those revivals of poetic drama which occur in our history three or four times in every century."

This August issue of the Atlantic refrains from discussions of heavy and serious topics. There is a vivid description of "The Moonshiners at Home," by Leonidas Hubbard, Jr., and contributions of fiction from Norman Duncan, Bettina von Hutton, Jack London, Arthur Colton, Alice Brown, and a breezy essay, "The Browning Tonic," by Martha B. Dunn.



N the first number of the Forum as a quarterly review the general character of the magazine is changed, while its former high standards are maintained, but the review and outlook features are more fully developed. In other words, the magazine is turned into what is called in the English and European reviews a "chronique," including not only a record of current events, but in most cases estimates of general tenden

cies. There are nine departments, each conducted by a specialist, who writes a critical exposition of such events of the last three months as come within his own sphere. In the issue for July-September, Mr. Henry Litchfield West discusses American politics, Mr. A. Maurice Low foreign affairs, Mr. A. D. Noyes finance, Mr. Henry Harrison Suplee applied science, Mr. John Corbin the American drama, Mr. Frank Jewett Mather, Jr., literature, Prof. A. D. F. Hamlin architectural art, Mr. Ossian H. Lang educational events, and Dr. J. M. Rice, the editor of the magazine, educational research.


The first of the three special articles, so-called, which appear in this number, supplementary to the reviews of events, is on the subject of "Chinese Exclusion," and is signed by the Hon. Charles Denby, our former minister to China. Mr. Denby argues in favor of a continuation of our policy of exclusion; but holds that we should act openly and honorably in the matter, and not under cover of a strained interpretation of words. "We should declare that a certain number of students may come to this country, as well as a certain number of merchants, and a certain number of other classes if desirable, and the remainder should be excluded. Surveillance should be exercised over the persons so admitted in order that they might not become laborers. Our trade relations with China are promising, and they ought not to be disturbed by the enactment of unnecessary and unjust laws. A respectable Chinese merchant engaged in business in China, and desirous of doing business with the United States, should be encouraged to come to this country, and to buy supplies here. If we are to lose our trade with China, one of the main objects of acquiring the Philippines will be defeated."

The second special article in this number is contributed by Mr. Wolf von Schierbrand on "Germany as a World Power," and the third is an appreciation of the late Sir Walter Besant, by Prof. William P. Trent.



N the opening article of the North American Review for July, Thomas A. Edison briefly describes the tests applied to his recently-perfected storage battery for motor cars. Mr. Edison declares that the battery has sustained and overcome the four very thorough tests applied to it, and that there is every prospect of the same result from the fifth and last test. Mr. Edison's own conception of the condition to be met by the storage battery is that it should be a perfectly reversible instrument, "receiving and giving out power like a dynamo motor, without any deterioration of the mechanism of conversion." Mr. Edison describes the run made by an automobile supplied with power from his storage battery in which a distance of sixty-two miles over country roads containing many grades, some as steep as twelve feet in a hundred, was covered by the vehicle, making at the end of the run 83 per cent. of the original speed, the average speed over the entire distance being 11 2-100 miles per hour. On a comparatively level country road, a little heavy from a recent rain, the same vehicle on one charge came to a stop at the eighty-fifth mile. Mr. Edison expresses the opinion that the automobile, aided by the new battery, will ultimately come within the reach of the man of moderate means. "With an initial outlay of $700 and up

ward, the storage battery automobile can be used once a week at the cost of a fifty-cent charge, or twice for a dollar, and so on, the cost of use being met as it is incurred and so ceasing to be the bugbear that fixed charges must always be to the householder of moderate income." The fifth endurance test of the battery, the results of which have not yet been published, is the running of five different models of automobiles of various weights and construction over five thousand miles of country road at an average distance of one hundred miles per day.


The inter-relation of two great recent developments in the industrial world,—the forming of the Atlantic steamship merger and the organization of the American shipbuilding trust,-is suggested in an article contributed to this number of the Review by Mr. Charles H. Cramp, of the famous firm of shipbuilders. Mr. Cramp expresses the belief that the direct influence of the Morgan steamship trust will be in the direction of stimulating American shipbuilding. He shows that the agreement with the Belfast shipyard of Harland & Wolff will by no means prevent the management of the trust from building some of their ships in the United States, but he hints at certain desired legislation on the part of our government to enable any American to build and operate ships under the American flag as favorably as under foreign flags.

THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S PERSONAL INFLUENCE. Mr. Wolf von Schierbrand makes a rather savage attack upon Emperor William II., the autocrat of modern Germany. He asserts that the Kaiser's influence has been wonderful, not only in public life, "lowering the national standard of political thought and liberty," but also in German literary and art life. This writer condemns him especially for his war upon what is known as the "Secessionist" or "Realistic" movement in literature, represented by Hauptmann and Sudermann, and a corresponding movement in German art represented by Böcklin, Liebermann, Klinger, and others. The greatest injury, however, according to this writer, has resulted from the Kaiser's attempt to curb the freedom of the press and of periodical literature. practice of the courts all over Germany, from the lowest to the highest, has been, since the accession of William II., growingly and steadily illiberal and systematically inimical to the press. Honest expression of opinion, whenever it contravened the Kaiser's ideas and convictions, has been so severely and persistently punished that it may be said to be effectually muzzled."



Karl Blind writes on "The Prorogued Turkish Parliament;" Commissioner-General T. V. Powderly on "Immigration's Menace to the National Health;" Mr. M. W. Hazeltine on "Mr. Carnegie's New Book;" Mr. Vernon Lee on "The Economic Dependence of Women;" H. Cust, M.P., on "Cecil Rhodes;" Auditor H. A. Castle on "Defects and Abuses in Our Postal System," and Dr. Adolph Wagner on "The Public Debt of Prussia." Prof. Lewis M. Haupt, formerly a member of the Nicaragua Canal Commission, sets forth the advantages of Nicaragua as contrasted with the Panama route for a canal. Mr. John Handiboe's article on "Strikes and the Public Welfare" is reviewed in another department.


HE July number of the Arena opens with a sym


President George McA. Miller, Prof. Thomas E. Will, Mr. Bolton Hall, and Mr. Ernest Crosby. Among the reasons stated by these gentlemen for their opposition to the present policy of the United States Government are that it is an abandonment of a high national ideal; that it is a breaking of national faith; that it is an introduction of despotism; that it is a policy proved by history to be a failure; that it is based upon physical force; that it is founded on a false pride of race; that it is "steeped in cant and hypocrisy," and that it distracts our attention and our material resources from home problems.


Mr. Edward Berwick explains why the Pacific coast producer has all along favored the Nicaragua route for the canal as opposed to the Panama, even to the point of declaring for "Nicaragua or nothing." The wheat grower of California wishes to be put on an equal footing with his rival in the Argentine Republic, and prefers the Nicaragua route because of its availability for sailing vessels. Farmers' most perishable products, on the other hand, will suffer less from detention in tropical heat and damp by the Nicaragua route than by the Panama, while for all purposes of interstate commerce the nearness of Nicaragua commends it as the more desirable route.


Dr. George Wolf Shinn gives an account of the formation and objects of the Actors' Church Alliance, which has now established itself in four hundred cities in the United States and Canada, and counts a membership of over two thousand. The objects of this organization are to promote the best interests of the stage and the Church by seeking to produce on the part of each a just appreciation of the opportunities and responsibilities of the other, and to endeavor to unite the stage, the Church, and the general public in a mutual effort for the betterment of all. The Boston chapter has had receptions in theaters, lectures, essays, and discussions in halls, and smaller gatherings here and there. It has successfully carried through a benefit performance and a bazaar to raise funds, and has had a religious service once each month in some church, to which actors and their friends were especially invited. Both the Boston and New York chapters now possess headquarters of their own, and are engaging in active work.


Mr. William H. Morrell writes on "Evolution and Optimistic Politics," Mr. Adam Rosenberg on "Socialism in Ancient Israel," Mr. Marvin Dana on "The Pride of Life," Mr. William Leighton on "Whitman's Note of Democracy," and Mr. Eltweed Pomeroy on "The Present Political Outlook."


N the July number of Gunton's the editor attempts to make clear the real issue in the present coalstrike discussion in the following paragraphs:


"Whether the demand for an eight-hour day and an increase of 20 per cent. in wages is reasonable or unrea

sonable really cuts no figure in this strike problem. If the employers had consented to the conference with the unions, it is altogether probable that the demands of the men might and would have been modified down to a thoroughly reasonable and economic basis. After the reply of the corporations, there was nothing for the laborers to do but accept the decision that they would not be permitted to participate in making the contract under which they would have to work or strike.

"In this state of facts, as developed by Commissioner of Labor Wright's investigation, it is clear that the corporations are responsible for the strike. All the inconvenience to the public is chargeable to the railroad managers, because their attitude left no other alternative for the men except unconditional surrender of all voice in determining their conditions."


Mr. Hayes Robbins, in a paper on "The New South's Rare Opportunity," estimates the number of children under fourteen years of age at work in the cotton mills of North and South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi at 22,000. Eight or ten thousand of these children are believed to be under twelve, while the fact is well established that some children of nine, eight, and even six years are at work in Southern mills. In connection with these facts, we are reminded that fourteen years is nearly the average age under which factory labor is prohibited by the laws of most of our Northern States and of European countries where there has been any legislation on the subject.


IN the Nineteenth Century for July, Sir Robert An

tains that magistrates should be empowered to deal with any lad between sixteen and twenty-one who habitually frequents the streets and highways and has no visible means of subsistence. By dealing with them he means that they should be sent to training ships. The most interesting thing in his paper is the statement which he makes as to the estimate of some American friends of his as to the number of murders which they expected would take place every year in London. After much discussion, they fixed an average of about 200. In reality, the average number is about 18.


Mr. Benjamin Taylor writes a somewhat cheerful article upon this subject, maintaining that if British shipowners, shipbuilders, and railway companies wake up and brace themselves for the struggle, they have nothing to fear. He would pass a simple resolution through the House of Commons forbidding the sale or transfer by any firm of vessels which it is desirable to keep on the British register for possible use in war, and pass a short act re-imposing the old navigation laws, which would close the British register and coasting trade to foreign-built vessels. He also suggests that countervailing subsidies should be paid, and in other ways he would abandon the theory that the British shipowner is the natural enemy of mankind.


The government resident on Thursday Island, the pearl-fishing station in the north of Australia, gives

some interesting particulars as to the influence likely to be exerted by Asia on Australia. He admits that the pearl-fields could not be worked without Asiatics, but at the same time he is a passionate advocate of a white Australia. This, he says, is the opinion not of the labor party alone, but it is the determination of nine-tenths of the present people of Australia. The southern Australian states will never consent, come what may, to the systematic introduction of colored labor into northern Australia.


Maj.-Gen. Frank Russell declares that he thinks the great war now brought to a close will be noted in history as having brought about an entire revolution in the education and training of the officers of the British army. The report of the committee is a startling and a remarkable document. He examines its recommendations in detail, approving of them in the main, and concludes his paper by calling attention to the striking phenomenon that, although the committee examined no fewer than seventy-two witnesses, some of them more than once and many of them at great length, they never asked Lord Wolseley to attend and give them the benefit of his advice and unrivaled experience. The unaccountable omission detracts very much from the value of the report as a whole.


Mr. Walter Sichel claims that no one ever showed greater prescience as to the future of Great Britain than Disraeli. He quotes many passages from his speeches in proof of this; among others, as far back as 1856 he pointed out that American expansion, so far from being injurious to England, contributed to the wealth of England more than it increased the power of the United States. In 1872, he made the following statement as to the conditions upon which, in his opinion, self-government should have been conceded to the colonies. The passage is a remarkable one, and well worth quoting:

"It ought to have been accompanied by an imperial tariff, by securities for the people of England for the enjoyment of the unappropriated lands which belonged to the sovereign as their trustee, and by a military code which should have precisely defined the means and the responsibilities by which the colonies should be defended, and by which, if necessary, this country should call for aid from the colonies themselves. It ought further to have been accompanied by the institution of some representative council in the metropolis, which would have brought the colonies into constant and continuous relations with the home government."


Mr. W. H. Ford comes to the rescue of the censor of plays, and maintains that one scene at least in "Monna Vanna" is quite inadmissible on the English stage. The late Chief Justice of Hyderabad writes on "The Islamic Libraries," and Mrs. Aria discourses on the practice of going to the play in order to display your dresses and meet your friends. Miss G. E. Troutbeck, in an article entitled "A Forerunner of St. Francis of Assisi," revives the almost forgotten memory of Abbot Joachim of Flora, who was born in Calabria in the year 1132.

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