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ferent diet every day, and enjoy their meals; who are not isolated in compartments by customnor do they need to supplement their rations house barriers. It is not the tariffs that have at the canteen out of their own pockets.

built up American industries,—they have only "In summary the German navy reveals some served the trusts; and in lessening the power of admirable points. It is a force which is ham. purchase of a portion of the Americans they have pered by few traditions. It exists with one object only impeded their rise instead of favoring it. only, — to fight and to win. It may be that it has M. Guyot gives some remarkable figures to glaring faults; we may be sure that it is not per- show the effect of state interference upon the fect. Its seamanship certainly is not yet as high price of food. In Austria-Hungary, export as that of the British fleet, and probably other sugar is worth 21 crowns at Trieste, and sugar holes could be picked in its training ; but the for home consumption 84 crowns at Prague. fact remains that it is trained with serious pur- In France, the French consumer pays for 100 pose, that all smartness for mere smartness' sake kilos of sugar more than 65 francs, 36 of which is swept away, and among the sea forces of the go into the treasury in order to promote the proworld it marks in several important particulars duction of more sugar. M. des Essars has made the highest state of efficiency yet attained.” a comparison between the retail prices in Lon.

don and in Paris of forty-six articles of gro

cery. The total of the French prioes came to THE CASE AGAINST BRITISH PROTECTION.

109.95, that of the English only to 89.09.
HERE is a characteristic free-trade article by
M. Yves Guyot in the Contemporary Re-

SPEED RECORDS ON AMERICAN RAILROADS. view for July. M. Guyot, of course, is a free

TATEMENTS that American express trains ticular convinced that the continuance of the free- have run at the rate of 75, 100, or even 120 trade policy is an essential for England.

miles an hour have been repeatedly circulated He begins his paper by pointing out that this in Europe, and in Germany the state railway is not the first time there has been a scare over management has been severely criticised for its British trade. A book on - The Decadence of failure to equal tliese alleged records of speed. England" was published in 1851, on the eve of Writers in the German periodicals, on the other a development of prosperity of which the most hand, have challenged the accuracy of the state.. optimistic could not have dreamed. Englishmen ments, and, in some instances, have convicted living in a free-trade country are so used to its their authors of gross exaggeration of the facts. blessings that they do not notice them. Much of The discussion has at least shown the lack of the protectionist advocacy is based upon the fal- well-attested records of such performances. In lacious doctrine of the balance of trade. In the the Journal of Political Economy for June, Mr. past the clear-sighted policy of Englishmen was George G. Tunell analyzes a recent attempt in adjusted to the progress of industry, while the the Archiv für Eisenbahnwesen, an official publicapolitical economy of the Continent aimed at an. tion of the Prussian ministry of public works, to nihilating it.

disparage the claims of American railroads as to The protectionist nations are guilty of a mon- the speed of trains. strous self-contradiction when they establish tele. Whether or not the Prussian authority success. graph lines, build railways, and subsidize ships, fully impeached the value of the records in disand at the same time neutralize this machinery pute is a question of minor importance. Mr. by measures designed to prevent the entry of for- Tunell is himself skeptical as to the accuracy of eign goods. The logical protectionist must re- the extreme records quoted. He would not, he gret the good old times, when six or seven hun. says, accept any statement of speed in excess of dred thousand American Indians lived where 85 miles per hour over level track, unless it was seventy-six million inhabitants now dwell in satisfactorily vouched for. This admission indi. peace and activity. The protectionists complain cates the writer's cautious habit. The significant that the Americans are making themselves self- passages in his article are his statements regard. sufficing economically. But the Indians were ing speed records which he regards as satisfacstill more self-sufficing, yet England had no trade torily attested. The most recent instance cited with them. English protectionists cannot wish by him is the following: to close English ports against foreign raw material.

HIGH SPEED ON A WESTERN ROAD. The example of the United States is an argument in favor of free trade. Among the nations "During April and May of the present year in an advanced stage of evolution it forms a (1902) some tests were made on the Chicago & group of nearly eighty millions of individuals North-Western Railway to ascertain the speed between stations of their fast mail trains running worthy records made on this run were as fol. between Chicago and Council Bluffs. The tests lows: were made by Mr. Robert Quayle, the superin.

A distance of 510.1 miles at 65.07 miles an hour. tendent of motive power, who was assisted by

A distance of 289.3 miles at 66.68 miles an hour. Mr. Percy H. Batten and Mr. Horace H. New.

A distance of 181.5 miles at 69.67 miles an hour. som, both of whom have had considerable expe- A distance of 85 miles at 72.92 miles an hour. rience in taking records. The speed recorder A distance of 71 miles at 75.06 miles an hour. used was carefully adjusted and tested in the

A distance of 59 miles at 76.08 miles an hour.

A distance of 52 miles at 78.00 miles an hour. shops, and, after being placed on the engines,

A distance of 42 miles at 79.04 miles an hour. was checked with a stop-watch over stretches of

A distance of 33 miles at. 80.07 miles an hour. track that had previously been carefully meas

A distance of 8 miles at 85.44 miles an hour. ured. On many occasions a speed of 75 or more miles an hour was recorded, and on one trip a

The train was composed of two heavy Wagner speed of 82, on another a speed of 86, and on

parlor cars, each weighing 92,500 pounds, and another a speed of 89 miles per hour was at

Dr. Webb's private car Elsmere, which alone tained and held for a short distance.

weighs 119,500 pounds. All the engines used • On April 28, train No. 10, between Carroll in this relay race were built by the Brooks Loco. and Boone, in Iowa, ran six miles, five of which motive Works, after designs furnished by Mr. were consecutive, at a speed of 76 or more miles George W. Stevens, of the Lake Shore Railway. an hour, and for onehalf of a mile maintained a The first four engines, which drew the train as speed of 82 miles per hour. The speed over the

far as Erie, were of the American type, or eight five-mile stretch was as follows for the successive wheelers, comparatively light, but built for fast miles : 76, 78, 8.15 (.5 of this mile being at 82), running. These engines weighed only 52 tons, 78 and 76. On May 1 the record of April 28

had 17 by 24 inch cylinders, and 72-inch driving was surpassed, 10.5 miles, 7.5 of which were wheels. The last engine was of a different type, consecutive, being run at a speed of 75 or more being a ten-wheeler, with three pairs of coupled miles per hour. On this run a speed of 86 miles drivers and a four-wheeled swiveling truck. It per hour was attained, but was held only for a

weighed 56.5 tons, its cylinders being of the very short distance, scarcely one quarter of a mile. same size as those of the other engines. Its The speed over the 7.5-mile stretch was at the driving wheels were only 68 inches in diameter. rate of the following miles per hour for the suc. cessive miles or parts thereof, 75 (for .5 of a

FREIGHT RATES ON ARGENTINE WHEAT. mile), 77, 78, 81, 84 (for 1.3 miles), 86 (for al. most .25 of a mile), 83 (for.5 of a mile), 80, and


T was only a few years ago that the Argentine 77.5. On May 10, the record of May 1 was Republic gained recognition as a serious surpassed by train No. 9. Of the 202 miles competitor with the United States in the supply between Clinton and Boone, 82.5 were covered of wheat for European consumption. The fact at a speed exceeding 70 miles per hour, 13.5 at that among all the transoceanic sources of wheat a speed exceeding 80 miles per hour, and 4 miles supply for western Europe Argentina now ranks at a speed exceeding 85 miles per hour, a speed second only to the United States has attracted of 89 miles per hour being reached and held for the attention of statisticians, and efforts have about one-fourth of a mile between the stations been made to ascertain the causes of this rapid of Mt. Vernon and Cedar Rapids."

and unheralded development. These runs were made with four cars, by lo- The cost of transportation is, of course, one of comotives having 19 by 26 inch cylinders, 80- the most important elements in the situation, but inch driving wheels, and a steam pressure of 190 heretofore there has been no serious attempt to pounds, the total weight of each engine being compare the freight rates from the farms of Arapproximately 133,800 pounds.

gentina to European ports with those from the

wheat belts of the United States to the same THE "LAKE SHORE RECORD OF 1895.

ports. Such an attempt has recently been made,

. Mr. Tunell also refers to the famous run made however, by a Washington statistician, Mr. by the special train of Dr. W. Seward Webb Robert R. Kuczynski, and the results of his inover the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern vestigation appear in the current number of the Railway on October 24, 1895. The official time. Journal of Political Economy (University of Chi. keepers of this run were Mr. H. P. Robinson, editor of the Railway Age, and Mr. Willard A. In the introductory part of the paper there is a Smith, sometime chief of the transportation de- table giving for the last two quinquennial periods partment at the Chicago World's Fair. Note. the average yearly wheat crop of all the countries

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having an average annual output of more than gentina at 7 cents, for the Pacific coast region 50,000,000 bushels.

at 10} cents, for the wheat territory east of the Rocky Mountains at about 14 or 15 cents per

bushel. If to these rates the different average Average annual crop in Percent

1,000 bushels. Countries.

ocean rates are added, the total freight rate per 1891-95. 1896-1900. 1891-1900. 1891-1900. bushel of wheat to the English market would be

from Argentina about 16 cents, and in the United United States

490,246 540,503 515,375 European Russia.. 369,632 370,043 369,838

States for the wheat shipped over the Atlantic France.

3:24,737 312,150

ports, about 20 cents ; over the guif ports, about British India.

215,186 231,584 Hungary 148,017 127,701 137,859

22 or 23 cents ; over the Pacific ports, about 30 Italy

126,427 125, 432 125,930 Germany.. 107,816 132, 126 119,986 4.66

cents. Spain....

87,144 98,942 93,043 3.61 “ The conclusions which might be drawn from Asiatic Russia..


85,885 81.608 3.17 Great Britain.

56,999 62,755 59,877 2.32 the preceding study may be summarized as folArgentina

53,000 63,939 58,469 2.27 Roumania 57,053 49,725 53,389 2.07

lows: It seems that the cost of hauling the Canada 51,406 53,913 52,660 2.04

wheat from the farm to the local station is con. All other countries... 372,787 356,729 364,757 14.16

siderably lower in Argentina than in the United Total 2,545,434 2,607,616 2,576,525 100.00

States; that the cost of transporting the wheat

from the local station to the shipping port is From this table it appears that Argentina's lower in Argentina than in the Pacific coast rewheat

crop is only 2.27 per cent., or one forty. gion of the United States, while it will be about fourth of the world's total wheat product. This as high as that of transporting the wheat grown fact, taken by itself, might lead the superficial east of the Rocky Mountains on a local rate to reader to infer that the South American republic the primary market; that the ocean rates from

never become formidable as a competitor Argentina are considerably lower than those from with the United States, where 20 per cent. of the Pacific coast region, and that therefore the the world's product is now annually raised. It cost of transportation from the local station in is only when we consider the question of home Argentina to Europe is considerably lower than consumption in the various wheat - growing from the local station in the Pacific coast region countries that we can form an adequate idea of to Europe ; that while the ocean rates from Artheir relative importance as exporters. Argen- gentina are higher than from the Atlantic and tina has, in fact, smaller population than that gulf seaports, the difference is by far not so large of any other of the twelve countries included in as the freight rate from the primary market to the table. It has, therefore, a smaller need of the ocean in the United States ; that as a consewheat for home consumption. From the data quence hereof, even if account is taken of reobtained by the Argentine Departmeirt of Agri bates and of the existence of through rates from culture, it appears that only about 31 per cent. of local stations to the ocean, the transportation the wheat crop is consumed within the country, from the local station in Argentina to the Euroand 9 per cent. is used for seed, leaving 60 per pean market is likewise lower than from the local cent. available for export, while in the United station east of the Rocky Mountains to Europe, States only about one-third of the crop can be and that consequently the average rate for trans. exported. Hence the fact that the present ex- porting the wheat from the Argentine farm to port of wheat from Argentina is only exceeded the European market is lower than from the farm by that of the United States and Russia. In the in the United States." last decade (1891-1900) the average annual ex. port of domestic wheat from the United States and Russia amounted to 102,000,000 bushels


tells to go about

person. In the first place, he shows that the LESS MONEY THAN THE NORTH AMERICAN

direct danger of cramp seizure is not at all so

serious as swimmers suppose. Nearly every swimOn the subject of transportation charges, it is mer seized with a cramp could save himself if he impossible, in the space at our disposal, to do did not get frightened. Cramp comes from going more than quote the conclusion of the very into the water when overheated, from swimming elaborate discussion presented in the Journal of with a stomach full of undigested food, or from Political Economy :

staying too long in the water and taking a chill. - The freight rate on wheat from the local It attacks only a leg or an arm, or perhaps only station to the ocean has been estimated for Ar

or a hand. Any good swimmer could get

each, and from Argentina to 35,000,000 bushels. In Outing for August, Mr. Alexander Meffert








a fi


along with such a handicap if he did not get abolished, with the one exception of the Society frightened ; but nearly every one gets frightened, of Cincinnati, which had a brief run, being copthrashes around, and fills his lungs with water. ied from the American military decoration of

Mr. Meffert says the great thing in trying to that name. Napoleon, even as First Consul, was save a person in danger is to take one's time at most anxious to revive some form of honorable the rescue. A little water swallowed by the distinction which should replace the old cross of drowning person will not hurt, and to swim right St. Louis; accordingly, when he considered the up to him invites the one great danger of his time was ripe, he let it be known that a new order grasping the rescuer, which practically always was about to be instituted, of which the members means the death of both.

would bear the honorable name of Legion of Mr. Meffert says the proper way is to swim Honor. The proposition provoked a consideraup to the struggling man, but to keep out of ble amount of opposition, but of course there the reach of his arms until he has become inca- were many more who approved than who disappable of violent effort. If he tries to seize hold proved, and once Napoleon became Emperor the of you, the left hand should be put against his Legion of Honor became one of his most cher. lower jaw to push him away.

ished institutions, and he reserved to himself the When the drowning man seems to be quiet, right of bestowing the cross," as it soon became the best way is to take him by the hair with the universally known, on those who seemed to him left hand and swim ashore with your right. If worthy of it. Probably few people are aware his hair is too short, then the back of his coat or that at first it was considered advisable to make shirt collar is the proper place to take hold. If the knighthood obtained by the reception of the there are neither clothes nor hair to afford a grip, decoration hereditary, and that not only to legitithe safest way is to approach from behind, put mate children, but to natural children and even one of your hands in each of his armpits, tread- to adopted children. This absurd suggestion was ing the water meanwhile, and then pull the soon brushed aside by the Emperor's good sense. drowning man back until he is floating face up, Under Napoleon nearly fifty thousand indiat the same time bringing your feet upward and viduals belonging to all grades of society were forward until they are under the other's body. enrolled in the Legion of Honor, and of this Then

you swim on your own back, dragging the large number only fourteen hundred were civ. unconscious man. This cannot be done with very ilians, the cross remaining essentially a military heavy people, of course. In such a case the best decoration. Napoleon founded many other orway is to take hold of his left hand with your ders; notably in Italy that of the Iron Crown. left hand, turn and swim, dragging him after Yet another order of knighthood of a very ex. you, but this has a danger of making it easy for clusive character was known as the Three Golden him to grasp you.

Fleeces, and was only bestowed on the highest knights created. Yet a third order, which went

by the absurd name of the Reunion, was intended THE LEGION OF HONOR.

to be equally suitable for bestowal on the great N the first June number of the Revue de Paris, personages of all those countries whom the great

conqueror annexed. concerning the centenary of the Legion of Honor.

Now, as most people are aware, the Legion of This great French order, admirably named by Honor has become the one great honorific dis. Napoleon, was instituted by him on May 19, 1802. tinction possessed by France. It has rather unIt was an attempt on the part of the First Consul fortunately changed in its original character. to reconstitute at least one of the old honorable Thus, it is bestowed as a matter of course on all distinctions which have played so great a part in those worthy civilians who have served the state monarchic France, and it was intended to take the and public offices for a certain number of years. place—as, indeed, it has done during a hundred Again, a great number of crosses were rightly years—of the three great French orders,—that given on the field of battle during the Francoof St. Michael, that of the Holy Ghost, and that Prussian War, and were thus the reward for of St. Louis. The last of these, founded in 1693, conspicuous gallantry in action. Occasionally a was purely military, but was only given to those signal act of personal courage, such as the saving who could prove themselves possessed of four of a number of persons from drowning, will sequarters of nobility.

cure some modest village hero the much-coveted Only Catholic soldiers could receive this dis- decoration. A very limited number of French tinction, an exception, however, being made in women have been given the cross ; of these, perfavor of officers belonging to Swiss regiments. haps, the best known outside the limits of her During the Revolution such distinctions were own country was the late Rosa Bonheur.


In the

fulard contributes some interesting pages

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principles should aim at bringing the will, intel. OUR readers will remember how Mr. Rhodes ligence, and moral ideales in the quickened activity

and emulation, rather than lower powers and he believed was the fundamental principle of activities which seem to bring out the latent in. Darwinism. Mr. Ramsden Balmforth, in the stincts of the ape and tiger. The wisest states. Westminster Review, writes on the subject of

men are those who set their faces like a flint "Darwinism and Empire," without referring, against the policy of war, and who, by concili. however, to Mr. Rhodes. He maintains that ation, by conference, by arbitration, by respect Darwinism and the evolutionists have been father

for national rights, by international deputations to the doctrine which they would have been the and congresses, bring the best thought of each first to repudiate. The average man is apt to civilization into sympathetic contact with that of think that fittest means best, whereas it really the other, and seek to resolve the conflicting elemeans that which is best adapted to the condi. ments of each in the harmony of the higher tions of its environment. The idea that fitness unity, and to promote the peace of the world and and selection can be determined by strength, permanent welfare of mankind. military power, cunning, or even intelligence is inadequate, for the environment of man, the moral or spiritual shell in which our lives are

THE PYGMIES OF CENTRAL AFRICA. cast, demands morality, an ever-ascending type IN the Atlantic Monthly for August, Mr. Samuel of morality, from us, or we perish. As Darwin Phillips Verner has an unusually readable himself says, a tribe rich in moral qualities would article on “ The African Pygmies," whom he has spread and be victorious over other tribes, and visited and studied in their native town in Cenits social and moral qualities would tend slowly tral Africa, on the Kasai River, a tributary of to advance and be diffused throughout the world. the Congo. These are the true pygmies of HeAccording to evolutionary ethics, it is with na- rodotus, the fabled dwarfs of Ethiopia. The little tions as with individuals : nor strength nor cun- folk lived in a city called Ndombe, ruled over by ning, nor intelligence alone, but character de. a king of the same name. There are about 5,000 termines fitness.

in the city, and 300 more around it. They dwell What kind of character is it, then, asks Mr. in little huts shaped like a beehive, with an openBalmforth, which determines fitness ? Not, he ing on the side at the bottom, barely large enough answers, the pushful, cunning, trading character, to admit their bodies crawling. Although a fullor the self-righteous, proselytizing character, but grown negro could not even lie down at full rather the restrained, self-contained character, length in such a house, one of them suffices for a which is content with a modest competence, pygmy and his whole family, sometimes consist. which seeks righteousness rather than gain, which ing of a wife and half a dozen children. keeps its word even to its own temporary hurt, The pygmies are occupied almost solely in huntand which is the friend and defender of weak ing and fishing, their chief weapon being a bow and struggling nationalities. Mr. Balmforth does and poisoned arrows. These arrows have no not think that England's policy either in South heads except the mere sharpened point of bamAfrica or in China has been such as to promote boo, but they are dipped into a vegetable decocthe survival of the highest types of character. tion which is one of the most fatal poisons known, In both countries England was the original ag. and which produces insanity or death almost im gressor. And to attempt to persist in securing mediately, even if the arrow makes not much success is to promote the survival of a low fili. more than a scratch. bustering type of character. It is no use for The pygmy community is ruled by a giant Englishmen to say that they have gone so far king, Ndombe, who stands six feet six inches in they cannot turn back. Nature will allow no stature, with broad, square shoulders, Herculean excuses of that sort. The farther we go in a limbs, and massive statuesque features of a dis. wrong direction the greater will be the distance tinctively Egyptian cast. Mr. Verner says he over which we shall have to retrace our steps. has never seen the man's physical superior. He England's war policy has not the test of fitness, has thirty-one wives and over forty children, and which natural selection itself imposes—a test of his family connections are so extensive that they character. Without it England would ultimately occupy a whole town. The pygmies themselves, have triumphed more completely than with it, however, do not usually have more than one wife. and the policy has been a decided set-back to the The clothing of the little negroes was the most moral development of the race.

primitive imaginable. The children and some of In China things have been even worse.

Hence the women went nude, and the most elaborate he thinks that true statesmanship on Darwinian costume amounted to nothing more than a yard

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