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of the line of the connected series of volcanoes, of which the Soufrière of St. Vincent and Pelée of Martinique are a part. He also points to the limestone deposits, with their enormous masses of locked-up carbon, forming the foundation upon which these same volcanoes are implanted, which indicate a source of energy far greater than was required for the catastrophe of Pelée. Though no one could have foretold the cataclysm long in advance of its coming, the episode, except in its magnitude and terrible consequences, is no sur prise to the geologist, who knows this region to be in an area of extreme weakness in the earth's crust. This region of terrestrial instability in cludes the greater part of the Caribbean and Gulf basins, and defines in its eastern contour the line of disappearance and breakage of the South American Andes, whose sunken crest is the pediment of the lesser Antilles. What great dis. turbances, if any, have taken place in the sea bottom as the result of the recent occurrences is a question that will take time to determine; but there is evidence already that some change has taken place west of Martinique, between the depth of 1,500 and 2,000 fathoms. The erup tions of Colima in Mexico, the earthquakes that so recently destroyed the towns of Chilpancingo. in Mexico and Quetzaltenango in Guatemala, the minor disturbances in Nicaragua, are but phases of the phenomena which culminated so disastrously in the explosions of the Soufrière of St. Vincent and Mont Pelée of Martinique."

WHAT CAUSED THE DEATHS AT ST. PIERRE ?

for the cause of science,

several unusually competent investigators were able to visit Martinique and St. Vincent before the volcanic eruptions of May had ceased, and their observations have already been reported in detail. The full report of the representatives of the National Geographic Society appears in the July number of the National Geographic Magazine. This report, which was prepared by Dr. Robert T. Hill, of the United States Geological Survey, is interesting not only as a presentation of facts regarding the great catastrophe, but also for the theories that it suggests to account for the enormous fatality at St. Pierre.

Dr. Hill states two such theories, one or the other of which may ultimately be adopted:

1. The heat-blast theory. This hypothesis assumed that the lapilli, gases, and steam of the ejected cloud were sufficiently hot to have inflamed the city and destroyed the people by singeing, suffocation, and asphyxiation. It does not account for the forces exerted radially and horizontally, nor the flame.

2. The aerial-explosion theory. The explosion of gases within the erupted cloud after their projection into the air would account for all the phenomena observed.

"The aerial explosion, if it occurred, was most probably a combustible gas, but science is still unable to state its nature. The discussion of explosive gases involves a line of scientific specialization which the writer does not possess; but as sudden and mysterious as was the great secret, it has left its traces and clues which the detectives of science will follow up. Metal surfaces of objects in the ruins will be examined and analyzed for traces of sulphur and chlorides. The deposits from the numerous steaming fumaroles are already within the chemical laboratory. Even the ash and rocks of the island will be submitted to minute investigation.

"And then there were those frightful lightning bolts! What of them and their igniting power?"

THOUSANDS KILLED BY STEAM AND DUST.

Prof. Israel C. Russell, another geologist who represented the Geographic Society in Martinique, says regarding the nature of the blast which swept over St. Pierre from Mont Pelée :

"It has been stated in the newspapers that the inhabitants of St. Pierre were asphyxiated by noxious gases or killed by a gas explosion. My own observations and the best interpretation I can place upon the testimony of surviving witnesses favors the opinion that the general cause of death was a blast of steam charged with hot dust. Gases, probably in part inflammable, were no doubt present, as the odor of sulphurous acid was perceptible at the time of my visit; but the part that such gases played was seemingly secondary. In order to be able to judge of the conditions where everything was destroyed, it is necessary to learn what took place on the outskirts of the storm. The people on the borders of the devastated area who escaped were in some instances injured, and the injuries were inflicted by hot dust, which on touching the skin adhered and burned. These burns resemble scalds, and destroyed only the epidermis. In several such instances the hair on the burned portions was not destroyed, and where the bodies of the sufferers were protected by even light clothing they were uninjured.

"Had the dust which struck the injured people been somewhat hotter, their clothing would have been ignited; and if they had inhaled the hot dust, death would have been almost instantaneous. The condition of the dead in St. Pierre favors the conclusion that this deduction shows what took place there. While the inhalation of

steam charged with burning hot dust may seemingly be accepted as the principal cause of death in the stricken city, it must be admitted that many persons were no doubt killed by falling walls, by nervous shock, etc.

The blasts which swept St. Pierre on the morning of May 8, and again on May 20, passed through the city with hurricane force. This is demonstrated by the manner in which great trees were uprooted, strong masonry walls thrown down, the lighthouse overturned, etc. The direction in which all these objects were swept was a little west of south, or directly away from Mont Pelée. The most conspicuous evidence of the strength of the blast which wrought the mechanical destruction is furnished by a statue of the Blessed Virgin, referred to above. That statue, composed, I understand, of iron, and measuring over 11 feet in height and nearly 10 feet in circumference at the shoulders, and weigh. ing several tons, was swept from its pedestal and carried southward about 45 feet. All the evidence collected in this connection cannot here be presented, but it indicates that the blast which wrought the havoc referred to passed over the city with full hurricane force."

PRIZE CORONATION ODES.

THE

HE Good Words comes out this July very much enlarged in size and greatly elated in spirit at the response to its coronation ode competition. Prizes of £50, £15, and £10. were offered last Christmas. The final award was given by Stopford Brook, Edmund Gosse, and William Canton. Odes were received from 1,084 competitors, and from almost every part of the empire. The editor is almost swept off his feet by the unexpected number and widely distributed origins of these odes. "The young loyalty has come to its manhood." The empire has found voice as a unit.

To read them, poem after poem, from all parts of the empire, is to become conscious of an imperial force the like of which history holds. no record and the chronicles of the nations show no trace. Turning over ode after ode the beautiful strains of harmonious patriotism blend into a single stately imperial anthem until the reader, pausing as it were to listen, finds almost overpowering the glorious diapason of the song. . . . Very interesting, indeed, is the mingling of races and creeds, when side by side, upon a table in London, lie some eleven hundred odes, written by Brahmin and Mohammedan and Buddhist and native Christians,-negroes of the West, from the Leeward Isles and the Windward, natives of the East, Indian, Burmese and Cinghalese, —

Protestant, Roman Catholic, Dissenter, Quaker, and Jew. Their pens, some of them, would have run more readily in Tamil or Telugu, Pushtu or Persian or Arabic, but they are all in the language of the ruling race, and cramped of course though they are, they are all of them real and living in thought and sentiment. Of course, the majority of the odes are by writers of our own race. . . . Never have poets sung with such a voice before. Knowledge of the splendid respon sibilities of empire with boundaries that encompass the world, and vexed along all their length by the uncharitableness of envious neighbors or the turbulence of tribes that cannot yet understand, give dignity to the singers and noble form to their song.

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The first prize falls to Lauchlan MacLean Watt, B.D., minister of Alloa, Scotland; the second to Rev. S. Cornish Watkins, Kingston, Herefordshire; the third is divided between Lucy Eveline Smith, of Dunedin, New Zealand, and F. H. Wood, M.A., Bromley Park, Kent. Perhaps as characterful as any is the passage in Mr. Watt's Ode on the Union Jack:

Ah, 'tis no empty fluttering of a dream,

Our flag's proud gleam:

Many and tired the fingers that have sewn it,

Seam by seam,

Staining it with life's crimson, and the blue

Of northern skies and seas, till winds have blown it Wider than all their wonder and their dream.

Thin red lines of pulsing lives were the thread of it, Pulsing lives that bled away for its sake beneath the spread of it.

Till the wide seas knew it,

And the winds of the wide world blew it, And the host of England followed the flag till earth trembled under the tread of it.

Up with it into the sky.

Let it blow abroad, let its message fly

Like the gray gull, over the deep, As glad and free.

The Good Words is so pleased with the success of this experiment as to offer similar prizes for the three best songs of the empire, to be adjudged next Christmas.

"LORD SALISBURY AS A SAINT.”

SUCH

UCH is the inscription beneath a picture of statuary in Mr. F. D. How's sixth paper on Lord Salisbury, in Good Words. It might fitly head the entire article. "The curious and interesting statue is to be seen in the sculpture gallery of the beautiful reredos of the Chapel of All Souls' College, Oxford. The reredos was erected about forty-two years ago, at the time that Lord Salisbury had just been elected to a fellowship of all Souls', and the artist, having determined to give his saints the faces of actual

living people rather than idealized features, chose Lord Salisbury's face as his type of a Christian warrior." Mr. How exclaims against the charge of extreme partisanship on the ritualistic side:

"No greater mistake could be made. Lord Salisbury is a high churchman, but of the most wide-minded and charitable kind. He is no friend to the advanced school of modern ritualism, neither does he fail to appreciate at its full value the piety and learning of Evangelicals' with whom he may not be in all matters in perfect sympathy. It is only necessary to notice the advice that he has given to the crown as to the appointments to bishoprics to be assured of the impartiality and wisdom of his views."

6

A RECORD BISHOP-MAKER.

And then Mr. How recalls the extraordinary fact that as prime minister Lord Salisbury has been concerned in the appointment of thirtyseven bishops! This surely establishes something like a record in bishop-making. Yet Lord Salisbury used to say there were few whom he considered eligible for the episcopal bench, and few whom the Queen considered eligible, but the number whom both he and Her Majesty thought eligible was very small indeed.

SUNDAY AT HATFIELD.

After describing the chapel in Hatfield Hall, Mr. How proceeds:

The services in this chapel include daily morning prayer at 9:30 (the general breakfast hour being 10); and on Sundays an early celebration at 9:15, with afternoon service at 3:30. These services are taken by one of the curates at the parish church; but when there is no one staying at Hatfield, the morning service on Sundays is given up, Lord Salisbury and Lady Gwendolen Cecil coming to the church instead. These arrangements are all the easier to make, as the rectory of Hatfield is held by Lord William Cecil, which recalls the fact that the rectory of Hawarden is held by the son of the late Mr. Gladstone, the rival statesmen each having had the happiness of being ministered to by one of their sons. Another coincidence is the circumstance that both rectories are of exceptional value."

A portrait of the rector of Hatfield has a strange resemblance to the bishops of Worcester and Rochester. Mr. How has shown "the thorough attachment of Lord Salisbury to the Church":

"His love for her has always been sincere and unostentatious. He has made few professions, he has not taken prominent part in her services except as a regular worshiper, but the

one thing which has had the power to rouse him to an outburst of indignation has been an attack upon her by her so-called friends."

SAINT AND SCIENTIST IN ONE.

It is significant that this devout churchman and maker of bishops has been at the same time and in this critical age a noted man of science :

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"What is sometimes called Lord Salisbury's den,' consists of a laboratory, a dressing room, and a bathroom on the ground floor. Though not nearly so much used of late years, there yet remains plenty of evidence in the paraphernalia of the former of the industry with which at one time its occupant pursued his scientific researches. It has already been stated that Lord Salisbury is a geologist of the first rank. He has also given time to photography, and to the practical study of electricity; the splendid electric lighting at Hatfield House having been carried out under his direction."

HIS PERSONAL HABITS.

Mr. How brings to a close in the July Good Words his valuable series of sketches of the veteran premier. He touches on several personal characteristics. He first mentions Lord Salis. bury's calm, and next his good health :

66

Always an advocate of regular exercise, he still tricycles every morning when the weather permits, and at 8 o'clock is to be often seen thus wheeling along the London streets before the traffic of the day has assumed formidable proportions. Some years ago he was a tennis player of some repute."

comes in for frequent

His mental aloofness comment : Trifles are not allowed to disturb his rever. ies. An eye-witness described how she watched him walking up and down the platform at King's Cross, while the rug which he carried trailed along the dusty pavement. At last a man approached and said, 'I beg your pardon, sir, but your rug is trailing on the ground.' 'Ah !' said Lord Salisbury, with a smile, it generally does.' This little story forcibly reminds one of the occasion when Dean Stanley, who was staying away from home, came down to dinner with his collar hanging down attached by one button only. His hostess went up to him, and gently pointed out the fact. 'Do you object?' said Dean Stanley. Oh, no!' was the only possible reply. 'Well,' said the dean, 'no more do I !'

"

"In addition to this mental aloofness,' as it has been called, Lord Salisbury is extremely short-sighted, and is also one of the shyest of men. When traveling in a train he buries himself instantly in a book,-probably a novel, for

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THE BRITISH FLEET

he is a great reader of this class of literature,– next morning, he is compelled to buy what he and spends much of his spare time when indoors wants at the canteen and stint his wife or him. in this manner.

Music and art have few attrac. self of other things." tions for him. He has, indeed, been known to " The private outlay of the seaman, stoker, express his inability properly to appreciate the and marine is not less than 6d. a day, and it compositions of Wagner !

does not seen that this aspect of the problem "When he is at work he is, however, a differ. has been taken into consideration by the Rations ent man. He is phenomenally rapid, not only Committee. Surely every possible influence in his grasp of a subject, but also in his method should be brought to bear on Parliament and on of getting through his business. He writes far public opinion to increase the amount due from more letters himself than is usual for a man in the country to the navy for the leveling up and his position, although he still (since, that is. he improving of its rations." has resigned the Foreign Secretaryship) retains the services of two private secretaries.”

BRITISH AND GERMAN NAVIES COMPARED. His relation to boys mentioned in the following paragraph will come as a pleasant surprise THE

'HE English reviews are publishing comto many :

parisons of the British with the German “Of Lord Salisbury's attachment to his fam- navy which are by no means flattering to the ily it is scarcely fitting to speak during his life

former. Herr Ernst Teja Meyer's

"Los von time, but it is well known that it is intense. His England,” a translation of which appears in the fondness of children is perhaps less notorious,

Contemporary for July, declares that, " apart from but is none the less true. He is especially “jolly: the number of ships, England's navy will find a with boys. There is one tiny bit of evidence in superior enemy in the marine of every great Hatfield House that the young ones are not for

power which is abundantly provided with all gotten, for a miniature children's billiard-table that gives force at sea." occupies a prominent position in the cloisters.'

MADE IN GERMANY." These sketches will be read with intense interest by men and women of all political parties, Herr Meyer passes in review the whole British and will help to deepen the personal regard en

fleet, and its bases, the coaling stations, etc. He tertained for the venerable statesman.

maintains that in every respect the establishment, when weighed in the balances, is found wanting. In

everything but numbers England's navy is inferior DOES BRITAIN STARVE HER BLUEJACKETS ?

to those of other nations, and, Herr Meyer would THE HE question of food for the men who man have us believe, immeasurably inferior to that of

her fighting ships is becoming a burning Germany. England cannot build her ships withone in England. Mr. Arnold White, after mak. out buying materials from Germany. The guns ing a special investigation in Germany, states in and shells are bought from Krupp and Erhardt. the National Review for July that “a sufficiency Steel for English bayonets comes from Solingen, of well-cooked, plain, good food, equal to their brown powder from Westphalia, and new boilers necessities, is given to the bluejackets in the Ger. for the ships are to be supplied by German workman, American, and French navies."

shops. It is also recommended that armor plates But, it will be said, was not the whole subject should be bought from Krupp. The whole Brit. inquired into? It was, and certain recommenda- ish navy, so far as there is any good in it, ac-' tions were made, which will not be carried out cording to Herr Meyer, will soon have to be until some time next year.

Mr. White says :

labeled “Made in Germany," while Germany, • The committee were desired to inquire into for her part, builds her ships from her own rethe sufficiency of the present ration. Th ration sources in her own shipyards, her own work. was pronounced insufficient. They were desired men, and is independent of England and every to inquire into the question of meal hours. It was recommended that there should be five recognized meal hours instead of three, as at present, and that the time allowed for these five Not only are the British ships inferior in the meals should be three hours thirty-five minutes weight of broadside and in tactic value to the instead of two hours thirty minutes allowed for German ships, but so many accidents and mu. the three meals at present. Under the present tinies take place on British vessels as to reveal a system no food is served out by the state to the state of things which recalls the sorry and de. British biuejacket after 4.15 P.M. If he feels plorable condition of the Spanish navy at the hungry between 4.45 P.M. and his cocoa-time outbreak of the war with the United States.

other power.

AMERE PLAYTHING.

BRITISH SAILORS MUTINOUS.

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The British fleet is little more than a national of 1900, which authorized an expenditure of plaything. Instead of naval maneuvers and $365,000,000 on new men-of-war and $65,000,squadron practice, there are holiday cruises from 000 on dockyards, in which they can be prepared, port to port, in which everything is subordinated contrasts very favorably with the British Naval to regattas and banquets. Herr Meyer main- Defense Act, inasmuch as the German measure tains that the British naval officer would come takes account of all the needs of the fleet which out of action just as hopelessly discredited as his it is to create. It makes provision for every de. military brother.

tail of the ships down to the last rivet, while the " To most officers in the British navy the extension of the organization of the great naval service is but a business. They all suffer from ports will proceed pari passu with the constructheir hereditary complaint, -national pride, to- tion of the men-of-war. In 1920 the German gether with an inordinate self-conceit, an incred. navy will consist of 38 thoroughly modern battleibly boorish ignorance, and a scorn of all for. ships and 17 older reserve battleships, making eigners."

55 in all. Behind these battleships there will be 52 cruisers. In that year the British navy will

only be three battleships stronger than that of The bluejackets are, Herr Meyer admits, bet. Germany. Germany will, therefore, be the second ter than the “mercenary blackguards in red or greatest naval power in the world, and her battle in khaki " who are recruited for the army. But squadrons will exceed in value such ships as it would be almost an insult to compare them England will be able to allocate to the defense of with German sailors, for “they lack, above all, the near seas. The preamble of the navy bill that deep moral seriousness with which our blue. shows that the purpose of the German fleet is to jackets win hearts the world over ; that unselfish be strong enough to cope with that of Great devotion ; that firm, I might say pious, sense of Britain. duty.” The men are discontented, and rightly

THE GERMAN FLEET UNDER INSPECTION. On the one hand, they are treated arrogantly and offensively ; on the other hand, they are Mr. Hurd speaks very highly concerning the neglected. The English fleet is the only one in efficiency of the fleet and the inspiration which it the world in which serious mutinies occur.

receives from the Kaiser. During the visit of But Herr Meyer says that on the Majestic the Prince Henry to Ireland, Mr. Hurd had an opentire crew rose because shore-leave was refused portunity of seeing the German ships at sea. it; and in the flagship Barfleur the crews muti- He says that their color is the nearest approach nied because they got nothing out of Peking plun. to invisibility which can be obtained under the der. Whether the men are bad or good, there usual conditions. The painting of the ships is are not half enough of them. The question of provided for out of the national funds, whereas personnel is entirely unsolved. Therefore, Herr in the British navy much of the expense falls Meyer concludes that the navy of England is just

upon the officers. One feature of the German as little prepared for hostilities as the army, and ships is that there is no wood to be holystoned, that it will fail just as much, though it is cer- and no brasswork to be polished by the crews. tainly incomparably better than those hordes From end to end of the ships there is no gleam which despise everything most needed for the from a square inch of metalwork, brass, or steel. welfare of a world power and a civilized state. The weather decks are laid with a light reddish The midshipmen should prove themselves stra- colored cement, which can be cleansed easily by tegic geniuses."

the turning on of a hose. The cement will not So says Herr Meyer, and he concludes by de. splinter or ignite under gunfire, and nothing claring that the English will not listen. They can look smarter than this hard and even matederide and despise plain lessons and experiences rial. There are very few wooden fittings, and of history; the coming collapse in a war with a though the insides of the cabins are made of great European power will at last and forever de. wood, these could be cleared away in a few hours molish the old boast, “ Britannia rules the waves. before going into action. The comfort of the

crews is considered more than in British ships. A British Estimate of the German Navy.

The vessels are ventilated mechanically in hot Mr. Archibald S. Hurd contributes to the weather, and heated in cold weather by pipes Nineteenth Century for July a very good article that run everywhere. There are baths for the entitled "The Kaiser's Fleet." His study is officers, and for the men numerous hand basins necessarily largely comparative, for while he with water laid on in comfortable airy spaces. writes of the German navy he has always the The food is good, is supplied in excellent quality British navy in his eye. The German navy bill and in ample quantity. The men have a dif

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