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living people rather than idealized features, chose Lord Salisbury's face as his type of a Christian warrior." Mr. How exclaims against the charge of extreme partisanship on the ritualistic side:
"No greater mistake could be made. Lord Salisbury is a high churchman, but of the most wide-minded and charitable kind. He is no friend to the advanced school of modern ritualism, neither does he fail to appreciate at its full value the piety and learning of Evangelicals' with whom he may not be in all matters in perfect sympathy. It is only necessary to notice the advice that he has given to the crown as to the appointments to bishoprics to be assured of the impartiality and wisdom of his views."
A RECORD BISHOP-MAKER.
And then Mr. How recalls the extraordinary fact that as prime minister Lord Salisbury has been concerned in the appointment of thirtyseven bishops! This surely establishes something like a record in bishop-making. Yet Lord Salisbury used to say there were few whom he considered eligible for the episcopal bench, and few whom the Queen considered eligible, but the number whom both he and Her Majesty thought eligible was very small indeed.
SUNDAY AT HATFIELD.
After describing the chapel in Hatfield Hall, Mr. How proceeds:
"The services in this chapel include daily morning prayer at 9:30 (the general breakfast hour being 10); and on Sundays an early celebration at 9:15, with afternoon service at 3:30. These services are taken by one of the curates at the parish church; but when there is no one staying at Hatfield, the morning service on Sundays is given up, Lord Salisbury and Lady Gwendolen Cecil coming to the church instead. These arrangements are all the easier to make, as the rectory of Hatfield is held by Lord William Cecil, which recalls the fact that the rectory of Hawarden is held by the son of the late Mr. Gladstone, the rival statesmen each having had the happiness of being ministered to by one of their sons. Another coincidence is the circumstance that both rectories are of exceptional value."
A portrait of the rector of Hatfield has a strange resemblance to the bishops of Worcester and Rochester. Mr. How has shown "the thorough attachment of Lord Salisbury to the Church":
"His love for her has always been sincere and unostentatious. He has made few professions, he has not taken prominent part in her services except as a regular worshiper, but the
one thing which has had the power to rouse him to an outburst of indignation has been an attack upon her by her so-called friends."
SAINT AND SCIENTIST IN ONE.
It is significant that this devout churchman and maker of bishops has been at the same time and in this critical age a noted man of science :
"What is sometimes called Lord Salisbury's den,' consists of a laboratory, a dressing room, and a bathroom on the ground floor. Though not nearly so much used of late years, there yet remains plenty of evidence in the paraphernalia of the former of the industry with which at one time its occupant pursued his scientific researches. It has already been stated that Lord Salisbury is a geologist of the first rank. He has also given time to photography, and to the practical study of electricity; the splendid electric lighting at Hatfield House having been carried out under his direction."
HIS PERSONAL HABITS.
Mr. How brings to a close in the July Good Words his valuable series of sketches of the veteran premier. He touches on several personal characteristics. He first mentions Lord Salisbury's calm, and next his good health
"Always an advocate of regular exercise, he still tricycles every morning when the weather permits, and at 8 o'clock is to be often seen thus wheeling along the London streets before the traffic of the day has assumed formidable proportions. Some years ago he was a tennis player of some repute."
comes in for frequent
His mental aloofness comment : Trifles are not allowed to disturb his rever. ies. An eye-w -witness described how she watched him walking up and down the platform at King's Cross, while the rug which he carried trailed along the dusty pavement. At last a man approached and said, 'I beg your pardon, sir, but your rug is trailing on the ground.' 'Ah !' said Lord Salisbury, with a smile, it generally does.' This little story forcibly reminds one of the occasion when Dean Stanley, who was staying away from home, came down to dinner with his collar hanging down attached by one button only. His hostess went up to him, and gently pointed out the fact. 'Do you object?' said Dean Stanley. 'Oh, no!' was the only possible reply. Well, said the dean, no more do I !'
In addition to this mental aloofness,' as it has been called, Lord Salisbury is extremely short-sighted, and is also one of the shyest of men. When traveling in a train he buries himself instantly in a book,-probably a novel, for
a distance of nearly five miles, where the continental divide is found, and in which the great Culebra cut is located, about thirty-six miles from Colon and thirteen miles from the Panama terminus. After passing through the Culebra cut, the canal route follows the course of the Rio Grande River to its mouth at Panama Bay. The mouth of the Rio Grande, where the canal line is located, is about a mile and a half westerly of the city of Panama. The Rio Grande is a small, sluggish stream throughout the last six miles of its course, and for that distance the canal excava tion would be made mostly in soft silt or mud."
The commission considered the feasibility of a sea-level route with a tidal lock at the Panama end, and it was found that the approximate cost of completing the work on that plan would be about $250,000,000, while the time required would probably be nearly or twice that needed for the construction of a canal with locks. commission therefore adopted a project for a canal with locks. The commission projected a canal channel into the harbor of Colon which, with the construction of the harbor itself, was estimated to cost over $8,000,000, while the annual cost of maintenance was placed at $30,000. Regarding the habor at the Pacific end of the channel. Professor Burr says:
"The harbor of Panama, as it now exists, is a large area of water at the extreme northern limit of the bay, immediately adjacent to the city of Panama, protected from the south by the three islands of Perico, Naos, and Culebra. It has been called a roadstead. There is good anchorage for heavy-draft. ships, but for the most part the water is shallow. With the commission's requirement of a minimum depth of water of thirty-five feet, a channel about four miles long from the mouth of the Rio Grande to the six-fathom line in Panama Bay must be excavated. This channel would have a bottom width of two hundred feet with side slopes of one on three where the material is soft. Considerable rock would have to be excavated in this channel. At 4.41 miles from the six-fathom line is located a wharf at the point called La Boca. A branch of the Panama Railroad Company runs to this wharf, and at the present time deep-draft ships lie up alongside of it, and take on and discharge cargo, as do the trains of the Panama Railroad Company. This wharf is a steel-framed structure, founded upon steel cylinders, carried down to bedrock by the pneumatic process. Its cost was about $1,284,000. The total cost of this excavated channel, leading from Panama Harbor to the pier at La Boca, is esti
mated by the commission at $1,464,513. As the harbor at Panama is considered an open roadstead, it requires no estimate for annual cost of maintenance."
THE DAM AT BOHIO.
The principal engineering feature of the route is found at Bohio, where there will be a great dam constructed across the Chagres River, forming Lake Bohio, the summit of the canal. This lake will have a superficial area during high water of about forty square miles. The water will be backed up to a point called Alhajuela, about twenty-five miles up the river from Bohio. For a distance of nearly fourteen miles, from Bohio to Obispo, the route of the canal would lie in this lake. Although the water would be from eighty to ninety feet deep at the dam, Professor Burr says that for several miles below Obispo it will be necessary to make some excavation along the general course of the Chagres in order to secure the minimum depth of thirty-five feet for the navigable canal. The Bohio dam will raise the water surface of the canal from sea level in the Atlantic maritime section to an ordinary maximum of ninety feet above sea level. This total lift is divided into parts of forty-five feet each. There will therefore be a flight of two locks at Bohio.
FORMOSA UNDER JAPANESE RULE.
all Americans are aware that
the past seven years, has had to deal with conditions in her dependency of Formosa not unlike those which are now confronting the United States in the Philippines. Formosa was conceded to Japan as a result of the war with China in 1894-95. After the cession the island passed through a period of military government corresponding with our own administration in the Philippines; and after the military rule was ended a civil governor was appointed, who was made entirely responsible for the civil administration of the island. Thus far there have been in succession four governor-generals and three civil governors. At present, Baron Kodama is governor general and Dr. Shimpei Goto civil governor of Formosa. Dr. Goto has visited the United States during the present summer, for the purpose of studying our institutions. During his visit he contributed an account of the Japanese administration of Formosa to the Independent of July 3. To this article we are indebted for the following facts:
As in the Philippines, the population of Formosa is made up of various racial elements. According to the statistics for 1899, the total number of natives in the island was 2,725,041;
DR. SHIMPEI GOTO.
less than 100,000 of these are aborigines. Chinese emigrants from the south of China or their descendants constitute a large proportion of the population. Thus far only about 33,000 Japanese have taken up their residence in the island, although this number does not include the troops stationed in the island. According to Dr. Goto, the Chinese in Formosa are only half-civilized, and while their customs and religious proclivities are similar to those of their countrymen in the southern provinces of China, few of the Chinese in Formosa are acquainted with Chinese charac. One reason for the tardiness of the Japanese to migrate to the island is to be found in the unhealthful climate. But the sanitary measures adopted by the Japanese authorities have already worked wonders, and many of the disagreeable features of life in Formosa have been greatly modified or wholly eliminated. For instance, the number of mosquitoes, flies, and other noxious insects has been greatly decreased. The streets of some of the cities have been cleansed by drainage systems, and a good water supply has been secured by means of artesian wells. The percentage of sickness and deaths among the Japanese officials resident in Formosa has shown a great improvement since the first years of Japanese occupation. The decrease in the death rate has been more than 75 per cent.
The authorities have found it necessary to take vigorous measures to secure the prevailing use of
the Japanese language throughout the island, but at the same time they have felt the need of having Japanese officials conversant with the pative tongue. A central language school was therefore established, for the double purpose of teaching the Japanese language to the natives and the native language to the Japanese. This institution is divided into a normal-school department and a language-school department, the former training Japanese students to serve as teachers in primary schools for native children, local language, and normal schools and primary schools for Japanese children. In the languageschool department the Japanese language is studied by the native students and the native language by the Japanese students, the students. in both sections being trained with the object of fitting them for public service or for private occupations in Formosa. The educational work conducted under the government auspices is by no means confined to language study, but up to this time this appears to have been the branch of instruction to which chief attention has been devoted.
over a period of twenty years, together with a project for establishing government monopolies of industries. These undertakings, as described by Dr. Goto, include (1) the laying of a trunk-line railway extending over the whole length of the island; (2) the surveying of lands; (3) the construction of harbors, and (4) the building of government offices and residences. To meet the expenditures required for these works, the Formosan government was authorized to raise loans to the amount of 35,000,000 yen, of which the principal and interest was to be paid out of the revenues of the island. It is estimated that the railroad work alone will require 28,810,000 yen, the construction of the harbor of Kelung 2,000,000, the land-surveying 3,000,000, and the building of government offices and residences 1,200,000. It is believed that the railroad will be finished much within the ten years' time originally assigned to the work, and that it will have a remarkable effect in stimulating industries on the island. Revenues accruing from the part of the island now open to traffic are greater than they were expected to be. The completion of an accurate land survey will confirm rights over land, will make landed property secure, and will greatly facilitate transfers. This work, by the way, was undertaken by the Chinese governor some years ago, but without success. As to the projected harbor works at Kelung, this is only the beginning of improvements for that port which will involve the expenditure of tens of millions of yen. It is the intention of the government to make this the chief port of Formosa, and it is believed that the growing industry and commerce of the island justify all the expenditures that have been projected. In the erection of public buildings great care has been taken in regard to sanitary arrangements, and the structures already built or in process of completion will serve as models for the whole island.
With a view to the gradual abolition of the pernicious habit of opium smoking, the Japanese government has established a monopoly of the article in Formosa which yields an annual revenue at present of about 4,000,000 yen. Under the restrictions established by the government, only those who have been already poisoned by opium to such an extent that they are unable to abandon the habit of smoking without great pain are allowed, by special warrant of the govern ment, to use it as a medicine. The formation of the habit is absolutely forbidden, or, in fact, its continuation in cases where poisoning has not advanced so far as to make abstention impossible. There is also a salt monopoly yielding
700,000 or 800,000 yen, and this commodity is now exported to Japan in considerable quantities. It is produced by permitting salt water to flow into fields, and then causing it to evaporate by the heat of the sun. Almost the whole supply of camphor of the world comes from Formosa. When Japan acquired Formosa a camphor monopoly was established, with a view to protecting the camphor trees, improving the methods of manufacturing, and putting the industry on a secure basis. The production is now regulated according to the demands of the world's market. The revenue yielded by the monopoly is now about 4,000,000 yen. The present governorgeneral has also formed a plan for eventually making the Formosa finances entirely independent of imperial aid. The imperial government began the administration of Formosa with a grant of nearly 6,900,000 yen, and this grant has been annually diminished until the present time. According to Baron Kodama's project, which was adopted by the Diet, the grant will be steadily decreased until it will entirely disappear in 1910. The possibility of this gain of financial independence may be seen when we consider the recent remarkable increase of the revenue,—from 5,000,000 yen in 1897 to 14,000,000 yen at present, with the provability of an increase to 20,000,000 yen in two or three years, this increase being largely secured as a result of the operation of the monopolies, the adjustment of the land tax, and other financial reforms. As the total expenditure incurred by Japan in connection with Formosa up to the end of the last fiscal year, March 31, 1901, amounted to 150,000,000 yen, including the military expenses, while in the same period the revenue amounted to only 40,000,000 yen, the financial burden to be charged to Formosa may be reckoned as 110,000,000 yen in all. As the annual revenue derived from Formosa is now from 14,000,000 to 20,000,000 yen, it may be said, as Dr. Goto points out, that the capital invested by the imperial government is bearing interest at the rate of 15 to 20 per cent. The import of Japanese commodities into Formosa is now about 15,000,000 yen. Supposing the profit of this trade to be at the rate of 20 per cent., the annual gain of Japan is about 3,000,000 yen, which nearly covers the present amount of the grant which the Formosan government receives from the imperial government.
RESOURCES OF THE ISLAND.
Among the more important products of Formosa named by Dr. Goto are tea, rice, sugar, hemp and flax, indigo, paper, silk, minerals, cattle, and marine produce. Dr. Goto predicts that
the production of sugar will be greatly increased within a few years. As to the mineral wealth of the island, gold, sulphur, coal, and petroleum are found there in considerable quantities, the yearly output of gold being about 1,000,000 yen at the present time. All in all, Dr. Goto draws a very favorable picture of Formosan resources, and seems to fully justify his assertion that this dependency, far from being a financial burden to the home government, is really a valuable invest
THE TRANSVAAL MINES.
INCE the close of hostilities in South Africa, SINCE attention is again concentrated on the mining possibilities of the Rand. The Engineering Magazine for July opens with an article by the famous mining expert, Mr. John Hays Hammond. After giving a general summary of the beginnings and development of the mines, he reviews the probable benefit of the change of government for mine owners. The amount of ore mined in 1887 was 23,000 ounces; in 1898, 4,295,609 ounces, valued at £15,141,376.
THE WATER SUPPLY.
One of the chief difficulties to be contended with is the poor supply of water, which at present is obtained by local storage of rain water,-not a very satisfactory arrangement. Within twenty or twenty-five miles of Johannesburg there are, however, other sources of water supply which will probably be utilized. Of the maps prepared Mr. Hammond says:
"Great attention is given to the preparation of maps of the underground workings, geological sections, and plans upon which assays are plotted. In these respects the Rand practice is far ahead of that of any other country with which I am familiar."
AMERICANS FOR RESPONSIBLE POSITIONS.
The labor question is always a difficult one. Mr. Hammond says:
Reference has already been made to the labor question, in statistics of the relative number of whites and blacks employed. The white workmen are predominantly British, though many of the important members of technical staffs are Americans; the mine and mill foremen are usually either Americans, or British subjects who have had mining experience in America. This labor is generally below the American standard, but is rapidly improving. Manual workers on the surface and all miners except those running machine drills, are blacks, and the quality of the black labor is very poor, especially on first arriving at the mines."
Mr. Hammond looks for a reduction in the
present excessive railway rates. He says:
"Generally speaking, the cost of the principal machinery, erected on the ground, will be two and one-half times its home cost. In respect of labor, cost of dynamite, and charges for railway transport, marked improvement is confidently to be expected from the change of governmental conditions."
LAWS AND MONOPOLIES.
Mr. Hammond speaks well of the Transvaal laws :
The mining laws of the Transvaal are most excellent in character, and while the claims cover every square foot of land for an area of nearly 40 miles long by from 2 to 3 miles wide, there have been practically no conflicts over extra-lateral rights.
"Notwithstanding the change in the political status of the Transvaal which will follow the recently concluded peace and final establishment of British rule, it may be confidently assumed that the main features of the mining law of the South African Republic will be retained, and certain oppressive features of monopolies, etc., bearing with special weight on the mining industry, will be abolished. The dynamite monopoly was one that bore most heavily on the mining industry: and, according to the reports of the state mining engineer, explosives, including fuse and detonators, amounted to nearly 10 per cent. of the total working costs of the mines.
A FEW FORECASTS.
"It is estimated that for every mile in length along the course of the reefs, down to a vertical depth of 1,000 feet for the dip of the reefs, gold to the value of about £10,000,000 will be extracted. This is a conservative estimate,—at least as applied to the central section of the Rand. If we assume these conditions to obtain to a depth of 6,000 feet vertically, we have the enormous sum of £60,000,000 for each mile in length. It is not unreasonable to suppose that these conditions will be maintained along most of the cen tral section, say, for a distance of ten miles,—in which case we would have an auriferous area, within practicable mining depths, containing up. ward of £600,000,000 value of gold."
If," says Mr. Hammond, "I were called upon to express my opinion, I would estimate the future duration of profitable operations on a large scale in the district at less, rather than more, than twenty-five years. I believe that, as the result of economic reforms, there will be an ultimate saving of 6s. per ton of ore treated."