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mission, from 1 to 2. These exercises are so arranged that they do not average over three and onehalf hours in recitation room in any one day. The studies of the cadets are intended to be such that the total work demanded of them, including recitations, shall fall between seven and nine hours a day; this is exclusive of the military exercises, which do not require study. The academic term extends from September 1 to June 1, with only three general holidays, Thanksgiving, Christmas, and New Year. This makes available thirty-seven weeks for academic work, exclusive of examinations. The usual college year, exclusive of all holidays, is seven weeks less. This excess of seven weeks a year makes the West Point course of four years practically equal to five college years of thirty weeks each. This fact is very frequently overlooked in considering the West Point course of four years. Each summer the class whose stay at the academy has been two years is allowed to be absent from June 15 to September 1. This is the only general leave permitted during the four years.
For the same time (June 15 to September 1) the other three classes live in camp, and this period is devoted entirely to military exercises, the three encampments affording seven and onehalf months for the purpose.
The result of the academy's work is shown by the records of graduates. General Scott officially ascribed the brilliancy of the campaigns in Mexico largely to the presence of graduate officers. At the close of the great Civil War, all the armies, nearly all the corps, and the greater number of divisions on both sides were commanded by graduates of the academy. The present distinguished Secretary of War has said that the services of the graduates in the SpanishAmerican War alone has justified all the expenditures made upon the Military Academy. Less
known, but, under the circumstances, none the less heroic,-have been their services against the Indians of the great West. The gallant, trying, and valuable work done by them, and still in progress, in the Philippines needs no mention. Many of her sons in civil life have brought credit to the academy by their brilliant records.
The academy has turned out 4,067 graduates, not including the class of this year; of this total 6 per cent. have been killed or died of wounds received in action. There are still living 1,914 graduates, of whom 1,409 are on the active list of the army, 187 on the retired list, and 318 in civil life. The proportion of all the officers of the army on the active list who are graduates of the academy is 34 per cent. The total amount expended in the maintenance of the Military Academy to the present time has been a little over $22,000,000. As at present organized its annual cost is considerably less than that of a cavalry regiment, and the average annual cost of the academy has been considerably less than is that of a third-class modern battleship.
The exercises of the centennial celebration of the academy extended over four days, having been commenced on the 8th by an eloquent and appropriate memorial sermon by the chaplain of the academy. The 9th was designated alumni day," and was devoted to the reunion of the graduates. Representatives of all the classes, except two, for the past sixty years were present. The aged veterans of the Union and Confederate armies, who, forty years ago, faced each other in the life-struggle of the nation,-met with the warmest fraternal greetings, and recounted with boyish enthusiasm the experiences of earlier days. The afternoon exercises of this day consisted of addresses, by the president of the Association of Graduates, by veterans of the Mexican War, of the Civil War (Union and Confederate), and of the Spanish-American War. The events of this day would have been deemed impossible a few years ago, and they show how completely has faded the enmity and how mellowed the memories of the Civil War.
The 10th was devoted to athletic field exercises, and, besides contests between the cadets themselves in the morning, included a baseball game with the team of Yale in the afternoon. In the evening the graduating hop," always a great event for the cadets and young ladies, was held. The older alumni were thus enabled to observe some of the modern forms of relaxation i which cadets indulge.
The 11th was centennial day," and the scenes witnessed will never pass from the memories of those present. The exercises were opened
by the military reception of the President of the United States, who arrived at 10 A.M. This was immediately followed by a review of the corps of cadets by the President, Secretary of War, general of the army, and many other distinguished guests. Upon the conclusion of the review, Cadet Titus was called from the ranks and decorated by the President with a medal of honor because of his gallantry in being the first to scale the walls of Peking. In the afternoon, the President, going on foot, was escorted from the superintendent's quarters to the Memorial Hall, preceded by the corps of cadets and followed by the representatives of foreign countries and of institutions of learning in our own and other countries, and by all the alumni present. The exercises in the hall consisted of an address of welcome by the superintendent, followed by addresses from the President; from the orator of the day, Gen. Horace Porter, upon the unveiling of the centennial tablet, and by the Secretary of War. The day terminated with a grand banquet, at which were seated about six hundred guests. The addresses on this day and on the 9th were of the highest order. both as to style and substance, and were a credit to the occasion and an honor to the speakers. It is regretted that space only permits three brief quotations.
The President, with all the force and incision for which he is noted, said:
This institution has completed its first hundred years of life. During that century no other educational
Photo by Pach Bros
institution in the land has contributed as many names as West Point has contributed to the honor roll of the nation's citizens. [Applause.]
Colonel Mills, I claim to be an historian, and I speak simply as a reciter of facts when I say what I have said; and more than that, not merely has West Point contributed a greater number of men who stand highest on the nation's honor roll, but I think beyond question that, taken as a whole, the average graduate of West Point during this hundred years has given a greater amount of service to the country through his life than has the average graduate of any other institution in this broad land. [Applause.]
Mr. Root, with most impressive deliberation, said:
And, now, at the very time that this great institution of military instruction is rounding out its first century of existence, the attention of our people has been sharply concentrated upon this increased necessity for military learning and military science by the events of the past few years, and the conclusion which has been reached finds expression in the action of the national Legislature, which, in the long run, through long discussion, but with absolute certainty, reaches just conclusions in the end upon all great subjects of public importance. [Applause.]
The conclusion that the country needs the military academy at the beginning of the second century of its existence more than it did at the beginning of the first is expressed by the laws of Congress, which have enlarged the number of your corps, and which have just devoted to the enlargement of the conditions of the Academy the munificent sum of $2,000,000, to be immediately expended, with authorized expenditures of six millions and a half. [Applause.]
How well you will be able to meet the obligation
and to justify this confidence, let the record of the American army of to-day answer. [Applause.]
All honor to the officers of the American army, who, in true republican fashion, have worked their way up from the ranks, as did Chaffee, commanding in the Philippines. [Great applause.] All honor to the officers who, turning aside from the allurements of wealth and honor in civil life, have been appointed as civilians to the army, as volunteers, accepting the slender income and the hard life that is known to accompany the duties of a soldier.
But they will be the first to say aye when I say that the informing spirit, the high standard of the soldier of the American army, is to be found in the graduates, in the teachings, in the traditions of the military academy. [Applause.] Happy augury of the future that here, where, for a hundred years, honor has ever ruled-honor made up of courage, truth, compassion, loyalty is to be found the formative and controlling power of the American army, of the future regular militia, and volunteer. No army inspired with the spirit of the military academy can ever endanger a country's liberty or can ever desert a country's flag. [Applause.]
These statements may be accepted as the general impressions and conclusions of the country in regard to the military academy, and they make appropriate brief reference to the causes which have produced such gratifying results. The curriculum and methods of the academy have orig inated and developed under the belief that the profession of the soldier is likely at any time to be full of responsible work, and to need men of character and power; under the belief that the academy should train character and mind as well as inculcate the principles of military discipline; under the belief that ability to use the rational faculties to the best advantage are the highest results of youthful education, far higher than the acquisition of information; under the belief that mental power is better than knowledge, and that such power is only acquired by overcoming difficulties; that training is that discipline which teaches absolute subordination of inclination to effort; under the belief that, amid the varied and complex conditions of a living world, every new proposition, every specialty is sooner and better mastered by him who has had the training of hard, concentrated mental effort.
The fact that the art of war, in all its highest operations, is but the application of the principles of a science make it imperative that the basis of the curriculum should be scientific. The success of the methods of the academy are universally ascribed to the division of the classes for instruction into small sections, as already mentioned. Thus the daily efforts of each student can be observed, noted, and given the attention and assistance required, and his personal peculiarities studied and corrected when necessary. It is in the close, personal contact of this section-room work that the mental "setting-up" of the cadet is
mainly given. During the whole four years each cadet, with from fifteen to eighteen of his associates, is from two and a half to three and a half hours daily in close personal relations with some one of the army officers detailed because of his supposed fitness to act as his instructor and guide. This relation gives ample and excellent opportunity to observe every element and peculiarity of character as well as of mind, and it is here that the most persistent and constant personal influence operates to give both the right trend.
The courses of study, as well as the methods of instruction, have themselves been developed with the constant view of influencing character as greatly as possible during mental training. The curriculum and method, combined with the opportunity, precept, and example so constantly before them in the section room, are the most potent agents in developing the characters as well as the minds of the West Point cadets. In all military exercises, in all relations outside the section room (except during recreation hours), this same supervision and control, example and precept, are exercised and brought to bear, though to a less extent, owing to the necessity for in struction and observation of larger numbers at the same time In all relations, under all cir
cumstances, and at all times there is cultivated, demanded, and enforced perfect truthfulness, honorable conduct, and manly bearing. Any lack of these essential elements of true manhood cannot be made good by mental distinction, however brilliant.
From the remarks of the Secretary of War, quoted above, it will be seen that the country demands an enlargement of West Point, and that Congress has made generous appropriation for that purpose.
This enlargement is made immediately necessary by the increased number of cadets authorized by the last session of Congress and by the new apportionment of the last census. It is hoped and believed by many friends of the army that the number of cadets will soon be further increased; and in the plans for new buildings, under appropriations provided, provision will be made for any future enlargement of the corps. It would seem the part of wisdom to make as full use as possible of this source of military preparation, and while it cannot be predicted, it is the opinion of some of our legislators that the number of cadets will soon be increased so as to insure that at least one-half the vacancies annually occurring among the officers of the army may be filled by graduates from West Point. If such increase can be accomplished while still maintaining the West Point standards of discipline and training, it will be most advantageous for the army; but if such enlargement involves any lowering of these standards, as has been sug gested, its advantage will be problematical. In his admirable address on the 11th, Gen. Horace Porter referred to one innovation which has been frequently proposed. He said: "It has been asked, Why impart practically the same education to all cadets, to those destined for the line as well as for the scientific corps? It is because it is believed that the mental discipline, powers of investigation, and accurate methods of thought requisite in solving difficult problems in the higher branches of science are the same qualities which are necessary in planning campaigns. against wily savage tribes or conducting battles against trained armies, we train a soldier in science in order that he may have the general powers of his brain fully developed, be able to concentrate his thoughts, to reason logically, to grasp with decision the difficult problems of a campaign, and thus be better prepared to lead men and to gain battles for the Republic." It will be observed that these remarks forcibly reiterate the views of the academic authorities, given above, as to the desired objects of academic training.
There are other innovations against which the academy must be on guard, all inspired by the belief that West Point results can be attained without West Point methods. Some of our friends express a desire to sacrifice mental training and the study of principles to the acquisi. tion of immediately useful knowledge; the lack of the immediate or practical utility of some of the most fundamental studies is often inveighed against; others would transform the academy into a school mainly for teaching greater perfection in the various drills, and other elementary practical duties of a junior officer, at the expense of those studies which have been introduced with a view to mind and character building. These propositions are all met in the statement above of the raison d'être of the academy's curriculum and methods; but it should be further remembered that the benefit of principles, and of the efforts to acquire them, will be increasingly felt throughout one's whole professional career; whereas, knowledge,-especially if easily acquired, though of present utility, can have no growing, and may have no continuing, value. Facts and information are readily acquired at all times, discipline and system at an early age only; the sacrifice of the latter for the former during the academic period would be most unfortunate in every way for the pupils. There is also some danger that athletics, most beneficial when kept under proper control, most attractive at all times, may attain undue and detrimental prominence.
If utility and practicality, the mechanical and physical exercises of the soldier, the non-scientific branches of study, are ever given a preponderating influence in the education of the academy, it is the confident opinion of the writer that the fitness of graduates in all scientific requirements of their profession will diminish, that they will be started upon their careers with less mental strength, with less training of their faculties, with less prospect of equal ultimate development, and with less strength of character.
The academy must ever be ready to accept beneficial change; but it should never forget that honest application, unhesitating work, and faithful drudgery are the only means by which the majority can attain success, and these should be made familiar habits to every graduate. manent success does not lie along lines of least resistance," and for competent officers of the army, the rigorous methods of the Germans are better than the lighter ways of the English, and, in this second century of the academy's life, we should give the weight to the experiences and traditions of the first.
ANTHRACITE COAL MINES AND MINING.
BY ROSAMOND D. RHONE.
HREE ink blots on the eastern end of the map of Pennsylvania, between the Delaware and the Susquehanna rivers, represent all the anthracite coal in the United States. They cover an area of 488 square miles, and produced last year 53,500,000 tons, truly infinite riches in a little room. They are popularly known as the Wyoming, Lehigh, and Schuylkill regions. Their limits are so sharply defined that one can pass in five minutes through one of the notches in the surrounding mountain wall and find himself as much out of the "coal regions" as if he were a hundred miles away.
The coal measures lie on a floor of conglomerate rock, which rises about them on all sides like the sides of a basin, and is exposed on the slopes and summits of the mountains surrounding the
coal regions. The coal measures which lie in this basin are composed of alternate layers of rock and coal piled upon each other like the layers of a jelly-cake, in which the thick layers of cake represent the rock strata and the thin layers of jelly the coal beds. The thickness of the coal beds varies from 1 foot to 32 feet, and that of the rock from a few feet to 200. The coal beds are pretty regularly distributed throughout the coal measures, and their presence in a certain place can generally be calculated upon, so that each bed bears its own name.
The theory of the vegetable origin of coal has many advocates, but the last word has not been said. The fossil plants in the coal measures, upon which so much has been built, are not found in the coal beds, but in the slate overlying them,