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A GROUP OF DISTINGUISHED DEMOCRATS AT THE TILDEN CLUB MEETING, JUNE 19. (In the front row, reading from right to left, are ex-President Grover Cleveland, ex-Senator David B. Hill, Gov. A. J. Montague, of Virginia, and L. Laflin Kellogg, of New York. Behind Mr. Cleveland is Mr. Robert E. Dowling, president of the Tilden Club. Behind Governor Montague is Hon. John C. Calhoun.)
Guadeloupe, Trinidad, St. Lucia, and Guiana; that about $600,000 had been contributed from all sources for relief, and that aid had been distributed to 10,000 sufferers. In the southern part of the island of Martinique agricultural work was going on as usual. Meanwhile, a number of American scientists and explorers had been making investigations, which were duly reported at great length from day to day in the newspapers. They found, among other things, that there had been no overflow of molten matter from the
Mont Pelée crater, no topographical alteration of the country, and no change in the height of Mont Pelée. It has become known that, coinci dent with the eruptions in the West Indies, there were volcanic disturbances and earthquakes in several other parts of the world, including Central America, Alaska, the Hawaiian Islands, and some European countries. Among some other significant consequences of the new interest in these terrible forces of nature was the change of feeling about Nicaragua as a safe route for the
The rebellion in Colombia seems to have subsided to a considerable extent, although it is not yet extinct. Chile and Argentina were sensible enough toward the end of May to sign a treaty for general arbitration, limitation of naval armaments, and the placing of landmarks on the frontier. There was friction last month between Brazil and Bolivia owing to the concession by the Bolivian Government to an Anglo-American syndicate of a vast area of rubber forests in the region known as the Republic of Acre, and which is partly claimed by Brazil. The government of Haiti is in process of reorganization.
The official functions for coronation in England. fortnight were to begin with the arrival of royalties in London on Monday, June 23, and to end with King Edward's dinner to the poor on Saturday, July 5. We publish an article from the pen of Mr. Stead on the chief British topics of the moment. Mr. Stead believes that after the coronation, in view of the making of peace, Lord Salisbury will retire from the premiership, to be succeeded by
his nephew, the Right Hon. Arthur. J. Balfour. The British newspapers manifest much interest in the anticipated discussions of the colonial statesmen, under the auspices of Mr. Chamberlain, on questions of imperial trade and preferential tariffs. The death of Lord Pauncefote, British ambassador at Washington, was deeply regretted in both countries. His successor, who was promply appointed, is the Hon. Michael H. Herbert, formerly a member of the British legation at Washington, but for some years past secretary of the embassy at Paris.
The expected change of ministry in France has already become an accomNotes. plished fact, M. Waldeck-Rousseau retiring at his own instance on account of illhealth. We publish elsewhere an article from the pen of Prof. Othon Guerlac on the retiring premier and his successor. It gives an account of the career of the new prime minister and an outline of the political situation. While the new cabinet is more frankly Radical, it has much in common with its predecessor, inasmuch as M. Delcassé remains as Minister of Foreign Affairs, and General Andre as Minister of War. The very successful visit of the Rochambeau party to the United States has been the subject of much friendly comment in France. The German
HON. A. J. BALFOUR READING TERMS OF PEACE AGREEMENT IN THE HOUSE OF COMMONS.
Reichstag adjourned on June 12, after having passed a bill to ratify the agreement adopted at the Brussels International Sugar Conference abolishing bounties. The strained relations between the two halves of the Austro-Hungarian empire have reappeared conspicuously in their failure to renew the so called Ausgleich, or tariff and commercial union, which was formed upon the reorganization of the Hapsburg dominions after the disastrous war of 1866. From Russia the reports of serious and widespread disaffection grow worse rather than better, and the enforcement of the new military conscription law in Finland threatens a dangerous crisis.
-on President's Patton's motion,-of Dr. Woodrow Wilson, a professor in the university, as his successor. We publish elsewhere a sketch of Woodrow Wilson's career from the pen of his college classmate Robert Bridges, of New York. Dr. Patton remains as a professor in Princeton, and he will not be obscured as a shining light in the educational and theological world or lost as an intellectual force in American life and litera. ture. As for President Woodrow Wilson, it is enough to say that no one doubts his eminent and complete qualifications. Mr. Alexander C. Humphreys, of New York, a well-known engineer, has been chosen to fill the place, as president of the Stevens Institute of Technology at Hoboken,
THE LATE LORD PAUNCEFOTE.
of the late Henry Morton. Dr. Joseph Swain, president of Indiana University, resigns to become head of Swarthmore College. Dr. Dan F. Bradley was inaugurated president of lowa College on June 11, and Prof. John H. T. Main was installed as dean of the faculty. Dr. George H. Denny was inaugurated as president of Washington and Lee University, on June 17.
Some distinguished names appear in our obituary list this month. King Albert of Saxony died on June 19 at the age of seventy four, and on the same day Lord Acton, the great English scholar and professor of modern history at Cambridge, died at the age of sixty-eight. To Lord Pauncefote's death we have already referred. The death of President John H. Barrows, of Oberlin College, was deeply deplored. The foremost member of the Southern Presbyterian church was the venerable Dr. Benjamin Morgan Palmer, of New Orleans, who was in his eighty-fourth year. Dean Hoffman, of the General Theological Seminary of New York, and the Rev. Dr. George H. Hepworth, also died last month.
anthracite regions of the wage-scale system. The principal operators, as represented by the heads of the coal-carrying railroads, stuck steadily to their doctrine that it is not feasible to regularize labor conditions in the hard-coal region. An easy reply, of course, is that, in spite of the different conditions prevailing in different parts of the anthracite field, the capitalists themselves have succeeded in forming a combination by which they have completely eliminated competition, with the result of regulating the total output and con. trolling the market price. It is not necessary to assume that the wage scales demanded by the miners' union would mean uniformity where conditions do not permit. It would seem scarcely more difficult to provide different wage scales in the anthracite districts under the general sanction of the mine-workers' union, than to arrange the different scales that exist under the same auspices in the various bituminous districts.
In refusing so persistently to deal of the Rail- with the miners the operators would seem to be challenging public opinion rather boldly. For these operators are, in effect, the railroads themselves. Contrary to established principles, and to the laws of most States and countries, the roads have gone beyond their legitimate functions as common carriers, and have assumed monopolistic control of a necessary arti cle of traffic and ordinary use. This relation of
the railroads to the mining, shipping, and marketing of coal is at the basis of the whole anthracite trouble. In the wild scramble, some years ago, for the acquisition of coal lands, and the control of what were formerly independent coalmining companies, fictitious prices were paid and immense sums of money were invested upon false economic principles. The existing combination is for the purpose of making the public pay interest and dividends upon a huge volume of improper capitalization. But for this artificial situation, which-morally, if not technicallyconstitutes the most flagrant violation of the Sherman anti-trust law to be found in the whole country, the public could have cheap coal, the miners could have fair wages, and the railroads could charge a reasonable price for transportation. President Roosevelt, when called upon, early in June, to try to bring about a settlement of the coal strike, showed that the law under which the Pullman strike was investigated had subsequently been repealed. But Col. Carroll D. Wright, as head of the Department of Labor, made certain inquiries into the facts for the President's information. The public would like to read his report.
substitutes for hard coal, and the use of petroleum as a fuel was determined upon in various quarters. A number of tank steamers were chartered for bringing crude petroleum from the new Texas oil fields for consumption in New York, and naval experts announced successful experiments in the use of oil as a substitute for coal in the furnaces of warships. The chief substitute, however, for hard coal was to be found in the abundant and widespread deposits of the bituminous article; and the strikers soon found that unless they could greatly curtail the output of the soft-coal mines, their strike was doomed to certain failure. Accordingly, a convention of the United Mine Workers of America was called by an order issued on June 17, to meet in the middle of July at Indianapolis, to consider the question of a sympathetic strike among all the organized coal-miners of the United States.
From a new photo by Marceau.
(President of the United Mine Workers of America.)
abandon their work. Thus, it is not strictly fair to say that if the Western bituminous miners should suspend work in sympathy with the anthracite miners, they would thereby have violated existing contracts or agreements. It would certainly violate their agreements if the miners of Ohio, for instance, having accepted a wage scale for a year, should at the end of six months demand an immediate increase of wages, and strike to enforce the demand. But these wage scales do not obligate the employer to keep his mine running or to give full employment for a year to his men; and they cannot, therefore, on the other hand, require the men to keep on working in the mines if they choose to work elsewhere or to be idle. We are sure, however, that the bituminous miners would make a colossal blunder if they should strike, and that they would forfeit the approval of the country and destroy the confidence in their union that they had been gradually building up.
The formation of something like an Ship-building ocean steamship trust under American auspices caused the indefinite postponement of the ship subsidy bill at Washington. But it remained for a combination of American shipbuilding yards to give the subsidy measure