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substitutes for hard coal, and the use of petroleum as a fuel was determined upon in various quarters. A number of tank steamers were chartered for bringing crude petroleum from the new Texas oil fields for consumption in New York, and naval experts announced successful experi. ments in the use of oil as a substitute for coal in the furnaces of warships. The chief substitute, however, for hard coal was to be found in the abundant and widespread deposits of the bituminous article ; and the strikers soon found that unless they could greatly curtail the output of the soft-coal mines, their strike was doomed to cer. tain failure. Accordingly, a convention of the

a United Mine Workers of America was called by an order issued on June 17, to meet in the middle of July at Indianapolis, to consider the question of a sympathetic strike among all the organized coal-miners of the United States.


From a new photo by Marceau.

JOHN MITCHELL. (President of the United Mine Workers of America.)

abandon their work. Thus, it is not strictly fair to say that if the Western bituminous miners should suspend work in sympathy with the an. thracite miners, they would thereby have violated existing contracts or agreements.

It would certainly violate their agreements if the miners of Ohio, for instance, having accepted a wage scale for a year, should at the end of six months de. mand an immediate increase of wages, and strike to enforce the demand. But these wage scales do not obligate the employer to keep his mine running or to give full employment for a year to his men ; and they cannot, therefore, on the other hand, require the men to keep on working in the mines if they choose to work elsewhere or to be idle. We are sure, however, that the bi.

tuminous miners would make a colossal blunder COMMISSIONER CARROLL D. WRIGHT.

if they should strike, and that they would forfeit (Of the l'nited States Department of Labor.)

the approval of the country and destroy the con

fidence in their union that they had been graduSuch strike, if consummated, ally building up. Bituminous would bring about an almost unthinkable cessation of general industry.

The formation of something like an In most of the bituminous districts, the men are Ship-building ocean steamship trust under American

Combination working under yearly agreements with their

auspices caused the indefinite postemployers as to wages and conditions. It is true ponement of the ship subsidy bill at Washington. that these agreements do not contain any pledges But it remained for a combination of American or promises that the miners will not suspend or shipbuilding yards to give the subsidy measure




its final quietus. The so-called Morganization" the British Government into bribing it with large of the Atlantic steamship lines showed that subsidies to remain true to its old allegiance. Lord American capital can carry on an ocean business Brassey himself, the great authority on shipping, in the transport of passengers and freight without and formerly secretary to the admiralty, went be. financial assistance from the Treasury of the Unit- fore a House of Commons committee last month, ed States Government. The explicit statements to beg it to subsidize the Cunard line as the only made by the leading men in the new combination remaining British champion in the Atlantic traf. of shipbuilding plants also showed,—what this fic. He declared that it would be a national dismagazine has again and again asserted, that the aster if the line were transferred to a foreign new industrial conditions in the United States flag. No negotiations, however, seem to have render it easily possible for our shipyards to turn been pending for the transfer of the Cunard line. out steel vessels in competition with foreign shipbuilders without government aid, whenever the

It is not primarily a matter of flags

Subsidies right combination of men and interests choose to Wanted and allegiances, but simply one of a make the attempt. Mr. Lewis Nixon, the famous

Everywhere. closer and more economical manage. naval designer and shipbuilder, who is one of the ment of the business affairs of the great Atlantic chief factors in the new combination, has been ferry. The steamship subsidy question in Eng. very outspoken in his expressions of con- land will have entered upon a new stage of disfidence in the ability of the United States cussion, as the colonial premiers,—the coronation Shipbuilding Company to build vessels in open being over,—are now settling down to their competition with the European shipyards. The talk at London about various matters affecting new company owns the great San Francisco the inter-relations of the United Kingdom and plant which built the Oregon and the Olympia, the great colonies. The Canadians have gone to as well as various other vessels, and it includes London eager to secure support for their scheme also such Eastern plants as the Bath Iron Works, of a great Anglo-Canadian steamship line, to the Crescent Shipyard, of Elizabethport, N. J., be heavily subsidized by the Dominion and the the Eastern Shipbuilding Company, of New British governments, and to operate in close London, Conn., and the Harlan & Hollingsworth relations with the Canadian Pacific Railroad. Company, of Wilmington, Del. It has also ac. The chief promoters of the Canadian company,quired the Bethlehem (Pennsylvania) Steel Com- which hopes to get a million dollars a year from pany's plant, which is especially adapted to the the government at Ottawa, and at least twice as making of armor plate and guns. Mr. Nixon tells the public, furthermore, that the Shipbuilding Company has made arrangements with the United States Steel Corporation for the prompt and ample supply of hull steel on a basis of prices that will enable the company to compete against British and German shipyards for non-American orders. Thus, with its own steel plant at Bethlehem, the new shipbuilding concern can turn out a complete warship, armored and supplied with guns, out of its own resources and facilities.

Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan's movements Europe and the Ship

in Europe this summer have been Trust.

more keenly watched and more constantly discussed by the newspapers of England, France, Germany, and the rest of the Continent than the comings, goings, and doings of emperors and prime ministers. Of all Mr. Morgan's achieve. ments, nothing has impressed the European mind so much as the formation of the steamship combination. The great concern of the English last month seemed to be to prevent, if possible, the ab.

UAG LAG sorption of the Cunard line by Mr. Morgan's company. It was thought in England that the Cunard had given an option of purchase to Mr. Morgan and

JOJIN BULL "SEEING THINGS.” his associates, conditioned upon its failure to bluff

From the Journal (Minneapolis).

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The pros.

much from the government at Westminster,—are larger than ever before, and thus far the weather said to be Lord Strathcona and Sir Christopher has been encouraging, although it will be many Furness. At its recent annual meeting, the great weeks before corn is safe from all possible vicis. French shipping corporation,—the Compagnie Ge. situdes. The winter wheat crop, much of which nerale Translantique, —explained that the absence has now been harvested, will be a little smaller of dividends was due to British and German com- than usual. While the spring wheat outlook is petition. The French are worried about the favorable, the acreage is reduced, and the total steamship combine without seeing anything that wheat crop of 1902 will probably be 100,000,they can do about it. It will, of course, be made 000 bushels less than that of last year. It an excuse for the promotion of various subsidy will, however, still be the third largest wheat schemes in France, as in England. The Hamburg. crop in the history of the country. American line issued to its shareholders, and thus pects for other small grains are good, and the to the public, a month ago, a very full statement reports about the various fruit crops are, as of the terms of the arrangement by which the usual, contradictory. The marked feeling in the two German shipping lines had entered into a corn and cotton belts, however, is one of great working arrangement with the Morgan syndicate. cheerfulness. If the crops turn out as well as

we have reason to expect, the railroads will conBusiness conditions in the United tinue to make the fine earnings they have been A Season of States continue to be favorable ; and Prosperity.

lately reporting. The but for the disturbance caused by the

disposition to unify anthracite coal strike, it might probably be said

and extend railroad with truth that never at any time in the country's

systems shows no history has there been so much well-paid employ.

check. The Northment for every body able and willing to work,

ern Securities' cases never so little grinding poverty, and never so

are still in the hands bright an outlook in the economic sphere for all

of the courts, but the classes of young men. There has been no slack

railroads concerned ening in the demand for iron and steel products.

are meanwhile profitWe have not been exporting as much as last

ably employed. The year, but one reason for that is the unsatisfied

plan of the United demand of the home market. The railroads

States Steel Corporawere never handling such large quantities of

tion to retire $200,goods, and they are finding it profitable to spend

000,000 of its prelarge sums of money in improving their grades

ferred stock, and to and making extensive renewals and betterments.

issue bonds instead, The production of copper in May in the United

although accepted by States reached nearly 26,000 tons, breaking all the holders of nearly all of the stock, was oh. previous records. For the fiscal year ending jected to by a few, and is in litigation. with June, the exports of the United States will be from $90,000,000 to $100,000,000 less in

With the approach of midsummer we value than those of the year ending June, 1901 ; American find active preparation for the Conbut they will still exceed those of every other

gressional campaigns. In several year, and amount to about $1,400,000,000. The States, also, governors are to be elected, and imports, on the other hand, will amount to con- nominations have already been made. Oregon, siderably more than those of any previous year, which votes at an unusual date, had a close elecand the so-called balance of trade, —that is to tion on June 2, which resulted in the choice of say, the excess of exports over imports, —will be Republican Congressmen and of Republicans for not far from $500,000,000. The falling off in ex- all the State offices, except that of governor. Facports is in part due to the shortage of the corn tional differences in the dominant party allowed crop; but also largely to the steady demand and the Democrats to elect their candidate, Hon. high prices for commodities prevailing in this George L. Chamberlain, by a small majority. country, which has had the effect of keeping our On June 16, the people of Connecticut voted products for the home market.

upon the draft of a new constitution, submitted

to them by the recent convention, which had Late in June the general crop condi. occupied more than four months in its work. The Crop tions in the United States were re. A very light vote was cast, and the project was Outlool.

ported as exceptionally favorable for defeated by about two to one. The principal corn and cotton. The corn acreage seems to be question at issue was that of representation in






Legislature. Connecticut still keeps its system nee for governor is ex-Congressman W. J. of equal representation by towns, with the result Bailey. In South Dakota the Hon. John that petty rural neighborhoods count for almost Perried, a Republican leader of talent, character, as much as large towns and cities. The rural and promise, has been renominated. After a districts dominated the constitutional convention, lively contest in Nebraska, the Republican con

vention, on June 18, selected the Hon. John Mickey as its candidate for governor.


Democrats in

The Democrats, all along the line, are Line of Battie. putting into their platforms strong

resolutions condemning the Republican Philippine policy, and are talking of tariff reform ; but they have, as a rule, dropped the money question, and have cut loose from Mr. Bryan and the Kansas City platform of 1900. This is conspicuously true of the Indiana convention, held on June 4, and the Illinois convention, held on June 17. The Democrats of Tennessee have renominated Hon. James B. Fraser, of Chattanooga, for governor; and in Arkansas, Hon. Jefferson Davis has been renominated, and ex-Gov. James P. Clarke is selected to succeed Hon. James K. Jones in the United States Senate. It is too early to discover any important indications as to the Congressional elections, although the Democrats declare that they expect to make considerable gains. A great Democratic harmony meeting occurred on the occasion of the opening

of the Tilden Club's new house in New York, on JUDGE SAMUEL W. PENNYPACKER.

the evening of June 19. Ex-President Cleveland (Republican nominee for Governor of Pennsylvania.) was the most conspicuous guest and speaker, and

Ex-Senator David B. Hill came second. Mr. and refused to put representation upon a modern Bryan's presence had been hoped for, and he and equitable basis. Naturally the people of the would have been highly welcomed ; but he did towns voted against the constitution project and not come. The third speech was made by that defeated it. A number of Republican State brilliant and fast-rising Democratic leader, Gov. conventions have been held, and their endorse- A.J. Montague, of Virginia. Colonel Gaston, of ment of the administration of President Roose- Massachusetts, and National Committeeman velt has been as emphatic as language could make Thomas Taggert, of Indiana, were the other it. It was not a little gratifying to the President orators of an occasion which brought together a that his Cuban policy was so strongly endorsed, large number of well-known members of the and particularly that the Republicans of Western Democratic party. Mr. Cleveland's speech was States like South Dakota and Nebraska emphat- a plea for the return to fundamental party prinically repudiated the position of their Senators ciples as represented in the old days by Samuel on Cuban reciprocity, and stood squarely by the J. Tilden. His words that attracted the most President. It is also to be remarked that the attention, however, were those that related to Republican conventions have sustained the army himself and his permanent retirement from politadministration and the War Department in their ical activity. Many of the Democrats in the gather. work in the Philippines and elsewhere. The ing made it plain enough that they were thinking Maine Republicans have renominated Hon. John of Mr. Cleveland as a candidate for 1904. F. Hill. On June 19, the Vermont Republicans nominated Gen. John G. McCullough, after a

The two great volcanoes of Martinique long and interesting canvass on the part of sev.

From the Vol- and St. Vincent, which wrought such eral prominent candidates. In Pennsylvania,

dire havoc in May, continued more or after a tremendous preliminary contest, Senator less active last month, though with little ad. Quay was successful in securing the nomination ditional harm to people or property.

Official for governor of Judge Samuel W. Pennypacker, French statements were to the effect that 10,000 of Philadelphia. The Kansas Republican nomi- of the Martinique people had taken refuge in Photo taken by the New York Herald.


A GROUP OF DISTINGUISHED DEMOCRATS AT THE TILDEN CLUB MEETING, JUNE 19. (In the front row, reading from right to left, are ex-President Grover Cleveland, ex-Senator David B. Hill, Gov. A. J. Mon

tague, of Virginia, and L. Laflin Kellogg, of New York. Behind Mr. Cleveland is Mr. Robert E. Dowling, president of the Tilden Club. Behind Governor Montague is Hon. John C. Calhoun.)

Guadeloupe, Trinidad, St. Lucia, and Guiana; that about $600,000 had been contributed from all sources for relief, and that aid had been distributed to 10,000 sufferers. In the southern part of the island of Martinique agricultural work was going on as usual. Meanwhile, a number of American scientists and explorers had been making investigations, which were duly reported at great length from day to day in the newspapers. They found, among other things, that there had been no overflow of molten matter from the

Mont Pelée crater, no topographical alteration of the country, and no change in the height of Mont Pelée. It has become known that, coinci. dent with the eruptions in the West Indies, there were volcanic disturbances and earthquakes in several other parts of the world, including ('entral America, Alaska, the Hawaiian Islands, and some European countries. Among some other significant consequences of the new interest in these terrible forces of nature was the change of feeling about Nicaragua as a safe route for the

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