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vision of new buildings for the academy. The United States army is now in a state of the highest efficiency. By a recent order issued at the War Department the total army strength will be cut down from (in round fig. ures) 77,000 men, as at present, to 66,000. It will be organized on the plan of keeping about one-third of it in the Philippines, with such shifting of men and regiments as to equalize Phil. ippine service. Heretofore promotions in the navy have been made by seniority, while in the army they have been made by selection. It is understood that President Roosevelt and Secretary Moody have decided to apply the army system to the navy, at least to some extent. The Senate did not agree to the provision in the House naval bill requiring that one. half of the new vessels auth. orized should be built in government yards. The naval bill, as passed by the Senate, appropriated an amount exceeding $78,000,000. Both Houses agreed in ordering

two new battleships, two new Photo copyrighted, 1902, by Pach Brothers.

cruisers, and two new gun. Sec'y Moody (Navy).

boats, but the Senate also added an order for five sub

marine torpedo boats. The A great event of the past month was Senate also recommended an increase in the Matters Affecting Army the celebration at West Point of the number of cadets at the Naval Academy at An

and Navy. hundredth anniversary of the found. napolis by ninety-five, and an appropriation was ing of the Military Academy. The ceremonies made for another new building at Annapolis. were impressive, and the speeches were of a high Much interest in naval circles has been mani. order of merit and interest. Gen. Horace Por- fested in the plans for a great series of naval ter, our ambassador at Paris, was the chief ora- maneuvers on a scale never before undertaken tor, but the President and the Secretary of War by the United States. made eloquent and memorable addresses, and General Schofield and General Alexander,—the

One excuse urged for the passage of latter a distinguished Confederate veteran,

an unprecedented appropriation for spoke wisely and impressively. We publish else.

the improvement of rivers and harwhere an article on West Point and the celebra- bors was that no river and harbor bill was passed tion from the pen of Colonel Tillman, one of the by Congress last year. But under the system professors in the academy. The celebration was now in vogue, of authorizing contracts for the rendered the more enthusiastic by an action of future completion of work, a good many millions Congress which had made certain an appropriation are paid out every year in the Sundry Civil bill, of about $6,000,000 for the much-needed pro- to continue work on improvements ordered by


Sec'y Root (War).
Gov. Odell, of New York. President Roosevelt,

Commandant Mills.



The River and
Harbor Act.

river and harbor bills of former years. The in the Union. This bill passed the House of new bill dwarfs anything of the kind in our his- Representatives on May 9. If the admission of tory. It amounted to $60,000,000 when it left these States meant nothing to the Union except the House ; the Senate added $10,000,000, and four members in the House of Representatives the conference committee split the difference. (Oklahoma would be entitled to two, while the Thus it carries a total appropriation, in round others would have one apiece), there would be no figures, of $65,000,000. Of this amount some. very serious objection to the statehood bill. But thing under $30,000,000 will be paid out of the it is a wholly different matter to add six more Treasury next year, and the payment of the re- members to the United States Senate from States mainder will be distributed through several years, of scanty population. The objection is not theo. as called for by the improvement contracts. To retical only, but practical. For example, if the put it mildly and cautiously, this measure is not people of the United States had been propor. defensible as meritorious legislation. Congress tionately represented in the Senate last month, made confession of the impropriety of the methods there would have been no difficulty at all about by which such vast raids on the Treasury are or- securing justice for Cuba. A number of the ganized, by putting in this very

bill a clause pro

eighteen or nineteen Senators who refused absoviding that there shall be created a permanent lutely to act with the President, and with the board of engineer officers, to pass henceforth upon majority of the prominent and influential Senators all proposed river and harbor improvements. of their own party, were men from comparatively

small States. Thus, if representation in the Senate This union of local interests for a were according to population, New York, as comAnother for grand raid upon the United States pared with Nevada, ought to have four hundred Rolling Affair.

T'reasury can be applied to other ob- Senators, for New York has two hundred times jects besides the improvement of rivers and har- as many inhabitants as Nevada. Yet, in this bors. Thus the method has been successfully contest over a great issue that involves the public adopted this year by nearly two hundred cities, honor, Nevada exactly counterbalances New York towns, and villages, which, being ambitious to in the Senate. If Senator Mason of Illinois is have the United States build for them preten. onitted, the remaining eighteen Republican Sentious public structures, pooled their issues and ators who refused to act with their colleagues forced through Congress the so-called “Omnibus represent, in the aggregate, about as many people Public Buildings Bill.” As passed, it makes a as the inhabitants of the one State of New York. net demand on the Treasury for about $20,000,000,-petty villages in some cases securing large

The grotesque inequality of represen. sums for wholly unnecessary federal buildings. Against Ad- tation in the Senate has come to be Such a combination, of course, is almost impossi

one of the most serious practical ble to beat. The country, as well as local inter- difficulties with which our American political ests, imperatively needs large expenditure for im- system has to contend. To admit just now three proved postal facilities in New York City, and more States of small population would be to appropriations were duly made for New York in make a bad matter worse. By the last census the new measure. But the bill was so skilfully Oklahoma had not quite 400,000 people, New constructed on the united-we-stand-divided-we-fall Mexico had 195,000, and Arizona had less than principle that the group of New York Congress- 123,000.

Oklahoma is certainly developing men, in order to secure a meritorious and neces. rapidly, but its present boundary lines are not sary appropriation, were obliged to vote for a satisfactory. With the addition of the Indian bill which, in many of its details, was an out- Territory, it would have an area about equal to rageous imposition upon the taxpayers of the that of Missouri, Wisconsin, or North Dakota, United States. Here again Congress needs to and it would even then be a good deal smaller provide a way by which to protect the country than many other of the States. It would be against a vicious application of the log-rolling both absurd and scandalous to admit Oklahoma principle in a new direction. Of course, many with its present boundaries. It is true that Ariof the items in the river and harbor bill, and zona and New Mexico have large areas, but many of those in the omnibus buildings bill as most of their land is mountainous or desert well, were meritorious.

waste ; and even if united into one State, their

territory would be considerably smaller than that Another "omnibus" bill, though on of Texas. The Republican members of the Sen. An "Omnibus " State- a more limited scale, is that which ate Committee on Territories, -of which Mr. Bev.

proposes the immediate admission of eridge, of Indiana, is chairman,—voted last month Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Arizona as States not to consider the omnibus statehood bill at the



hood Bill.

present session, the Democratic members of the committee favoring immediate consideration. Senator Quay, of Pennsylvania, however, — for reasons which, correctly or incorrectly, have been assigned by the newspapers as personal and private rather than public, -undertook to take the subject out of the committee's hands and force action upon it. Although the Democrats regard themselves as normally stronger than their opponents in all three of the Territories in question, the parties have been so evenly divided in recent elections that the question of political advantage to either organization need not enter into the discussion.



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Although not widely understood in Irrigation Bill the East, the irrigation bill, as suc

cessfully carried through both Houses and signed by President Roosevelt on June 18, is one of the most far-reaching and fundamentally important measures enacted at Washington in recent years.

It required steady persistence and effort to formulate a general irrigation scheme, and then secure for it the approbation of Congress. But this sort of union of effort on the part of many localities is upon a very different plane from that

(Member of the House Committee on Irrigation of Arid which results in river and harbor bills or omnibus

Lands.) building raids on the Treasury. Mr. Newlands, of Nevada, one of its most prominent advocates, restraining the anarchists. Various bills relating predicts that under the provisions of this bill at to that topic were held in reserve by the Judileast $150,000,000 of the proceeds of the public ciary Committee, where they have slumbered lands will be available in the next thirty years ever since. The House, on June 9, passed a for irrigation works without further appropria. substitute for the Senate's bill to protect the tion. This measure will, of course, in the long President, and in the same measure added cerrun, greatly increase the prosperity and add to tain sections that will have considerable interest the population of the arid regions of the West. for our anarchist brethren. It is likely that be. Under the system provided, the receipts from fore the session ends the two Houses will have the sale of United States Government lands, come together on some measure. Both Senate amounting lately to an average of about $3,000,- and House have voted to make the intentional 000 a year, will be used to provide works for the killing of the President or Vice-President, or any irrigation of lands which, in turn, will be sold officer entitled by law to succeed to the Presi. at an enhanced price, and the proceeds added dency, punishable by death. To attempt to kill to the irrigation fund. It is believed that the President or any of these officials, or to on this plan the fund will gradually swell and threaten to do so, or to advise or counsel any. make financially possible increasingly large proj. body else to do so, is made punishable by a term ects for the watering and reclamation of desert of imprisonment in both bills. The House bill lands. It is a fascinating idea.

extends similar protection to foreign ambassadors

or ministers accredited to this country. The SenThe general sentiment in favor of ate bill provides for the punishment of those who Against Assassins and measures against the anarchists, and conspire against the sovereign of a foreign coun. Anarchists.

for the better protection of high offi- try, and the House bill deals separately with the cials, growing out of the assassination of Presi- same matter, but more specifically. The House dent McKinley, has not resulted in the stringent bill has sections which provide against the ad. enactments that were expected a few months ago. mission into the United States of any person who The Senate, in March, passed a bill the principal "is opposed to all organized government, or is a object of which was the better protection of the member of any organization entertaining or teachPresident, but at that time it declined to deal in ing such opposition." It also prohibits the nat. the same measure with the general question of uralization of anarchists, and gives the judges



authority to investigate before issuing naturaliza- gument to show that it would be profitable to the tion papers.

The exclusion of anarchist' immi. Government to construct the line, at an estimated grants is also specifically provided for in an im- cost of $10,000,000, and advantageous to the portant general immigration bill passed by the American Government and people in every way. House several weeks

ago. This measure under- Opposed to the governmental project were the takes to unify and consolidate all existing laws friends of Mr. John W. Mackey's Commercial on the subject of immigration, and makes a good Pacific Cable Company, which is proposing to nany changes of detail, especially with the view construct on its own account a line from San to a more efficient enforcement of such restric. Francisco to Manila by way of Hawaii and tions as already exist upon the entrance of unde- Guam. After a brief debate, the House voted, sirable persons. It is hardly probable that the on June 11, by 116 to 77, against the govern. immigration measure can be dealt with by the mental project. Senate in the present session.

Questions of Although this long session has seemed

Money, The resolution which passed the Banking, and to afford the best possible opportunity As to Electing House of Representatives so sweep:

for the completion and perfection of ingly in favor of election of United the gold standard and currency laws,

was voted States Senators by direct vote of the people of early in June, at a Republican conference, to the States, has been completely tied up in the postpone the subject until next December. More

, Senate Committee on Privileges and Elections, than a month ago the House passed a bill authorand will probably not come to a vote on the izing the Secretary of the Treasury to use the Senate floor either this year or next. In order silver bullion accumulated under the Sherman to prevent consideration on its merits, it was Purchase Act of 1890 in the minting of subsidi. amended by its real opponents in the committee ary coins. This, of course, involved the repeal in such a manner as to provide for the holding of that part of the former act which had required of Senatorial elections under Federal auspices, the bullion to be coined into standard dollars. and the regulation of her conditions as to the It is supposed that the Senate will concur in this qualifications of voters as well as the direct super

desirable measure. On June 17, the House, un. vision to insure a full and free vote. There is, der the leadership of Mr. Ray, chairman of the of course, no more reason why the election of Judiciary Committee, passed a series of imporSenators should be under Federal supervision tant amendments to the bankruptcy act, the rethan the election of Representatives in Congress, sult being, according to the prevailing opinion or of Presidential electors. The question is a of those best informed, a bankruptcy system very simple one indeed. The cumulative ex- more perfect, upon the whole, than that of any perience of recent years has convinced most of

other country. the people of the United States that it would be well to relieve the State Legislatures of the busi.

Important as the work of Congress ness of choosing United States Senators. If the

has been this season, the affairs of the people of the country had not been of this

great business worid have more than opinion, it is scarcely probable that the proposed divided attention with those of the world of resolution to amend the Constitution of the politics. First in the claim upon public attention United States would have passed the House of last month was the anthracite coal strike, with its Representatives by a practically unanimous vote. serious direct and incidental effects and its still The Senate should be willing to give the States more serious possibilities for the future. We a chance to show whether or not they would publish in this number an interesting descriptive ratify such a proposed constitutional amendment. article upon the anthracite mining industry, from


pen of Mrs. Rhone, of Wilkes Barre; a valuUnless Congress changes its mind able article on the anthracite coal-carrying rail. The Pacific Cable Ques- completely, -of which there is no roads, from Mr. Newcomb, editor of the Railway

sort of prospect, there will be no World; and a judicious discussion of the princi. government-owned Pacific cable line laid. The ples involved in the strike, from Dr. Talcott so-called Corliss bill came before the House with Williams, of the Philadelpinia Press. All atfair prospects, and in such a way as to test con- tempts to end the trouble through the conciliation clusively the opinion of that body on the question of the Civic Federation were unavailing. It of government as against private cable owner- gradually became apparent that the strike was ship. The route had been surveyed by the Gov. not so much one for increased wages or the abateernment at a cost of $200,000, and had been ment of specified grievances, as for full recogni. found feasible. Mr. Corliss made a strong ar. tion of the miners' union and the adoption in the

Coal Strike.


athracite regions of the wage-scale system. The the railroads to the mining, shipping, and marincipal operators, as represented by the heads of keting of coal is at the basis of the whole anthrale coal-carrying railroads, stuck steadily to their cite trouble. In the wild scramble, some years octrine that it is not feasible to regularize labor ago, for the acquisition of coal lands, and the cononditions in the hard-coal region. An easy re

trol of what were formerly independent coally, of course, is that, in spite of the different mining companies, fictitious prices were paid and

, onditions prevailing in different parts of the immense sums of money were invested upon false nthracite field, the capitalists themselves have economic principles. The existing combination ucceeded in forming a combination by which is for the purpose of making the public pay inhey have completely eliminated competition, with terest and dividends upon a huge volume of im. he result of regulating the total output and con- proper capitalization. But for this artificial rolling the market price. It is not necessary to situation, which--morally, if not technicallyussume that the wage scales demanded by the constitutes the most flagrant violation of the niners' union would mean uniformity where con- Sherman anti-trust law to be found in the whole ditions do not permit. It would seem scarcely It would seem scarcely country, the public could have cheap coal, the

, more difficult to provide different wage scales in miners could have fair wages, and the railroads the anthracite districts under the general sanction could charge a reasonable price for transportation. of the mine-workers' union, than to arrange the President Roosevelt, when called upon, early in different scales that exist under the same auspices June, to try to bring about a settlement of the in the various bituminous districts.

coal strike, showed that the law under which the

Pullman strike was investigated had subsequently In refusing so persistently to deal been repealed. But Col. Carroll D. Wright, as The Position of the Rail- with the miners the operators would head of the Department of Labor, made certain

seem to be challenging public opinion inquiries into the facts for the President's in forrather boldly. For these operators are, in effect, mation. The public would like to read his report. the railroads themselves. Contrary to established principles, and to the laws of most States and

Much inconvenience was caused, es

Substitutes countries, the roads have gone beyond their for pecially in New York, where hard legitimate functions as common carriers, and have

Anthracite. coal has been almost exclusively used, assumed monopolistic control of a necessary arti. by the shrinkage in the anthracite output. At cle of traffic and ordinary use. This relation of tention was naturally drawn to the question of


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