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corporations, thus destroying the chances of individual citizens, retarding the establishment of new enterprises, and placing the control of the markets in the keeping of the favored few, who, in turn, coerce the railroads into a continuance of these discriminations." Mr. Michelsen proposes that in the nationalization of the railroads the Government should not pay more than is warranted by the intrinsic value of the property, and the transfer would have to be effected with proper safeguards, similar to those under which several European governments have proceeded. It has been objected that one consequence of the purchase of the lines by the Government would be the great accumulation of wealth in a few hands, but to this objection Mr. Michelsen replies that the present system has a tendency to bring about precisely this result; and that, as the purchase of the railroads would probably be effected by means of bonds bearing a very low rate of interest,-redeemable after a reasonable length of time at the option of the Government,-the result would be that these securities would be employed as the bases for other investments for which the undeveloped resources of our country offer an unlimited field. The effect of the creation of a large office-holding class, dependent on the party in power, is not deemed by Mr. Michelsen to be ominous to the general welfare, since such a class already exists in the railway service, numerous attempts having been made at different times by the railway officials to control the vote of their employees, always without success.


Mr. J. D. Whelpley makes some startling assertions regarding the extent to which the food supply of Great Britain is in the control of the United States. He says: "If the United States were suddenly to stop all present regular exportations of meat and breadstuffs to the United Kingdom, the first effect would be an enormous rise in prices throughout Europe, and it would be but a few weeks before the English people would be threatened by dire famine, with no possible relief in sight so long as commercial relations with the United States were suspended." Mr. Whelpley then proceeds to offer a mathematical demonstration of the soundness of his assertions. Of the total importation of food staples by the United Kingdom, amounting to about $900,000,000 a year, the United States furnishes about $540,000,000, or 60 per cent. For meat alone the United States receives $160,000,000, and of the trade in breadstuffs about $150,000,000, or over 50 per cent. of the total.


Mr. Lincoln Springfield gives an interesting account of the bitter fight between the American and British tobacco trusts to control the trade of Great Britain. The Imperial Tobacco Company, Limited, has been started with a capital of £15,000,000 ($75,000,000) for the purposes of controlling the trade of Great Britain and Ireland. The president of the American Tobacco Company declared his intention of obtaining control of the entire tobacco trade of the United Kingdom. That declaration led to the formation of the Imperial Company, composed of thirteen of the best-known tobacco firms of England. The attempt of the American trust to capture the trade by cutting prices has thus far proved unsuccessful. Almost equally futile, it would appear, has been the extravagant expenditure for advertising purposes. The Imperial Company has estab

lished branches for the purchase of tobacco at Richmond, Va.; and hereafter its supplies will be obtained at first hand at the market price. It is also rumored that the Imperial Company may carry the war into the United States and establish factories here.


An instructive paper by Prof. Cleveland Abbe, devoted to "Meteorology and the Position of Science in America," brings out many interesting facts regarding the work in this department of science done by American investigators. Professor Abbe declares that in this line of research American work is worthy of the highest praise, and has stimulated similar work in Europe. "As regards organization and practical results, the United States Weather Bureau, under Prof. Willis L. Moore, is doing the greatest and best work that has ever been done in any applied science; in its way, this bureau is equal to the Pasteur Institute or anything else that Europe has to show. No European would deny that, in this respect, America is easily the first in the world."


Lady Jeune writes on "The New Influence on the British Throne;" M. Gaston Deschamps on "America and France;" New York Health Commissioner Lederle on "Municipal Suppression of Infection and Contagion;" Gustav Kobbé on "Richard Strauss and His Music;" and Dr. Adolph Wagner, of Berlin University, on "Public Debt of the German Empire." The articles on "The Nature of Volcanoes," by Prof. N. S. Shaler, and "Strikes in the United States," by Commissioner Car roll D. Wright, have been quoted from in our department of "Leading Articles of the Month."



HE June number of the Forum is the last issue of that periodical as a monthly. Beginning with the July number, this review will be published quarterly. Its general character will remain the same. The June number opens with a discussion by Prof. Felix Adler of two questions connected with the American campaign in the Philippines: (1) Is it treason to condemn a war waged by our country while the war is still in progress? and, (2) Are civilized nations justified in adopting uncivilized methods of warfare? To the first question Professor Adler replies that it is not treason to condemn a war even while it is still in progress, if that war is sincerely believed to be unjust, and if by so doing there is hope to believe that we can prevent our country from continuing a wrong. The second question Professor Adler answers with an unqualified negative.

OUR GROWING DEPENDENCE UPON THE TROPICS. Mr. O. P. Austin, chief of the Bureau of Statistics, shows that the chief growth of American imports in recent years has been in tropical and sub-tropical products. Within a short time, it seems probable that a considerable proportion of this trade may be carried on with our own tropical possessions. The Philippines, even in their present condition, supplied in 1901 more than twice the amount of tropical products furnished in 1899. The Hawaiian Islands contribute to our tropical requirements more than twenty-five times as much as they did in 1876, and they take more than twenty times as much of our products as they did theu.


A PROTECTORATE FORM OF GOVERNMENT. In a discussion of "Representation and Colonial Government," Prof. Paul S. Reinsch describes and criticises the various methods adopted by European nations in the administration of their colonial dependencies, and reaches the conclusion that some form of protectorate "The essential is generally the most successful. thought in dealing with native societies should be that they must be on no account deprived of their morale and of their feeling of responsibility for their own destiny. Any government that attempts to begin their regeneration by setting aside their time-honored customs and degrading their natural leaders is, as has well been said, guilty of a murderous assault not merely upon an individual but upon a society, an organism with an even intenser life and higher destinies."



After a Prof. S. J. McLean, of the Stanford University, writes on "Railway Rate Regulation in Canada.” special investigation as a commissioner of the Dominion Government, Professor McLean has found that many non-competitive rates are excessive in Canada as compared with competitive rates. Rates have been changed suddenly, and without notice. While this action has been within the provisions of the law, it has at the same time constituted a grievance. Rates on American shipments into Canada have been so arranged as to offset the geographical advantages of Canadian producers. Rates on short-distance traffic have been so high that commodities have been moved by wagon. commodities there has been extreme disproportion between the car-lot and less than car-lot rates.


On many

Prof. S. B. Orth points out many anomalies in the charters under which Ohio cities are governed. For example, the city of Youngstown is provided with a mayor whose duty it is to hold police court, and who has no executive power whatever, not even the veto, except that he aids in appointing certain officials; a council, elected, whose duties are legislative; and a "bi-partisan" board of commissioners, composed of four men appointed by the mayor and the probate judge of the county. These commissioners must belong to the two political parties polling the highest votes in the city, and there must be two from each party. They have full administrative charge of the city, are responsible to no man, and can be only partially curbed by the council. Professor Orth seems justified in describing this as the most anomalous municipal law ever enacted.


Dr. T. Iyenaga, who contributed to the April number
of the REVIEW OF REVIEWS an article on the Anglo-
Japanese alliance, writes in the June Forum on "Japan's
Mission in the Far East." Contrary to the assumption
that this mission is mainly military and antagonistic to
Russia, Dr. Iyenaga affirms that it is that of a mediator
between the forces of the East and the West. Between
the two opposed cultures of China and the Western
nations, Dr. Iyenaga holds that it is Japan's mission to
"She has studied both, and
act as an "honest broker."
knows both. Cannot China approach the Western civ-
ilization more easily through Japan than by herself or
by being coerced by the Westerners? Cannot the West
learn of China better and more easily through the inter-

pretation of Japan than by knocking its head against
the inscrutable ?"


Mr. Charles Ely Adams writes on "The Real Hobo : What He Is and How He Lives;" Prof W. J. Shearer on "Faulty Grading in Our Public Schools;" President Burke, of the San Francisco State Normal School, on "The Old Education and the New;" Prof. Moritz Levi on "Victor Hugo, the Novelist," and Dr. Henry O. Dwight, in a paper entitled "Among the Constantinople Bookshops," gives an account of the present literary tendencies in Turkey. We have quoted in another department from Mr. Albert G. Robinson's paper on "Our Legacy to the Cuban Republic."



N the Arena for June the imperial dreams of Cecil Rhodes are discussed by two writers-Reginald de Quinton, who describes himself an "an intimate business associate" of Rhodes, and Dr. Felix Oswald. Both writers recognize the valuation that Rhodes placed on material wealth, not as an end in itself, but merely as a means to the achievement of the loftiest purposes. Reginald de Quinton says that democratic federation Dr. Oswald calls him a was the ideal of his life. modern Cortez. patience.

The quality that he lacked was

"He was worn out by the same impatience and vehemence of resentment that had killed Herman Cortez, and distracted and killed Suwaroff, Bonaparte, Byron, Skobeleff, and Charles Parnell. And it must be admitted that the predominance of the characteristics that constitute the power of such men almost precludes the development of the gifts that insure the rewards of the cautious plotter. Energy such as theirs may be incompatible with patience. Their combination would imply temporary omnipotence, and is at least rare enough to explain the fact that a mission of destruction is apt to recoil upon the destroyer."

THE BANISHMENT OF THE MODERN HERETIC. The Rev. Robert E. Bisbee reviews the case of Prof. Charles W. Pearson, who resigned his chair in the Northwestern University, a Methodist institution, after expressing views which were condemned by some of the influential Church journals as heretical. The situation is thus described by Mr. Bisbee :

"A man may enter the Church in his youth with all sincerity, accept its doctrines on what seems to him an overwhelming weight of authority, may put all the strength of a mighty purpose into his work, and add thousands to the fold; but if, in the course of time, in the maturity of his powers, he comes to look at things in a new light, is forced by his convictions to discard some things he once held sacred and even essential, he must either repress his thoughts, hide his light, or get This is the cruelty of it. This is the echo of the Inquisition."



The Rev. James H. Ecob, D.D., writes enthusiastically of the progress of modern Russia under the agitations of Tolstoy and the literary school. Russia's last century, he says, has been an apocalypse:

"A recognized literature of masterful force and artistic grace; an intolerant religious system, honey

combed by the inroads of freethought; a new educa. tion; a new social spirit; an unparalleled advance in internal improvements; a reformed judiciary with attendant reforms in legal procedure and punishments; the rigors of militarism humanized; the concessions of autocracy to practical constitutionalism; the emancipation proclamation; the peace manifesto! What a century! Compared with the endless debates and forensic reforms and pamphlet victories of Europe and Europeanized America, Russia's day is as our thousand years."


The Hon. Samuel C. Parks writes on "Causes of the Philippine War;" Dr. Charles Rollin Keyes on "The Physical Basis of History;" Mr. C. W. Penrose on "The Plural Marriage Problem;" Mr. B. O. Flower on "A Bit of Old Mexico;" and Mr. William Bailie on "The Ancient Working People." Mr. Elliott Flower quotes statements from several business men going to show that women are themselves to blame for failures to achieve marked success in the world of business.


HE leading article in Gunton's for June is an

paper by Sixto Lopez, formerly a

representative of Aguinaldo's government, entitled, "Do the Filipinos Desire American Rule?" This writer admits that it may be possible, by force of overwhelming numbers and superior equipment, ultimately to reduce the Filipinos to submission. But why, he asks, should all this be necessary, when the end can be attained by other and more humane means, and without crushing a laudable aspiration for national liberty, which America, of all nations, ought to encourage! A promise of ultimate independence, says Mr. Lopez, or even an intimation that such is the policy of the Administration, would remove not only all cause for a continuance of armed conflict, but all the sorrow of heart and bitterness of spirit on the part of the weaker contestant. "Under such a promise the Filipinos would willing yield everything America is now demanding, or can in righteousness demand, and there would be additional mutual advantages. The Filipinos would learn of everything that is good in the institutions of America,-in its religion, its morality, its wisdom, and its law; while America would have a wider market for its products, a new field for commercial enterprises, and a basis of trade and military operations in the far East."


In an article on "Anomalies of Danish Politics," Mr. Harold C. Peterson explains why the Landsthing is opposed to the transfer of the Danish West Indies, while the Folkething has favored it. The reasons for this apparent political anomaly are as follows: the Folkething, being elected by popular suffrage, is radical; while the Landsthing, aristocratic in composition, is naturally conservative. The Folkething is elected by citizens twenty five years of age, and is composed of members elected for two years, representing each 16,000 inhabitants. The Landsthing, on the other hand, is composed of sixty-six members, twelve of whom are nominated by the King, while the rest are elected for a period of seven years by electors who enjoy the income of a professional man in good standing, or who pay a certain amount of taxes; so that, according to Mr.

Peterson, the mass of citizens have even less control over the Landsthing than the American voter has over the United States Senate. As to the general attitude of the Danish Goverment toward the transfer of the isl ands to the United States, Mr. Peterson says: "The West Indian question may properly be styled the Sindbad of present Danish politics. Even in the ranks of the radicals there is some discussion as to the advisability of the transfer, and it is known that the cabinet is also divided on the subject, the prime minister and four of his confrères being opposed to it. Nevertheless, they are sworn to carry it through, for the sale was one of the planks by which the left got to power."


In an article on "The Development of the Coal Industry," Mr. William Gilbert Irwin says: "The aggregate value of the coal marketed in this country last year exceeded $300,000,000 at the mines, and the sum total of the capital invested in the industry is almost beyond computation. Making due allowance for barren areas, the some 200,000 square miles embraced in the coal fields of the country are capable of producing 1,000,000,000,000 tons of coal. Had the operations in these fields been conducted on the same scale during the past six thousand years these fields would still be undepleted. Thus we get some idea of those vast mineral fuel resources which are destined to perpetuate the industrial supremacy of the country."


HE opening article of the International Monthly

trasts two kinds of imperialism,-the Latin and the Teutonic. The first, characteristic of the Latin race, was military aud aristocratic; while the second, characteristic of the Teutonic race, is economic and capitalist. According to Professor Sighele, the ancient imperialism personified in the military conqueror, having the soldier as its only means of victory, and taxation as its only object, has been succeeded by the modern imperialism, impersonated in the successful trader. "Its best troops, those that have gained the greatest victories, do not consist of armed men, but of artisans, agriculturists, manufacturers, and engineers; its weapons of war do not carry sterility and death, but serve to perfect and to increase agriculture and industry, and are called railways, roads. electric ploughs, etc." While this imperialism, like the ancient form, seeks gain from the countries it subdues, it gains without impoverishing; instead of making the land a desert, as did the ancient imperialism, it improves and fertilizes it, often discovering natural wealth previously unsuspected.


Mr. Henry Rutgers Marshall predicts that war will eventually become as perfunctory as dueling in our day has for the most part become. As the rules of procedure, which enabled the "seconds" at times to prevent mortal combat, so, says Mr. Marshall, the complex rules of diplomacy in our day serve to delay, and, at times, to prevent, international wars. Whereas, in former times war was carried on for destruction and rapine, it has now advanced to a stage where it is waged merely that one of the combatants may obtain acknowledgement of superiority, just as duelists nowadays fight only for acknowledgment of defeat, not, as

formerly, to cause the disablement or death of the antagonist.


In an article on "Anti-Semitism in Europe," Rabbi Gottheil, of New York, dwells on the virtue of temperance which characterizes the Jews wherever they are placed, and makes them an object of envy to their nonJewish neighbors. The Jew's home, says Rabbi Gottheil, is not in the church, but rather the church is in the home. The Jew's salvation is in no wise dependent upon rabbi and synagogue, but upon wife and children. The deepest roots of the Jewish faith rest on domestic soil. No man becomes a drunkard with wife, and children, and aged parents near him for guardian angels. The Jew, says Rabbi Gottheil, is a natural ally of the temperance advocates,--and if he is not in their ranks, it is simply because he never knew from experience the need of that reformation.


In concluding his sketch of "The Social Life of Ants," Prof. August Forel says:

"Compared to the manners of other sociable animals, and especially to those of man, the manners of ants exhibit a profound and fundamental aggregation of facts of convergence, due to their social life. Let me mention devotion, the instinctive sentiment of duty, slavery, torture, war, alliances, the raising of cattle, gardening, harvesting, and even social degenerescence through the attraction of certain harmful means of enjoyment. It would be ridiculous and erroneous to see in the fulfillment of this series of acts, individual reasoning, the result of calculated reflection, analogous to ours. The fact that each is fixed and circumscribed within one species, as well as the fatalistic character it has in that species, prove this superabundantly. But it would be as grave a mistake to refuse to recognize the deep natural laws that are concealed under this convergence. Is the case different as regards our actions though they are infinitely more plastic and more complex individually? I do not believe it.

THE SHIPPING TRUST AND THE WORLD'S PEACE. Mr. Joseph B. Bishop, writing on "The International Shipping Trust," argues that the more closely the nations of the world are brought together in business interests and enterprises, the more firmly will they stand against war, or against anything that will disturb or injure their common welfare. "With the leading nations of the earth united in the ownership of a fleet of commerce, the need of naval armaments for the protection of the commerce of each nation will be eliminated."


Prof. Charles Diehl writes on "The Byzantine Empire and the Crusades;" Mr. Frank Miles Day on "The Formal Garden and its Revival," and Miss Ethel D. Puffer on "The Ideal of Beauty."


HE Fortnightly Review for June is a good and

African matters, which has resulted from the peace negotiations, is indicated by three articles dealing with South African affairs. We have dealt with these elsewhere. The first six pages are allotted to a not very

remarkable Coronation Ode by Mr. James Rhoades, and the number ends with Mr. W. L. Courtney's "Undine."


There is a brightly written paper under this title by Mrs. John Lane. Mrs. Lane is severe on the subject of English houses and housekeeping, and she finds the belief that it is cheaper to live in England than in America a delusion. The English coinage, by its divisions and subdivisions, conduces to waste; English houses, considering their inferiority, are dear; and in England the expense of service is greater, more servants being required to do the same amount of work. Mrs. Lane declares that English furniture is dearer and in worse taste than American, and that most articles of food are dearer in England.

"How I wish I could clap a big, stolid, conservative, frost-bitten English matron into a snug American house, with a furnace, and heaps of closet (cupboard) room, and all sorts of bells and lifts and telephones, and then force her to tell me the absolute, unvarnished truth! What would she say? I know!"


"D" has a paper on "Social Life in Spain,”—a very interesting paper, dealing largely with the position of women in the peninsula. His verdict is a mixture of condemnation and approval. The subjection of women exists everywhere in Spain, but it is accompanied by many advantages.

"No other country in Europe can offer such a striking example of the solidarity of relationship, and in none other is the love of hearth and home so marked. The devotion in all classes between father and son, husband and wife, brother and sister, are among the finest traits of the popular character, and recall a time when, prior to the disintegrating process of civilization, blood was, in the best sense of the word, thicker than water."

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low, their ideas of morality are small, and their speech full of expletives and obscenities. The Agricultural Gangs act of 1898 does not operate against this state of things, as there is no appointed inspector. The character of the gang-mistress is not always satisfactory, and Mrs. Tanqueray argues that an inspector should be empowered to see to this. Work in the fields is apparently not good even for the health of girls, as Mrs. Tanqueray says that the majority of the girls are physically weak and seldom healthy-looking. Colonel Pedder, in another paper, deals with the disintegration of country life, and foreshadows the time when farming will be carried on by great syndicates.


This is the title of one of Mr. Holt Schooling's statistical articles. It appears that while all other crimes have fallen in number within recent years, the various offences which come under the general title of "fraud” have largely increased. In 1885-89 there were in England and Wales 85,024 crimes reported to the police, and in 1895-99 the number of crimes had fallen to 76,860; but whereas the number of frauds reported in the first period was only 1,879, in the second it had risen to 2,599. While crime decreased nearly 10 per cent., frauds increased 38 per cent. Per million inhabitants the number of frauds had increased from 67 to 84. Mr. Schooling regards this as a very undesirable phenomenon, for whereas crimes generally usually inflict injury upon only one person, frauds very often injure or ruin thousands. Another serious phenomenon is, that while the number of frauds increased the percentage of persons tried for frauds diminished. In 1885-89, 54 persons were brought to trial for every 100 frauds committed, while in 1895-99 only 38 persons were brought to trial for every 100 frauds.


HE Nineteenth Century for June is largely devoted to economic problems. The papers on the shipping combine are dealt with elsewhere.



The most important of the other papers is Mr. Sidney Webb's, on London University. It is a long and elaborate article:

"What London University wants is a British 'Charlottenburg,'-an extensive and fully equipped institute of technology, with special departments for such branches as mining and metallurgy, naval architecture and marine engineering, railway engineering and hydraulics, electric traction and power-transmission, electro-chemistry, optics, the various branches of chemical technology, and all possible applications of biology. Such an institution, which could be begun on any scale on the land lying vacant at South Kensington, should admit only graduate students, or others adequately qualified, and should lay itself out from the first to be a place of research in which there would be no teaching, in the ordinary sense, but only opportunities for learning,-for every sort of investigation, carried out by professors and advanced students, individually and in coöperation."

Such an institute would cost £500,000 ($2,500,000) to build. Mr. Webb adds that £250,000 ($1,250,000) more would be needed for building and equipping a school of preliminary medical science; £250,000 more for the

extension and reëquipment of University College, and £30,000 or £40,000 a year for a great school of languages.


Mr. Archibald Little has an interesting article on the drama in China. The stage in China, he says, is almost exactly identical with the English stage in Shakespeare's time. There is a total absence of scenery. A motto adorns the rear of almost every stage in China with the words "We hold the mirror up to Nature." Actors are apprenticed as children, and many learn their parts without books. A mark of attention to a distinguished visitor is to hand him the repertoire and ask him to choose a play out of some hundred in the list, and Mr. Little says that he has often selected an unpopular and seldom-performed play and never found the test too much for them. Rough indications of scenery are given in a primitive way. Cavalry are indicated by a whip held in the hand, and when dismounting or attempting to ride off they go through the action of bestriding a horse. Women are forbidden on the stage; and actors, with barbers, are the only de graded caste in China, their children being inadmissible to the official examinations. The Chinese theater is always educative and moral; the dénouement is always the triumph of virtue.


Mr. Demetrius Boulger writes on this subject. He gives an account of the proposed union of Holland with Great Britain, which nearly came off, owing to Dutch fear of Prussian designs. Bismarck had been making speeches about Prussia's need of ports; and it was said that he had prepared an ultimatum calling on Holland to come into the North German Confederation. Holland, having failed to propitiate France by the sale of Luxembourg, turned to England as champion against Prussia. King William of Holland had then no likely heir, he had no thought of marrying a second time, and his sons were dead or dying. The negotiations for the union were carried on by secret channels; and Mr. Boulger says that one of the points discussed was Dutch representation in the Imperial Parliament. Mr. Boulger has no information as to why these secret negotiations broke down.


Capt. L. Oppenheim describes the fight with the Boers at Roival. Mr. W. L. Clowes deals with the career of Admiral Edward Vernon, who was dismissed from the navy in the eighteenth century for insubordination. Sir Joshua Fitch deals with the education bill.

Mr. Herbert Paul has a paper on George Eliot, written in his usual charming and penetrating way. Mr. Paul does not agree with Mr. Leslie Stephen, that George Eliot could not portray male character. In the end of his article he compares George Eliot with Tolstoy. "Resurrection," in its breadth and humanity, in the depth of its feeling, in the vividness of its satire, and in the width of its charity, reminds Mr. Paul of George Eliot at her best, the George Eliot of "Middlemarch."


HE June number strenuously maintains the antipolicy of the National Review. The editor warns his readers against the German astuteness which would employ the Morganeering shipping deal to set Britain against the United States. "Ignotus" be

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