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This would leave a deficit of $14,500 to be As the standard of "a small college with a
made up by annual gifts until the endowment full classical course and adequate provision for a
fund can be very materially increased. reasonable amount of instruction in modern lan
matter of fact, scores of institutions having inguages and natural science,” Professor Hender
ferior resources to those outlined above are now son gives the following estimates :
conferring college degrees in this country, but
the tenor of Professor Henderson's article goes Faculty.
Medium cost. Psychology, philosophy, ethics--one professor. $2,500
to show that they do not and cannot meet modern History and sociology-one professor,
1,800 requirements. Economics and politics-one professor.
1,800 Greek--one professor....
1,800 Greek-two assistants at $900 each
A CENTURY'S LOSS IN GAMBLING. Latin-one professor
1,800 Latin-two assistants at $900 each..
ONEY Lost by Gambling" is the title English--one professor .
of a paper by Mr. W. Greenwood in English-two assistants at $900 each.
the Sunday Strand. It resumes the tragedy of French-one instructor.
1,000 German--one instructor...
the turf as enacted in the lives of plungers like Mathematics, chemistry, and physics-one professor. 1,800 the notorious Marquis of Hastings, who lost the Mathematics, chemistry, and physics--two assistants
weight of two race horses in gold in a single race, at $900 each.
1,800 Biology, zoólogy, botany-two instructors.
but builds chiefly on the estimate given in the Music one instructor..
1,000 following paragraph : Drawing-one instructor..
" It is, for obvious reasons, impossible to arPedagogics must now be provided for- one professor. 1,800 Elocution-one instructor..
rive at the exact amount of money squandered in
1,000 Physical culture-one instructor.
betting every year ; but not long before his
$31,000 death, it was stated on the authority of Mr. Mul. These estimates call for a faculty of eight hall, the most famous of latter-day statisticians, professors and sixteen instructors or assistants,
that during the last hundred years no less a sum twenty-four teachers in all. It is assumed that
than £3,000,000,000 ($15,000,000,000) had
been won and lost on the turf and at the card. not more than twenty-five students shall be taught in one class. A smaller number of
table ; and there are many well-qualified judges leachers, it is believed, cannot do the work
who would say that this is rather an underestithoroughly, and lower salaries would probably
mate than an exaggeration." result in the loss of the best teachers.
This total is estimated to equal in weight
66,000 race horses. It would, if portioned out EQUIPMENT.
among the British army in South Africa, give Professor Henderson estimates the cost of each soldier a load of 2 cwt. of gold. It would equipping a college with apparatus for instruc. require ten strong locomotives to pull it. "A tion in the elements of chemistry, physics, and century's betting money would form a rectanguthe biological sciences as follows :
lar column of sovereigns ten feet square, and Chemical laboratory.
more than twice as high as St. Paul's Cathedral."
$5,000 Physical laboratory.....
Invested, the sum would have yielded £90,000,Biology, including botany and zoology. $5,000 to 9,000 000 ($450,000,000) a year. The calculations A good library, selected and purchased (not a collec- and illustrations are ingenious and suggestive. tion of patent-office reports, etc.), at least...
40,000 The annual additions should be at least..
1,000 These estimates do not include cost of buildings.
THE DEADLY AUTOMOBILE. The annual budget of such an institution RECENT fatal_accidents, Trif such they may would be approximately as follows:
from the Cost of instruction......
of automobiles in the vicinity of New York City, Cost of library.......
1,000 have drawn public attention to this new peril, Cost of repairs and improvements
and may serve to crystallize public sentiment Cost of additions to apparatus...
1,000 Cost of care of buildings and grounds.
into a demand for the more rigid enforcement of Cost of insurance ....
existing laws, if not for the enactment of new Cost of financial administration..
measures that will more effectually safeguard the Total annual disbursements....
$37,500 lives of pedestrians and others who venture on
the public highways. endowment, $300,000, at 4 per cent.
DANGERS OF UNRESTRICTED AUTO-DRIVING. From tuition fees of 200 students, at $50 per year...... 10,000 From other fees, 200 students at $5 per year.
1,000 Some of the dangers that follow in the wake Total annual income....
$3,000 of the recklessly driven “autos” on many city
THE EMANCIPATION OF SCIENCE FROM
streets and suburban roads are hinted at in an
LIFE AND DEATH. article on "Vexations of City Pedestrians, contributed by Mr. Louis Windmüller to the IT is difficult to imagine an article on the tre
mendous problems of life and death in an spring number of Municipal Affairs :
English or American review, but the French are " Ordinances which restrict their speed to extremely fond of such articles. M. Dastre's eight miles an hour in cities are seldom heeded. The most flagrant violations rarely are punished
paper in the first May number of the Revue des
Deux Mondes is a good example of its type. He with adequate severity. Gliding noiselessly and
begins by denying flatly that science has thrown swiftly over smooth pavements, these vehicles
any real light on the mysteries of life and death, are apt to run down the unfortunate who may while philosophy offers us merely hypotheses, cross their paths. In turning corners they sel.
the old ones,—thirty years, a hundred years, and dom reduce speed to the rate ordained by law.
and even two thousand years old. In biology, Frequently they collide before they can signal
to return to science,—there are three main sys. their approach. The cyclist on such occasions
tems by which it is attempted to explain the is apt to suffer with the pedestrian, and conse
vital phenomena, --in fact, the various bioloquently is more careful than the chauffeur, who
gists may be divided into animists, vitalists, and relies on the superior strength of his vehicle.
unicists. Of horseless carriages driven at reckless speed, the greater number circulate in suburbs of French
"THEORY." cities. The driver of one who had made a run
Of course, it must not be supposed that science of some hundred kilometers an hour in a race
has made no progress.
The neo-animists of to. near Paris, when recently called upon to explain day have traveled some distance from Aristotle, some accidents laid to his charge, could remem.
St. Thomas, or Stahl ; so, too, Darwin and ber the jolting of his wheels, . but had no time
Haeckel have developed the modified ideas of to stop for investigation !' The impudence of
Descartes. In M. Dastre's opinion, the most autoists made the London police desperate until
striking change has been that theories have they discovered an old ordinance which limited
ceased to tyrannize over scientific research. At the speed of vehicles in city streets to three miles
the beginning of the nineteenth century the an hour. Every one had to be announced by a
science of vital phenomena had not progressed footman swinging a flag a hundred feet ahead.
in the same manner as the other natural sciences, When customary British conscientiousness en
but remained to a large extent wrapt in the forced this rule, the automobiles disappeared.
scholastic fog Vital force was regarded as a EFFECT OF REDUCED PRICES.
capricious thing, which acted arbitrarily in a
healthy body, and still more arbitrarily in a sick " While they remain expensive, the use of these vehicles is naturally confined to the few who can indulge in the luxury. But a widely
. felt popular demand for them, stimulated by the Then came the revolution which separated the desire to go with little effort as fast as possible, sphere of experimental science from that of will increase production and improve quality. philosophical interpretation. As M. Dastre says, Increasing sales will reduce cost, until a fair Ludwig and Claude Bernard drove out of the mobile may be had for the price of a good cycle. domain of experimental science these three chiWhen their use becomes universal they will be meras, -vital force, the final cause, and the caprice more dangerous than trolleys, which are confined of living nature. Physiology found its limits in to their tracks. Notwithstanding innumerable a perception that the living being is not merely laws to prevent them, casualties are of daily oc. an organism completely constituted, such as a currence ; it will be difficult to restrain autos clock, for example, but it is a piece of machinery from killing pedestrians, from destroying the which constructs itself and perpetuates itself, and slower vehicles, and from injuring each other is thus distinguished from anything of the kinu when thousands race at the rate of forty miles an in inanimate nature. The true field of physiol. hour over the common highways. They should ogy was thus found to be the study of those then be restricted to inclosed roads of their own, phenomena by which the organism constructs as locomotives very properly are.'
and perpetuates itself.
TRUE FIELD OF PHYSIOLOGY.
THE PERIODICALS REVIEWED.
HARPER'S MAGAZINE. "ROM Harper's Magazine for July we have selected
Prof. Simon Newcomb's account of “What the Astronomers Are Doing,” and Mr. Overton W. Price's explanation of the national government's coöperation with private forest owners, for quotation in the “Leading Articles of the Month."
A pleasant feature for bookish folks is Mr. Edmund Gosse's article on · Elizabethan Dedications of Books." At the close of the sixteenth century a book, or even a pamphlet, without a dedication excited suspicion that there was something disreputable in it. “The usual mode was to find some man of high social position, if possible a lord, who would accept the dedication as a gift. It has been too much taken for granted that the patron was expected, if he accepted the book, to make an immediate present of money to the author. I have come to the conclusion that, although no doubt this was sometimes done, it was not the custom in the Elizabethan age, as it became later in that of Anne.”
Benjamin H. Ridgely has a delicious travel sketch in pictures and text in “Summer Life in Andalusia.” Prof. George E. Woodberry, of Columbia College, contributes an essay on “Beginnings of American Literature,” in which he places the first appearance of an American spirit, indigenous and of the soil, in folkliterature such as “The Song of Braddock's Men," the ballad of “Nathan Hale,” and “Yankee Doodle," our first name distinctly literary being that of Philip Freneau. Vance Thompson has a capital sketch of "Falconry of To-day ;” A. J. Grout describes “Some Vegetable Air-ships," and George L. Kittredge writes of “Ways of Words in English Speech.”
engagement with the mosquito pests at this place have already had pronounced and satisfactory results.
FRANCIS WILSON ON EUGENE FIELD. There is a very pleasant reminiscent article on Eugene Field and his humor by his warm friend, Francis Wilson, the actor. Mr. Wilson says that “Field loved all things that were beautiful. He had a wonderful tenderness toward childhood and motherhood. He detested sham and pretense. He lost no opportunity to assail these vices. His feeling for sweetness and truth is shown in many of his writings, but is best seen in ‘his exquisitely written short stories, such as “The First Christmas Tree.'”
LORD SALISBURY AS A SCIENTIST. Mr. Julian Ralph contributes a character sketch of the Marquis of Salisbury, and gives a picture of the private life of the premier. Lord Salisbury's recreations have been found in books and scientific purposes. He has been an omnivorous reader of all that is best in the old and the new literature of the times, and there has seemed to those who both shared his tastes and enjoyed his society nothing of note or moment that he has not read. “Still pleasanter to him are the hours he spends in his laboratory, which is said to be unsurpassed in completeness and modernness by any private laboratory in England. From his youth he has had a bent for this work, and in physics especially he has attained such knowledge as to be sought, for counsel and discussion, by some of the greatest minds in that field. It is even said of him that if he had not been a great statesman he would have made a greater scientist.”
There is a timely article on “The Volcano Systems of the Western Hemisphere,” by Robert T. Hill, a further installment of Mr. Ray Stannard Baker's valuable papers on “The Great Southwest,” and a number of short stories, among them one by the late Paul Leicester Ford.
THE CENTURY MAGAZINE.
well-varied number, takes up as a matter of seasonable interest “A Campaign Against the Mosquito." Dr. L. 0. Howard, of the Department of Agriculture, says, to show what an interest is taken in the subject of mosquito extermination throughout the country, that during the past year he has received thousands of letters, most of them inquiring about methods for relieving individual houses, neighborhoods, and communities from the pests. Several towns in New Jersey are beginning to take scientific measures, and are doing some drainage work on a large scale. A city appropriation in Baltimore is about to be made for such work, and two physicians are making a mosquito topographic survey of the suburbs of that city. New Orleans, Nashville, Rome, Ga., Talladega, Ala., Winchester and Norfolk, Va., and a number of other places in all sections of the country either have plans under consideration, or are already beginning work. Mr. H. C. Weeks follows Dr. Howard in a detailed account of the extensive operations at Oyster Bay, L. I., undertaken by the North Shore Improvement Association of Long Island. The work there consists of the employment of drainage and petroleum. In using petroleum it is not necessary to consider the depth of a stagnant pond, as the film of of oil on the surface does the work. The preliminary
THE COSMOPOLITAN. N the July Cosmopolitan, D. A. Willey describes a
new social institution, “The Trolley Park.” The street and suburban railway companies, realizing the profit arising from appealing to the pleasure of the people, have begun to establish parks not only for the cities, but for clusters of small communities on the trolley system. From the few acres of grove with some rough benches and a shed o so for protection from the weather, these pleasure grounds have been developed into resorts even more attractive than the public parks of the city. On a holiday one may see more than fifty thousand people gathered in some of the more extensive trolley parks owned by companies in Philadelphia, Detroit, Minneapolis, Baltimore, and other centers of population, listening to the band concerts, watching or taking part in ball games, boating on the lake or river, strolling along the shady walks, having a family picnic under the trees, or enjoying the summer opera. Except for the nickel, dime, or quarter which admits to the concert, rents the boat, or provides some other special amusement the park is free to all, the company obtaining its profit in the fares which it collects.
The Cosmopolitan continues its series of brief character sketches of American “Captains of Industry” with articles on Charles M. Schwab, D. O. Mills, Charles Frohman, Andrew Carnegie, and John A. McCall.
MR. SCHWAB AS A SOCIALIST.
Mr. Samuel E. Moffett, writing on Mr. Schwab, thinks that the president of the United States Steel Corporation represents the highest development of the salaried employee, and that the real value of his career is in the light it throws upon the possibilities open to those vast wage-earning masses of which Mr. Schwab has chosen to remain a member. He calls the president of the Steel Trust a socialist in disguise, because of his theory of managing labor by making it a partner in the business that employs it. “A hard overseer,” says Mr. Moffett, "may make his men afraid to shirk-Mr. Schwab has learned the nobler and more profitable art of encouraging every man to do his best.”
INSURANCE AND POLITICS.
Mr. Charles S. Gleed, in his article on Colonel McCall, the president of the New York Life Insurance Company, calls attention to the connections of the insurance business with politics, both State and national. “To how many would it occur that a statute in Kansas governing railway cattle-guards had anything to do with the value of a policy in a New York insurance company held in Maine? But the connection is direct. If the new law costs a Kansas railroad a good deal of money, and if the insurance company holds the securities of that railroad, the value of the policy held in Maine is more or less affected. The enactment of an insurance-commissioner law in California or Minnesota or Texas has a very direct effect upon the policies of the companies doing business in that State. If the effect of legislation in Washington is to depreciate the value of government bonds, then every insurance company is harmed by such legislation.” Such considerations suggest sufficiently why great insurance companies find it absolutely necessary to have a man of broad understanding and the first ability at its head.
MCCLURE'S MAGAZINE. ‘ROM the July McClure's we have selected Dr.
Henry C. Rowland's account of “Fighting Life in the Philippines” for quotation among the “Leading Articles of the Month.” The magazine begins with an exact recital of “The Oversea Experiments of Santos Dumont.” In his last winter's flights over the Med. iterranean the balloonist was occupied with experiments very different from those which took him around the Eiffel Tower in Paris. There the goal was to win a prize by accomplishing a special task. In the Mediterranean he was experimenting scientifically for his own information. Leading aeronautists think that Santos Dumont's Mediterranean experiments, in spite of his final catastrophe, are as important as any that have been made. Mr. Heilig, the author of this article in McClure's, describes a novel feature of the Mediterranean experiments in the maritime guide-rope, a long thick rope dangling from the air-ship, with eight or ten feet of its still thicker extremity dragging in the water. The very slight dragging resistance through the water does not sensibly retard the motion of the air machine, and according to its greater or less immersion the dragging rope ballasts or unballasts the airship. The great and essential virtue of this new form of ballasting a balloon is that the effect is produced without loss of ballast. Santos Dumont is now in possession of his seventh great balloon, the first one of his machines which is designed to carry an assistant with the owner, and there is a job open for an aspiring engineer. Mr. Heilig calls attention to the fact that in Europe, Santos Dumont is the only navigator of the air who actually navigates.
Capt. A. T. Mahan gives an estimate of the late Admiral Sampson's professional service and character in “Sampson's Naval Career.” Captain Mahan reviews the services to the nation of Admiral Sampson, and especially those in the Santiago campaign, and has frequently to call attention to Sampson's really marvelously calm and equable temperament, which made responsibilities of the heaviest sort sit on him easily.
Disregardful of all but the necessity of success, he was heedless of personal danger and daring in professional risk. The mastery which the service had over his interest and affections, united to entire self-mastery in temper and under responsibility, assured his eminence as an officer, which history will unquestionably recognize and affirm.” There is a further installment of Miss Stone's experiences among the brigands, dealing with Mrs. Tsilka and her little baby ; several first-class stories appear in this number, with further chapters of Booth Tarkington's serial.
THE GREAT KRUPP WORKS OF GERMANY.
One of the departments tells of the magnitude of the great Krupp gun factories of Germany: “ The present head of the great Krupp works represents the third generation of this family of gun-founders. The original Krupp was named Friedrich. His son Alfred, who died in 1887, first gave world-wide fame to the Krupp establishment. Alfred's son, Friedrich Alfred, is now the director and owner of the vast enterprise, whose principal seats are in Essen and Kiel. A few figures will give an idea of the magnitude of these establishments, where practical science achieves some of its greatest results. The Krupp works altogether consume more than five thousand tons of coal per day, and employ more than forty-six thousand men, of whom not far short of four thousand are engineers, superintendents, accountants, clerks, etc. At Essen alone, where the great gun shops are located, between six and seven hundred million cubic feet of gas are burned annually, enough to supply all the needs of a city of four hundred thousand inhabitants. The amount of water used is no less surprising -between five and six hundred million cubic feet in a year, which is also on the scale of a great city's consumption."
MUNSEY'S MAGAZINE. "EN. 0. O. HOWARD writes in the July Munsey's
of “The Folk of the Cumberland Gap," and what the Lincoln Memorial University is doing for the people of the Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia mountains in this neglected corner of the United States. Within a radius of 50 miles from the university there is a population of more than 230,000 people, with no well-equipped school. The Lincoln University has admitted as high as 368 in one year. The students are given an academic education, and many of them are also given work in typesetting, carpentering, gardening, and farming. The university has sent more than twenty teachers into neighboring districts. The students pay their way entirely at the university, but some of them pay it in money, some in work, and some part in work and part in money. The board averages only two dollars a week for the students, and General Howard says that a scholarship of $100 will carry a student through one year. He thinks it one of the greatest opportunities, if not the greatest, in the country for the effective use of half a million dollars in furthering education where it is most needed and will have the best use made of it.
Mr. Frank S. Arnett, in an article on “American Country Clubs,” shows how they had their origin in Boston, and how they have become an important element in the social life of America, this country being the only one having such institutions. Mr. Arnett thinks the country club was originally a protest against the old-time summer hotel, "probably the most ghastly aid to the killing of time ever devised.”
Katherine Hoffman discusses some “Memorials of Ruskin," chiefly the medallion in Westminster Abbey, the monument on Friar's Crag, and the tomb at Coniston; John Brent describes “The World's Bathing Places, such as the Belgian Ostend, the English Brighton and Scarborough, our own Atlantic City, and the Dutch Zandvoort ; Douglas Story writes on “ The Art of the Needle Point," the fascinating form of artistic expression of which Dürer was the first, and Rembrandt the greatest master, and of its modern renaissance in Rajon, Flameng, Evert van Muyden, and Henner; there is a Martinique article by F. A. Ober under the title, “A Ruined American Eden,” and an interesting essay on " Railroad Superstitions,” by Herbert E. Hamblen. With the locomotive engineer Friday is a bad day, as with others, but it is number nine that is fatal, and not thirteen.
THE NEW ENGLAND MAGAZINE. N the New England Magazine for July, Mr. G. F.
Mellen writes on "Thomas Jefferson and Higher Education,” sketching the latter's broad influence on the development of American educational institutions. Mr. Mellen considers that Jefferson, more than any other American, Franklin not excepted, interested foreign scholarship in America and brought foreign educators to this country. Attention is drawn to the fact that all through the building up of Albemarle College and the University of Virginia, Jefferson kept in view the same end--a real university for Virginia, manned, in the main, by European specialists.
Under the title “Whale Oil and Spermaceti,” Mary E. Starbuck writes of Nantucket and its vanished industry of whaling. The decline of whaling which swept away Nantucket's wealth and population was due chiefly to two causes, -the increasing rarity of the whale supply, and the introduction of petroleum.
In “The Stars and Stripes a Boston Idea," George J. Varney tells how “Old Glory” came to be devised. In 1775 Congress appointed a special committee to confer with General Washington, and to devise a flag for the army. The committee consisted of Dr. Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, Col. Thomas Lynch of Carolina, and Hon. Benjamin Harrison of Virginia. The committee were the guests of a lady at Cambridge, Mass., who has left a diary telling of the choice of the flag design. An old college professor was staying in the house, and he and the hostess were invited to furnish the motive and composition of the flag. Their suggestion of a design consisted of alternate red and white stripes, thirteen in number, for the field, with the union jack in the upper flag corner. The model was received and adopted. It was later, in June, 1776, that General Washington, together with Col. George Ross and Hon. Robert Morris, brought to Mrs. Ross the rough design of a flag with thirteen red and white stripes, and bearing a union with thirteen stars.
COUNTRY LIFE IN AMERICA.
“The Making of a Country Home,” treats this month various architectural details, especially the porch, or doorway. Mr. Buckham emphasizes the importance, architecturally, of the entrance to the home, and says it should express both refinement and hospitality. “It should smile, like the host, yet not too blandly nor too consciously. If it is too severe or too sumptuous, it vitiates, to a degree, the whole exterior of which it is the focus. It is unfortunate that in so many otherwise beautiful houses the doorway is shadowed by the great piazza or belittled by the portecochère."
Mr. John Burns makes a “Plea for the Pony," as a really useful member of society. He calls attention to the effective family use of ponies in England, where large horses are more valuable proportionately than in this country. “People in moderate circumstances dwelling in the country, clergymen, small farmers, physicians, and others who cannot afford to maintain a regular stable, would indeed be at a loss without the familiar pony, which does twice as much work as a large horse could do, on half as much food and care."
Mr. James Watson has an authoritative article on the beagle in America--apropos of the revival of interest in these animals. A beautifully illustrated discussion of " The Japanese Garden in America” will make every suburbanite want to have one of his own. The most elaborate feature of the number is a sumptuously illustrated description of the beautiful Sloane estate at Lenox, in the Berkshire Hills.
subjects presented in the July Outing there is a description of a new field for sportsmen by Alger M. Fredericks, who tells of the country lying west of Lake Temiskaming, the boundary between the provinces of Quebec and Ontario. In this part of northern Ontario, Mr. Fredericks says, the big game is just as plentiful and the country is just as wild as in the province of Labrador, where there is a population of only one man to every thirty-five square miles.
ADVICE TO CAMPING PARTIES.
Mr. Edwyn Sandys gives complete advice to vacation venturers into the wilderness, in "A Chat About Camping," advocating, instead of the regulation tent, a big sheet of waterproof stuff with an eyelet and a long tie string in each corner, with a thirty-foot clothesline, to use instead of a pole. The most important part of this coaching for camping parties he considers an injunction to put out the fire beyond any possibility of life, “so that you can go away satisfied that no criminal carelessness on your part will add a scar to the face of North America."
Miss A. C. Laut, in her serial, “ The Story of the Trapper,” considers this month “The Buffalo Runners.” Mr. Alexander Kidd tells in detail how A. F.