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carrying scepticism to an unjustifiable length to question the main fact itself, namely, that Josephus, at the instance of Titus, made repeated offers of accommodation.

Endeavoring to make our view equally clear, we will follow Bernays in his summing up. It is true we have two accounts of a Roman council of war, which give, without material difference, the import of the views presented, but contradict each other in their statements as to the advocates of these views, and the decision arrived at. The full and circumstantial account, according to which Cæsar Titus is said to have advocated and carried the preservation of the temple, and the untoward destruction of it is ascribed to accident, was certainly composed by Josephus; but there is no evidence whatever to prove the correctness of the insinuations by which Bernays undertakes to impugn his independence and integrity as an historian; on the contrary, the weight belonging to his testimony, as that of an intelligent and uncommonly well qualified eyewitness, and his character for historical truthfulness, remain unimpaired. The other account, not to be compared with the former in fulness and completeness, was written more than three hundred years after the occurrence, by Sulpicius Severus, undoubtedly a man of high culture and extensive information, and also of many noble qualities of mind and heart, but who had, in preparing his Chronicle, a very special object in view, and who in several instances, adduced by Bernays himself, had modified, not to say misrepresented, facts, so that they might square with his special object. Bernays himself justly says that no harm can come to us from this liberty taken by Severus, since we have the original of the Bible left. But is it safe to follow such a guide, altogether unsupported by other testimony, in the case of a work, or part of a work, which no longer exists, even if it were established that Severus used Tacitus as his source? The alleged connection between Severus and Tacitus is far from being rendered probable, still less proved. Under these circumstances, we may with as much propriety as old Scaurus ask, Whom do you believe, readers?

EE Hale

1. Regulæ Economia qualis a Benedicto [Sancto] præscripta. The Rule of the Order of St. Benedict. In Mabillon's Annals. Paris. 1703.


2. The Constitutions and Declarations of the Company of Jesuits. [As Abridged and Illustrated in Bartoli's Life and Institution of St. Ignatius. Vol. III. Florence. 1831.]

3. Self-Formation; or the History of an Individual Mind. [By CAPEL LOFFT.] London. 1837.

4. Constitution and Plan of Education for Girard College for Orphans. By FRANCIS LIEBER. Philadelphia. 1834.

5. [Work and Play.] Oration before the Phi Beta Kappa, at Cam

bridge, Aug. 24, 1848. By HORACE BUSHNEll.

6. Rules for Preserving the Health of the Soldier. Sanitary Commission's Report. No. 172. Printed, not Published. Washington, D. C. 1861.

E. E. Fbale.

WE are obliged to bring together authorities from a wide range, in directing the reader to such sources of information as are at hand regarding the most economical use of intellectual power. Few men who have to do work with their brains, even in the humbler processes of such labor, grow to be forty years old without regretting that they were not taught, twenty years before, those arrangements and devices for husbanding their intellectual faculty, and making it as useful to them as possible, which they have been obliged to learn for themselves, without system, and often in the wreck of failure. There is nothing so much neglected in the universities, where they attempt to teach almost everything, as the sciences of learning rapidly, and of using readily what one knows. The rules and constitutions of Benedictines and of Jesuits show how much and how little care the lawgivers of such orders of students devoted to systematizing study. These directions are almost always superficial and empirical, and, though by no means without value, nowhere rise to the dignity of a philosophical system of intellectual activity. In our own time, there has been a great deal said about "self-culture," which has professed to give instructions for intellectual culture. But a

treatise on self-culture generally ends, as Dr. Channing's does, in showing that it is very important to have the mind well trained, and in good working order, without telling how it is to be trained for keeping its working power at a maximum. There is also latent in most of such books the grave error that a man cultivates his mind simply by reading, - a process which in fact often involves a loss of mental efficiency. This error has gone so far, that in common talk a man is praised for cultivating his mind simply in proportion as he reads books of any graver character than novels.

Such errors are not made in either of the other great lines of human activity. In the domain of bodily work, people understand that the training of the body is one thing, and the feeding it quite another. When that periodical cycle of interest in physical training comes round, through which just now we happen to be passing, nobody sends the young gymnast into a fruit-market, or to a table d'hôte, directing him to eat all he can, by way of educating his body. And the time has passed, in the other science of training the soul, when men thought it would attain its full power by rapt contemplation of God and heaven. It is only in the cultivation of the mind that there is tolerated a general gorging, — each teacher encouraged to force down as much as he can, and the pupil then turned loose to bring his resources to bear as best he can, without a suggestion even as to methods of working power.

Yet the demand of the present time is especially for the utmost amount of intellectual work which can be extorted from educated men, and consequently for its utmost facility and method. There are not enough of them to do the world's work now; and the insufficient force of those who are detailed to this duty ought to husband their mental resources to the utmost, and to bring them to bear with the most recondite tactics. Let any professional man of to-day amuse himself for an hour with his grandfather's diary of his professional life. Let him compare the letter a month received and answered in the life of the last century, against his own file of one or two hundred received, indexed, and replied to within a like time. Let him compare the grandfather's annual ride

by his own horse-and-chaise power to the "Convention of Ministers," when Election Week came round, with his own annual attendance at a year's directors' meetings, committee meetings, board meetings, and trustees' meetings. Let him look at the schedule of books attached to his grandfather's will, called his "library," to see that there are not so many in all as he has been expected to give an opinion on in the conversation of the last five years of life. Let him count, in the diary, the number of public opinions which his grandfather formed in ten years of voting for Washington, Adams, Bowdoin, and Strong, against the opinions which he has himself been compelled to form, and form correctly, regarding foreign and home politics, state administration, city, church, and school affairs, - regarding water, gas, horse-railroads, schoolventilation, foreign emigration, negro emancipation, and the rest; opinions which he has had to enforce and to carry, if he could, at three or four special, city, state, and national elections, every year. Any man who will make this contrast will see that this generation requires an amount of intellectual readiness, and a degree of economy in the right and righteous use of intellectual power, such as no generation has required before.

We have no hope of laying down the true system of the maximum of intellectual effort. But we do hope to show that teachers, of whatever grade, ought to give more attention than they have done to suggesting for their pupils systems so essential. To take a little instance: there is not an axiom in physies more absolutely settled, than the fact that no mental labor of any sort should be attempted within the hour after a full meal. Yet it is within a very few years only that the University at our Cambridge ceased to bid students recite within forty minutes after the beginning of breakfast, and within an hour after the beginning of dinner. What was as bad was, that half the college recited—or shall we say pretended to recite before breakfast was served. The old monks, from whom the greater part of our college system has descended, at least knew better than this. In these details, matters are now better ordered at Cambridge. It is possible that the gymnasium and the drill-sergeant may introduce yet more

improvements. We hear rumors sometimes of practical hints, given by professors there, of the way to bring mental faculty into play. And we are not without hopes that, as there has long been a course there on "The Means of Preserving Health," some teacher may introduce a course on "The Methods of Using Intellectual Power." Such a course comes fairly within the range either of theology, ethics, metaphysics, or hygiene; and whoever first does throw into system the results of thirty years of his own experience, and teach the arts, methods, and science of best husbanding and cultivating, and of most quickly and vividly using, intellectual power, whether of the meanest or finest quality, will earn the gratitude of the meanest and finest minds together, and a claim to a share in whatever good they may ever work for mankind.

1. In pointing out the relations of such instruction to the different lines of human science, we must, with whatever regret, speak first of its physiological relations. We beg the reader, however, not, for this, to turn ruthlessly from this paper, as if he had here only another dividend from the assets of Sylvester-Grahamism, or House-I-Live-in-ism. We are forced to speak of physiology; but our chief object is to say that the folly is now nearly exploded which mistook the severe treatment necessary (perhaps) for the cure of students in confirmed dyspepsia, for the proper treatment of men in health, eager to work, mentally, under the requisitions of this time, up to the very top of their steam. The dyspeptics may settle with the doctors what is the proper treatment for them. We neither know nor care. Our business is with men in health, that they may keep their health, and that they may find out what is the highest amount of their working power, and may keep to that without overrunning it. We venture to say that, for them, any system of half-diet, of scales to weigh daily bread, of food marked by some invalid name, any system, in short, which in any way suggests hospitals or convalescence, -is bad practice. On the other hand, we venture to say to the dyspeptics that they had better leave the company of men working with their minds till they are well. It will not be long. There is always open, for instance, the army; and when on foot in the open air, we forget the doctor soon.

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