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Milman speaks of him with uniform kindness, and treats his memory with respect, vindicating him, as we have seen, from some of the charges brought against him by his enemies, and noticing the indecent manner in which Athanasius exults over his death. "His hollow charity," says the historian, "ill disguises his secret triumph." Among the Syrian bishops, he says, "the most learned, the most pious, the most influential, united themselves with his [Arius's] party."

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Neander says, that Arius was animated by a sincere zeal for what he acknowledges as true," that he "advocated an intelligent supernaturalism," though with a "rationalistic tendency," that he "intended by no means to lower the dignity of Christ," that he was "intending simply to defend the old doctrine of the Church concerning the Trinity against Sabellian and Gnostic opinions, and to exhibit it in a consistent manner." Neander utters no sneer; on the contrary, he finds a great deal in the heresiarch which is to his credit, and reflects honor on his memory.

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The morals of Arius must have been irreproachable. Had it been otherwise, his sharp-sighted enemies, we may be sure, would have proclaimed the fact to the world. He was Presbyter of the oldest parish church in Alexandria. "It contained," says Dr. Stanley," the tomb of St. Mark, and in it took place the election of the Patriarch. It stood near the sea-shore, on a spot which derived its name (Boucalia) from the pasturage of cattle."

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ART. V.

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- SCHLOSSER AND HIS HISTORIES.

1. FRIEDRICH CHRISTOPH SCHLOSSER'S Weltgeschichte für das deutsche Volk. Unter Mitwirkung des Verfasser bearbeitet von G. L. KRIEGK. Frankfurt-am-Main. Varrentrapp's Verlags-Expedition. 1848-1852.

2. Geschichte des achtzehnten Jahrhunderts und des neunzehnten bis zum Sturz des französischen Kaiserreichs. Mit besonderer Rücksicht auf geistige Bildung. Von F. C. SCHLOSSER. Vierte durchaus verbesserte Auflage. Heidelberg, academische Verlagshandlung von J. C. B. Mohr. 1853-1860. 8 Bände.

FRIEDRICH CHRISTOPH SCHLOSSER was born in the town of Jever, in the duchy of Oldenburg, by the shores of the North Sea, on the 17th of November, 1776. He died in Heidelberg on the 23d of September, 1861, at the great age of nearly eighty-five. A vigorous understanding, applied steadily, with honesty, with enthusiasm, to the pursuit of knowledge, and the spread of it, must have achieved results, during a career so prolonged, worth giving a moment to recall and consider. Early plunged among books, the sphere of Schlosser's activity was determined for life; and with a wise appreciation of his powers, not always found among men of great natural ability, he never left it, and the last hours found him at the same work with which the first were busy. The period during which he grew to maturity was one of violent and terrible revolution. With a convulsive effort the minds of men were breaking away from the iron trammels of the past; human nature, political and social, was struggling to assert its dignity and recover its rights, and, wild with the excitement of success, men failed to recognize the limits or observe the order in which a healthy development of society is possible. The influences of that age of scepticism and aggression are obvious in the character of Schlosser's writings. His life spanned the two periods of revolution and reaction which make up the history of Europe for the last hundred years. But his character, formed in the earlier, refused to alter for the later period. Hence he was the representative of another tendency than that of our days. Like the great, towering oak, rooted deep

in the ground, he could not sway with the winds to any quarter, but, stern, erect, vigorous, and healthy, remained where he was planted, a monument and a refuge.

His father, an attorney, died when he was but a few years old, leaving him the youngest of twelve children. His mother, a native of Friesland, who spoke only Low German, died in his fifteenth year. His earliest years were spent with his aunt, a rich widow, in the little town of Fedderwarden, near Jever, and he received there his first instruction in the village school. He attended next the Latin School at Jever, where in a couple of years his omnivorous reading exhausted all the resources within his reach. The prevailing characteristic of his mind exhibited itself even at this early period. He made no extracts from books, as the fashion of the day was, but struggled always for a thorough understanding of the spirit of what he read, for an insight, clear and large, into the causes and events which determine and signalize the changing phases of human history. At first intending to become a clergyman at Jever, he went to Göttingen, in 1794, to study theology. But a mind so exhaustive in its method could not be contented within the narrow limits of theological inquiry. History, physics, mathematics, belles-lettres, Italian, Spanish, English, formed the subjects of his study and his thought, while he listened to the lectures of Eichhorn and Spittler, Schlözer and Blumenbach, Heine and Heeren, and the rest of the great masters of the departing century whose memory still consecrates Göttingen. At the end of his triennium, rich in knowledge, but of empty purse, he took to the work of teaching for support. For the following ten years he was a private tutor, at first in the family of Count Bentinck, in Varel in Oldenburg, where his leisure hours were devoted to Plato and Kant and the Schlegels. Having undergone his theological examination, he officiated also for a time as clergyman in a country village, but broke off at the end of six months, when they neglected to settle him, and wanted to seek his fortune in Russia; but, failing to obtain a passport, he became a tutor in Altona, near Hamburg, where Thucydides, three times perused, served to enlarge his knowledge of ancient history, while the society of the French émigrés, who swarmed

about him, gave a direction to his thoughts upon the modern. From Altona he went to Frankfort on the Main, in 1800, where he entered, in the same capacity of tutor, the family of a wealthy merchant. The years were moving on, but as yet he had done nothing to prove his title to be more than an humble teacher. In 1807 he made his first little essay in print, entitled, " Abälard and Dulcia: the Life and Opinions of a Visionary and a Philosopher." It was published in Gotha ; and by the connection thus established with that place he was led to consult the papers of Beza preserved there. "The Life of Beza and Peter Martyr Vermili," which appeared in 1809, launched him upon his career as writer and scholar. With a view to obtain a position which should secure him permanent support, while it afforded him the necessary leisure, he wrote his "History of the Iconoclast Emperors of the Eastern Empire, with a History of its Earlier Rulers," which appeared in 1812.

Meanwhile, in 1808, he had received an appointment at the school in Jever, and was soon afterwards made Con-rector, with a salary of $525 and a house to live in. But not finding the leisure which to such a man is an imperative condition of existence, he abandoned these worldly advantages, to the consternation of his friends, who failed to see any more clearly than himself what was to become of him. Obtaining from Giessen the usual degree of Doctor of Philosophy, he went back on a venture to Frankfort, where it happened at the right moment that Karl Ritter was called from the Frankfort Gymnasium to enter upon his great career in the Prussian capital. Schlosser took his place, and shortly afterwards was made a professor in the newly established Lyceum, with the task of philosophizing upon history in the French way. But he soon found that generalizations upon facts were of little use when the facts themselves were not well known. He was led, therefore, to systematize the general history of the world as he had come to view it, for the use of his pupils. And the result was the publication, in 1815, of the first volume of his "History of the World in a connected Narration"; but he had not emerged from ancient history when he foresaw that the political revolutions then taking place would soon sweep away his Lyceum, and with it the special object for which he wrote

would be lost also, as was the case. Appointed, then, City Librarian at Frankfort, he altered the plan of his work, with the intention of making it a strictly scientific one. He proposed to himself to set forth the great facts of human history in their relation to one another, as he viewed both the facts. and their relation. He did not investigate facts to determine their accuracy, but, admitting their existence, he sought to understand and explain them. Perhaps a better title of his work would have been "Schlosser's View of the World's History." However he may have executed his task, his purpose was one of the noblest and highest to which the human intellect can apply itself. Fitly to reproduce the epic of man's existence on earth requires a genius which Schlosser did not possess, nor pretend to possess. Nor has the individual yet. appeared to us who may rightly lay claim to it. The great historians have tacitly admitted their inability to cope with more than a limited period; and the greater the writer, the narrower, it would seem of late, the sphere to which he restricts himself. Gibbon, with a vast learning, not second-hand nor superficial, as Schlosser unjustly charges, but original and profound, has compassed a thousand years in stately narrative. But Gibbon describes, and the reader thinks. The brilliant fragment of Macaulay proves, by its being a fragment in its nature, that he was perhaps less of an historian than a masterly essayist; for history so written in detail life would not be long enough to read. Like the great masters in art, he had a marvellous power of painting what he saw; but his vision was not wide enough to take in all causes, nor his power great enough to marshal in proper relation all events. Nobody pretends that Schlosser has achieved that success. But, so far as we know, his effort is the first strictly scientific one, and a perfectly legitimate one, as not presuming too far upon human strength. The success of such an attempt depends not less upon the degree of insight than upon the amount of labor which is brought to bear upon it. It is not an ordinary work, which ordinary men may do, but an extraordinary one, which genius of the highest order alone will at last accomplish. It is not so much new facts the world wants, as new views of the old facts. In the effort to be picturesque and rhetorical, we

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