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gemuit orbis et miratus est se esse Arianum,' is a process which has been strangely repeated, more than once, in the course of ecclesiastical history.” — p. 74.
Of the word consubstantial Dr. Stanley says:
"The history of the word is full of strange vicissitudes. It was born and nurtured, if not in the home, at least on the threshold of heresy. It first distinctly appeared in the works of Origen, then for a moment acquired a more orthodox reputation in the writings of Dionysius and Theognostus of Alexandria; then it was colored with a dark shade by association with the teaching of Manes; next proposed as a test of orthodoxy at the Council of Antioch against Paul of Samosata, and then by that same Council was condemned as Sabellian.” — p. 159.
From pages 173-175 of Dr. Stanley's work may be gathered the following interesting summary. It is certain that the Nicene Creed was "meant to be an end of theological controversy." "The Council of Sardica declared that it was amply sufficient, and that no second creed should ever appear." The next General Council, that of Constantinople, in 381, "did not venture to do more than recite the original creed of Nicæa." "The Council of Ephesus showed its sense of the finality of the Nicene Creed still more strongly," decreeing that "henceforward no one should propose, or write, or compose any other creed than that defined by the fathers in the city of Nicæa." "It was not till the next Council, the Fourth General Council, at Chalcedon, A. D. 431, that the original exclusive supremacy of the old Nicene Creed was impaired. Then for the first time, amid much remonstrance, the additions of Constantinople [that is, which there made their appearance, but were not drawn up by the Council] were formally acknowledged, and the enlarged creed, in its present form, was received, though not as superseding the original creed of the First Council, with a protest against any further changes."
The idea of putting a stop to creed-making! If, as Dr. Stanley informs us, the creed still recited by some Eastern sects is "that of Nicæa alone," the fact shows a persistency of ideas and character quite noteworthy. Whether or not it is well to remain thus firmly moored to the past, is a question
on which people may differ in opinion. It would have been better to have stopped with the Apostles' Creed, so called; better still, to have been content with the confession of Peter, "Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God."
The idea of calling the Athanasian Creed a "hymn" may strike some persons as singular. Dr. Stanley speaks of it as "the ancient hymn, Quicunque vult,' which throughout the Middle Ages, and by our own reformers, was believed to be the creed of Athanasius." He adds: "The learned world is now aware that it is of French or Spanish origin. It not only contains words and phrases which to Athanasius were unknown, but it distinctly, and from the first, asserted the doctrine of the Double Procession of the Spirit, which never occurs in the writings of Athanasius, and which, in all probability, he would have repudiated, with his Oriental brethren of later times." In a note to this passage, Dr. Stanley says: "It has, indeed, in later times, found its way into the Psalters both of Greece and Russia, though not of the remoter East."*
Its triumphs, it seems, have been mostly in the West. one of the Tracts issued a few years ago from Dr. Stanley's own University (Oxford), called "Tracts for the Times" (No. 75), the writer speaks of the "Psalm Quicunque, commonly called the Athanasian Creed." He says that to "consider it a psalm or hymn of praise, and of concurrence in God's appointments," is a "far truer view" than "as a formal creed." He asserts, moreover, that, "by using it weekly, its living character and spirit are incorporated into the Christian's devotions, and its influence on the heart as far as may be secured. The time too," he adds, "should be observed, the dawn of the first day of the week." A good beginning, truly. We shall not dispute the writer's taste, and only hint at the sweet and charitable tone into which the feelings must be put for the week. We should prefer, however, the views of the "remoter East," or of old Athanasius himself.
We conclude with observing that the flippant and disparaging tone in which Arius is now sometimes spoken of receives no sanction from such writers as Milman and Neander. Dr.
*Pages 290, 291.
Milman speaks of him with uniform kindness, and treats his memory with respect, vindicating him, as we have seen, from some of the charges brought against him by his enemies, and noticing the indecent manner in which Athanasius exults over his death. "His hollow charity," says the historian, "ill disguises his secret triumph." Among the Syrian bishops, he says, "the most learned, the most pious, the most influential, united themselves with his [Arius's] party."
Neander says, that Arius was "animated by a sincere zeal for what he acknowledges as true," that he "advocated an intelligent supernaturalism," though with a "rationalistic tendency," that he "intended by no means to lower the dignity of Christ," that he was "intending simply to defend the old doctrine of the Church concerning the Trinity against Sabellian and Gnostic opinions, and to exhibit it in a consistent manner."† Neander utters no sneer; on the contrary, he finds a great deal in the heresiarch which is to his credit, and reflects honor on his memory.
The morals of Arius must have been irreproachable. Had it been otherwise, his sharp-sighted enemies, we may be sure, would have proclaimed the fact to the world. He was Presbyter of the oldest parish church in Alexandria. "It contained," says Dr. Stanley," the tomb of St. Mark, and in it took place the election of the Patriarch. It stood near the sea-shore, on a spot which derived its name (Boucalia) from the pasturage of cattle."
* Hist. of Christ., pp. 314, 321.
Hist., I. 362-365. Dogm., 264, 286.
VOL. LXXII. 5TH S. VOL. X. NO. II.
- SCHLOSSER AND HIS HISTORIES.
1. FRIEDRICH CHRISTOPH SCHLOSSER'S Weltgeschichte für das deutsche Volk. Unter Mitwirkung des Verfasser bearbeitet von G. L. KRIEGK. Frankfurt-am-Main. Varrentrapp's Verlags-Expedi
2. Geschichte des achtzehnten Jahrhunderts und des neunzehnten bis zum Sturz des französischen Kaiserreichs. Mit besonderer Rücksicht auf geistige Bildung. Von F. C. SCHLOSSER. Vierte durchaus verbesserte Auflage. Heidelberg, academische Verlagshandlung von J. C. B. Mohr. 1853-1860. 8 Bände.
FRIEDRICH CHRISTOPH SCHLOSSER was born in the town of Jever, in the duchy of Oldenburg, by the shores of the North Sea, on the 17th of November, 1776. He died in Heidelberg on the 23d of September, 1861, at the great age of nearly eighty-five. A vigorous understanding, applied steadily, with honesty, with enthusiasm, to the pursuit of knowledge, and the spread of it, must have achieved results, during a career so prolonged, worth giving a moment to recall and consider. Early plunged among books, the sphere of Schlosser's activity was determined for life; and with a wise appreciation of his powers, not always found among men of great natural ability, he never left it, and the last hours found him at the same work with which the first were busy. The period during which he grew to maturity was one of violent and terrible revolution. With a convulsive effort the minds of men were breaking away from the iron trammels of the past; human nature, political and social, was struggling to assert its dignity and recover its rights, and, wild with the excitement of success, men failed to recognize the limits or observe the order in which a healthy development of society is possible. The influences of that age of scepticism and aggression are obvious in the character of Schlosser's writings. His life spanned the two periods of revolution and reaction which make up the history of Europe for the last hundred years. But his character, formed in the earlier, refused to alter for the later period. Hence he was the representative of another tendency than that of our days. Like the great, towering oak, rooted deep
in the ground, he could not sway with the winds to any quarter, but, stern, erect, vigorous, and healthy, remained where he was planted, a monument and a refuge.
His father, an attorney, died when he was but a few years old, leaving him the youngest of twelve children. His mother, a native of Friesland, who spoke only Low German, died in his fifteenth year. His earliest years were spent with his aunt, a rich widow, in the little town of Fedderwarden, near Jever, and he received there his first instruction in the village school. He attended next the Latin School at Jever, where in a couple of years his omnivorous reading exhausted all the resources within his reach. The prevailing characteristic of his mind exhibited itself even at this early period. He made no extracts from books, as the fashion of the day was, but struggled always for a thorough understanding of the spirit of what he read, for an insight, clear and large, into the causes and events which determine and signalize the changing phases of human history. At first intending to become a clergyman at Jever, he went to Göttingen, in 1794, to study theology. But a mind so exhaustive in its method could not be contented within the narrow limits of theological inquiry. History, physics, mathematics, belles-lettres, Italian, Spanish, English, formed the subjects of his study and his thought, while he listened to the lectures of Eichhorn and Spittler, Schlözer and Blumenbach, Heine and Heeren, and the rest of the great masters of the departing century whose memory still consecrates Göttingen. At the end of his triennium, rich in knowledge, but of empty purse, he took to the work of teaching for support. For the following ten years he was a private tutor, at first in the family of Count Bentinck, in Varel in Oldenburg, where his leisure hours were devoted to Plato and Kant and the Schlegels. Having undergone his theological examination, he officiated also for a time as clergyman in a country village, but broke off at the end of six months, when they neglected to settle him, and wanted to seek his fortune in Russia; but, failing to obtain a passport, he became a tutor in Altona, near Hamburg, where Thucydides, three times perused, served to enlarge his knowledge of ancient history, while the society of the French émigrés, who swarmed