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which he may make with his successor is valid. "All ecclesiastical functions are gratuitous," a noteworthy fact, since among the ten pastoral functions mentioned are baptisms, marriage services, funerals, and services on committees. All these ought to be done without expectation of fee or reward. Posture in prayer is indifferent, and a minister may say it standing, kneeling, or sitting. The service, all over the kingdom, must be in good French; patois is allowed only in special cases. The French idea is not favorable to vulgarizing prayer and preaching by colloquial style or by slang phrases, and the Consistory wants no Spurgeons in its pulpits. In the choice of texts and subjects, ministers are expected to avoid obscure and disputed topics, and to select such as are "edifying." They are not to preach politics, or to be personal in their remarks, or to say anything which shall seem to reflect upon the conduet of individuals in the congregation, or to denounce either the clergy or the laity of the Roman Church. They may deal with matters of the ological controversy, but always prudently and without personality. They must not give out notices from the pulpit of matters which have nothing to do with the Church.

Pastors cannot absent themselves from their parishes without leave. They are not allowed to accept any bequests made to them by parishioners whom they have visited in sickness; or to have anything to do with collecting the money raised for the expenses of worship; or to have any other profession, or engage in any lucrative calling which can take their attention from their regular work; or to wear any other than black clothes. Their salaries are very moderate. They have a house, comfortably furnished, and in parishes of less than 5,000 souls, $300 per annum. In parishes of from 5,000 to 20,000, they have $360; of 30,000 or more, $ 400; and in Paris, $ 600. This population is not, however, the charge of the Protestant minister, but is only the reckoning of the census, most of it, of course, being Catholic.

As to the "Temples," they must be plain, with no statues, pictures, or legends, except the Lord's Prayer, the Apostles' Creed, and the Decalogue. Crosses are not allowed, except by special permission. The seats are to be free, at least for a portion of the service; and if rented, on account of the poverty of the church, the renting must be annual, and a quarter at least reserved as free. No temple ought to be used for any purpose foreign to worship, and no placards are allowed to be stuck upon its walls. The churches must not stand so near that the worship in one hinders the worship in another. Every minister must send to the two libraries of the Church at Paris and at Nismes a copy of every work which he publishes.

These are only a few of the peculiarities of the French Protestant Church, as they are drawn out in M. Coquerel's scheme. We would gladly dwell upon some views of the Introduction, in which the large and generous sympathies of the author conspicuously appear. M. Coquerel is opposed to all kinds of religious tyranny and coercion, and does not believe that piety can be promoted by any kind of penal discipline. He would make the communion-table as free as possible, and would not use the power of excommunication or anathema. His testimony is em

phatic, that Congregationalism is the earliest and the best form of church government. We hope to hear that his Projet has been adopted by the unanimous consent of the Reformed Churches of France, not merely as a mark of respect to the author, but as a confession of its intrinsic excellence.


THESE latter years have been peculiarly rich in works on Church History. Besides those we have noticed, we have received the fourth volume of Gieseler's indispensable "Text-Book," covering the Reformation Period (A. D. 1517-1648). The entire work, with its unique qualities of condensed, clear narrative, and ample citations, is a sort of library in little, far more interesting and serviceable to the student than any consecutive narration.

We are promised the republication, by Messrs. Walker, Wise, & Co., of Stanley's Lectures on the Eastern Church, whose admirable qualities we have already noticed.

Since the publication of Milman's Latin Christianity, the most important learned contribution, in English, to this department is undoubtedly Mr. Greenwood's "Cathedra Petri," the first volume of which was characterized in this journal at the time of its appearing. It is special, not general, in its aim, being a political history of the Papacy, not a general history of the times, like Milman's, or a religious history of them, like Neander's. It is an extended dissertation, - a vast monograph, of which three volumes carry us only to the close of the tenth century. As a narrative it is rather heavy, but gains in vigor and point as it goes on. Mr. Greenwood is unsparing in his exposure of the worldly and false basis on which the fabric of ecclesiastical power was built. For some periods and topics, his work is of great service. We have seen nowhere else so able and full a narrative of the struggle with the Lombards, which had so important a bearing on the relations of Rome with the Eastern Church; of the fury of the war against Images; of the institutions of Charlemagne, which borrowed from the model of church government and paid back by laying the firm framework of the Papal States in Italy; of the stupendous fraud of the "Isidorian Decretals," brought forward on the "Field of Lies" in 833, when the grand vision of "one Church, one Empire" was dissolved, and a new basis of the Papacy had to be found; of the long controversy which Hincmar, the great prelate of France, waged with three successive Popes; of the Roman" Heterocracy of the tenth century, which marked the lowest point of papal degradation, and called for the vigorous reforming hand of Otho.

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With the help of our author, we may trace the rise of the papal supremacy very clearly through the following steps: the half-unconscious assumption of secular power by the bishopric at the fall of the Roman Empire (Leo I.); the balance of claims between the Roman Church and the Byzantine, which desires compromise, and offers the

* Cathedra Petri. A Political History of the Great Latin Patriarchate. By THOMAS GREENWOOD, Barister at Law. London: Thickbroom Brothers.

obnoxious "Henoticon "; the arrangements growing out of the Lombard conquests, which wrested North Italy from the Eastern Empire; the donations of Pepin and Charlemagne; the influence accruing through the Monothelitic and Iconoclastic controversies; the enormous forgery of the Isidorian Decretals; the struggle between central and local church authority (Nicolas I. and Hincmar); the asserted right of the Church as umpire in the long feuds among the descendants of Charlemagne; and, finally, the relations with the German Empire, growing out of Otho's protectorate, and leading to the grand final struggle under Hildebrand.

On the other hand, the history of purely theological controversies, or religious movements, is intentionally meagre; and the names of the great hero-missionaries of the Church only appear in connection with their feudal subservience to their spiritual lord in Rome. The Council of Nicæa is considered as "a simple measure of administration." The pagan Empire was the true foundation of the Christian dynasty which succeeded; "the putrescence of the Empire was as manure at the root of the Papacy"; and "the soul of the Roman Senate and people had silently crept into, and found a welcome refuge in, the bosom of the Church." These points indicate sufficiently the scope and spirit of a work which will be interesting to scholars, and indispensable for historical critics, but is too limited in range and too copious in treatment to attract the majority of readers.

C. 76.

THE third volume of Mr. Hopkins's History of the Puritans brings us to the death of Queen Elizabeth, and so completes the projected work. We hope it will be extended, so as to cover the great colonizing and militant period of Puritanism, in the reigns of James and Charles. It is a work that clearly has its place in the grand historical library gathering under the pens of contemporary writers. Everything that throws light on the momentous conflict that raged, with hardly a respite, from Luther's defiance of the Pope to the Peace of Westphalia, is worth the careful study of this generation. The works of Motley and Froude offer themselves most readily for comparison with this. But Motley, whose field is on the Continent, can deal only in the most incidental way with the aspects of the struggle in England; while Froude, with all his admirable candor and nice historic sense and true human feeling, has but a shy and far-off sympathy with the rude popular elements of Reform, and is inclined to disparage those preachers of Gospel righteousness who stood aloof from the tremendous struggle for national existence during the time of the Tudors. So that Mr. Hopkins not only has produced a work all glowing with personal feeling, and hearty appreciation of the special work of these reformers, but brings into vivid light points of the great controversy which we were likely to forget or overlook. He believes fully in the Divine commission given to England to sunder the bonds of Church and State, a task to which

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The Puritans; or, The Church, Court, and Parliament of England during the Reigns of Edward VI. and Queen Elizabeth. By SAMUEL HOPKINS. Vol. III. Boston: Gould and Lincoln.

no race less energetic and resolute could be competent (p. 16); and in the special interposition of Providence to defeat the great final effort of Spain to crush the heretic nation in 1588. He gives abundant details of the Catholic conspiracies against the life of Elizabeth; shows that Mary Stuart was fully implicated in them, or at least privy to them, so that she could not be safely spared; yet argues that the whole tragical tissue of crime and vengeance came from the original wrong of detaining Mary as a prisoner. How the brutal penalties of the English treason law were inflicted on men innocent of any plot, victims of friendship for the victims of Jesuit arts, and how the web of treachery was unravelled by Walsingham's more subtile skill, we find told here with all the interest and freshness of a new tale.



The drift of the book, as touching the Puritans, covers two points, their agency as champions of political liberty and reform, pioneers of the freedom of Parliamentary debate, - and the unjust, malignant, and mean persecution of them by the prelates, especially the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London. Whitgift is shown to have been guilty of the blood of men whom he himself describes as servants of God, but dangerous to the state." Why dangerous? The Puritans professed the heartiest loyalty to the Queen, and had done their full share to uphold the severest laws against the Catholics, designed to protect the royal life. Their vehement hostility, not to the English Church, of which they earnestly claimed to be members, not to Episcopacy as such, - but to the relics of Romanism involved in it, may seem to us extravagant and superstitious. Their strong Sabbatical convictions, which succeeded in drawing so broad a line between English and Continental Protestantism, put them at sharp odds with the doctrine of the clergy and the practice of the court. Yet these are light grounds for so vindictive a persecution as is recounted here. To the shame of English justice, and the dishonor of the English Church, the argument seems abundantly established, that personal spite, and bitterness at personal affronts, were at the bottom of the unrelenting war the prelates waged against the purest form of Christian piety then known. "Martin Mar-prelate " was bitter, coarse, and offensive in his attacks upon the priesthood; but his real name was never known, while pious missionaries and humble pastors and gentle women were dragged to the gallows, or poisoned with jail-fever, to expiate the hatred sharp words had roused. The painful story has never, we suppose, been so vividly and fully told as here. The narrative of John Penry (John ap Henry, a young Welsh Puritan convert from Romanism) makes a considerable episode in this volume, idyllic, pathetic, tragic, as its successive scenes are drawn in the brisk dramatic style of the author. And the most shocking thing of all is, that the horrible cruelties here detailed were inflicted under cover of an old statute made to meet a wholly different set of cases; that they were hastened or urged in private pique at being foiled in Parliament, or attacked by some nameless pamphleteer; and that Elizabeth was systematically kept from knowledge of what was going on, lest her high spirit and quick intelligence should interfere. But once sharply cross-questioning her minis

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ters, she received from Whitgift the remarkable answer we have quoted before. "Alas!" she replied, "shall we put the servants of God to death?" "Henceforth," we are told," her mind was changed; so that during her reign care was taken that no more Protestants should be put to death for their religion." (p. 542.)

A work of this sort we judge more from the value of the matter which is brought freshly and vigorously before the reader's mind, than from the specialities of form and style. As to this latter, one gets a little suspicious of the long details of dialogue, given as if authentic, and a little weary of the incessant affecting of the Tudor style in them. We think also that the Parliamentary proceedings are reported in far too great length and detail. Possibly objection might be taken to the jail scenes and scaffold scenes, as feeding a morbid and coarse taste for horrors; but these also are features of the Elizabethan period, and were tragical and too familiar facts to the pioneers of our religious liberties. Mr. Hopkins has done much to commend his work to the great majority of readers, by his attempt to portray the living speech of those whose sufferings he tells, and to draw the landscape they lived in, and the picture of their homes. And his handsome, lively, and well-attested pages are a most serviceable contribution to our knowledge of that age so fertile in remarkable events and heroic men.


THE work which Dr. Tulloch has just published is in some sense a sequel to his work on the "Leaders of the Reformation," which was received with great favor. It is in many respects superior to that work, written in a more intense sympathy, and with larger means of information. It is in five chapters. The first gives the introductory history of Puritanism, from its faint indications in the reigns of Henry and Mary, its bolder manifestations in the reign of Elizabeth, its open contests in the reign of James and against the prelates of Canterbury, and its triumph in the reign of the first Charles and the wars of the Commonwealth. This chapter, which is an admirable résumé, brings the history down to the appearance of Cromwell in public life. It contains the results of thought rather than any discussion of acts, and is not open to the charge of "special pleading," which lies against so much that has been written about the early Puritans.

Cromwell is the subject of the second chapter, the longest in the volume. With no redundance of detail, the writer succeeds in condensing in his sketch all the important facts and movements in the life of this leader, and in furnishing a picture which in sharpness of outline, if not in richness of coloring, has not been surpassed by any of the portraits of the Lord Protector. Cromwell is to him the impersonation of Puritanism in its highest force, in its power over the wills, the actions, and the passions of men; the best product of the Puritan spirit in its

* English Puritanism and its Leaders, Cromwell, Milton, Baxter, Bunyan. By JOHN TULLOCH, D. D., Principal and Professor of Theology, St. Mary's College, in the University of St. Andrew's, and one of her Majesty's Chaplains in Ordinary in Scotland. Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood and Sons. 1861. 12mo. pp. 502.

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