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Chronology of the War
Showing Progress of Campaigns on All Fronts and Collateral Events from Jan. 7 to and Incinding Jan. 31, 1915
Jan. 16-Austrians bring up heavy artillery to hold the Donajes River; Germans are on way to Budapest. Jan. 17-Russians take Kirlibaba Pass and
progress along right bank of the Vistula; Germans pushed back on Plock. Jan. 18-Germans occupy Kielce: Russians fall back to Radom; Russian capture of Kirlibaba Pass flanks Austrians; Germans out of Plock.
Jan. 20-Russians drive Austrians back in Hungary an 1 march on Jacobeni. Jan. 21-Russians renew offensive against Mlawa; Austrians rout Russians from intrenchments on Donajec River. Jan. 22-New Russian army nears Prussia; invasion of Hungary halted; Russian advance is causing alarm in Budapest. Jan. 23-Germans are massing in 'ungary: Russians advance in the north. Jan. 24-Russians checked in Transylvania
Tua armes are deadlocked in Central Austrans ledare that Transyls sure: fere fghting in BukoRussians forced from trenches sonta of Tarnow,
-Austrians report the recapture of Pas Russians seize Pilkalen; ten army corps are gathered in outhern Hungary with many G nans in them. Jan. 28-Great struggle for the Carpathians is opening: Austro-German forces advance on eight-mile front. Jan. -Russian wings advance in East Prussia and the Carpathians: Russians eicse in an Interburg: Tilsit surrounded. Jan. 30-Russians cut railway between Memel and Tilsit, and enter Hungary. Jan. 31-Russians gain in Carpathians. CAMPAIGN IN WESTERN EUROPE Jan. -Allies gain north of Soissons, near Rheims, and in Alsace; French Alpine troops use skis in gaining an advantage in Alsace.
-Germans retake Steinbach and Burnhaupt: French take Perthes and gain near Soupir.
Jan. 10-French cut German railway lines to prevent reserves from coming to the . relief of Altkirch.
Jan. 11-Allies, attacking from Perthes, are trying to cut German rail communications.
Jan. 12-French attempt offensive near Soissons and Perthes; they are checked in Alsace; British forces at the front are steadily increasing in number. Jan. 13-Germans, reinforced, win victory at Soissons, forcing French to abandon five miles of trenches and to cross the Aisne, leaving guns and wounded; heights of Vregny are won in this fight by the Germans under the eyes of the Kaiser; Germans take 3,150 prisoners and fourteen guns in two days' fighting. Jan. 15-French are calm over the Soissons defeat; British gain near La Bassée.
CHRONOLOGY OF THE WAR
Jan. 17-Allies take trenches in Belgium; deadlock at La Bassée; Allies closing on Lille.
fighting at La Boisselle;
both sides are claiming success at Tracyle-Val.
Jan. 19-French advance in attempt to cut off St. Mihiel.
Jan. 20-French are nearer Metz; British take Freylinghuysen.
Jan. 21-Germans repulsed in Ardennes
woods by French and Belgians; French retake trenches at Notre Dame de Lorette; Germans retake Le Pretre woods; it is learned that the Soissons battle was won by von Kluck's veterans, and that the Germans granted a half-hour truce while French Red Cross aided wounded. Jan. 22-Fierce fighting in Hartmanns-Weller region.
Jan. 23-Germans renew activity near Ypres and bombard left wing of Allies; fighting in Argonne region. Jan. 24-Germans are bombarding Flanders towns; Allies leave St. Georges. Jan. 25-Kaiser sends Prince Eitel Friedrich to capture Thann and direct fighting in Alsace; French gain toward Altkirch and destroy bridges over the Meuse at St. Mihiel; Germans forced to abandon Dixmude trenches because of floods. Jan. 26-Another battle on at La Bassée; Germans gain ground by vigorous offensive near Craonne and in Alsace. Jan. 27-Germans attack between La Bassée and Bethune, this being the Kaiser's birthday; the French claim that the German loss is 20,000; indecisive fighting near Ypres.
Jan. 28-French defeated at Craonne; Germans make gains in the Vosges and Upper Alsace.
Jan. 29-Germans checked in two attempts to cross the Aisne; they drain the Yser flood area.
Jan. 30-Germans win in the Argonne.
CAMPAIGN IN AFRICA
Jan. 9-French win in Kamerun.
Jan. 9-Turks hasten construction of railway lines across Sinai peninsula.
Jan. 10-Turks are marching on Egypt; reserve Turkish army, trying to save Erzerum, repulsed at frontier.
Jan. 12-Erzerum road is being fought for;
Jan. 14-Armenian refugees cross
frontier; Turkish invasion of Persia continues.
Jan. 15-Turks advance in Persia.
Jan. 17-Turkish corps cut to pieces in the Caucasus.
Jan. 18-Turkish soldiers are being frozen to death.
Jan. 21-Turks are pushing plans for a strategic railway to the Egyptian frontier. Jan. 24-Russians check Turkish advance on Erzerum. Jan. 27-British
defeat Turkish advance guard toward El Kantara on the Suez Canal; three Turkish army corps now marching on Egypt; British win at Korna, Jan. 28 Turks, reinforced, attack Russians in the Caucasus.
Jan. 29-Turks fortify Erzerum, and order civilians to depart.
Jan. 30-Russians take Tabriz.
Jan. 11-Report from Vienna that French dreadnought Courbet has been sunk. Jan. 12-Japanese cruisers are hunting the German converted cruiser Prince Eitel Friedrich off the coast of Peru. Jan. 13-Dover forts drive off two German submarines; bombardment of the Dardanelles by the allied fleets continues. Jan. 16-French submarine Saphir sunk by Turkish mine at the Dardanelles; Italian gunboat Coatit damaged in the Adriatic. Jan. 20-Dutch naval patrol boat sunk by a mine, five men being lost.
Jan. 21-German cruiser Karlsruhe reported off Porto Rico.
Jan. 22-German submarine U-19 sinks British freighter Durward.
Jan. 23-German supply ship sunk by Australian cruiser.
Jan. 24-British patrolling squadron under Vice Admiral Beatty defeats German squadron attempting to reach English coast; German battle cruiser Blücher sunk and two other German battle cruisers damaged; British battle cruisers Lion and Tiger damaged; Germans claim three British ships were sunk.
Jan. 28-British Admiralty denies that any British ship was sunk.
Jan. 30-German submarine sinks three British steamers in Irish Channel and chases Liverpool passenger boat.
Jan. 31-German submarine sinks two British steamships in English Channel; third steamer escapes.
THE NEW YORK TIMES CURRENT HISTORY
Jan. 16-German hydroaeroplane lost in North Sea; nine aviators of the Allies drop bombs on Ostend.
Jan. 19-German airships drop bombs on Yarmouth, King's Lynn, and other English towns; four persons are killed, ten wounded, and considerable property damage is done; it is reported that the German plant at Friedrichshafen produces a super-Zeppelin every three weeks. Jan. 21-Allies drop bombs on Essen. Jan. 22-Holland is to investigate a report that a Zeppelin violated her neutrality by flying over her territory. Jan. 23-Germans drop bombs on Dunkirk; it is reported that the American Consulate is damaged.
Jan. 25-It is reported from Amsterdam that 400 German war automobiles were destroyed in the raid on Essen. Jan. 26-Russians bring down German airship that bombarded Libau. Jan. 28-Crew of German airship that bombarded Libau will be tried by military court and will not be treated as prisoners of war; bomb dropped on Belgrade.
Jan. 24 Administration makes public in Washington a letter written by Secretary Bryan to Senator Stone of Missouri in which discrimination against Germany and Austria-Hungary is denied; twenty charges made by pro-Germans are taken up and the Administration's position and action on each are stated in detail.
Jan. 17-Anti-war demonstrations in Vienna;
Jan. 21-Archduke Charles Francis, the Austrian Crown Prince, is in Berlin, where he will be joined shortly by Baron Burian, the new Austro-Hungarian Minister of Foreign Affairs; plans of campaign against Russia are to be discussed with German officials.
Jan. 23-Baron Burian leaves Berlin for German Army Headquarters to confer with the Kaiser.
Jan. 25-Riots in many parts of Hungary. Jan. 28-Riot among Southern Slavs because of mobilization order.
Jan. 29-Prisoners of war are to be employed in farm work.
Jan. 30-Warning is sent to Rumania against agitation among Rumanian population of Transylvania.
Jan. 8-Cardinal Mercier has been placed under restraint by the German authorities because of his pastoral, read in the churches on Jan. 3, in which he told the Belgians that they owe German author
ity "neither respect, nor attachment, nor obedience."
Jan. 9-It is reported that Cardinal Mercier was arrested, but the report is denied by the Military Governor of Belgium; circulation of the Mercier pastoral is not being permitted. Jan. 10-The Mercier pastoral is read in English churches; Belgian refugees are proving a problem in England and Holland.
Jan. 11 Admiration for Cardinal Mercier expressed by King Albert in a letter to the Pope.
Jan. 12-It is reported from Rome that the Vatican has asked Germany for an explanation regarding the acts with reference to Cardinal Mercier.
Jan. 22-Full text of the Mercier pastoral is printed in THE NEW YORK TIMES. CANADA
Jan. 22-Major General Hughes, Minister of Militia and Defense, arrives in Vancouver to arrange for enlistment of third contingent.
Jan. 30-First detachment of Canadian troops is in France; other detachments are en route; nine German prisoners escape from Halifax citadel; war fund of $1,500,000 raised in five days in Montreal. Jan. 31-Six Canadians, including two officers, killed in La Bassée fight.
Jan. 10-Abbas Hilmi, deposed Khédive, calls upon Egyptians and Sudanese to rise against England.
Jan. 8-House of Lords adjourns after discussion of recruiting and other phases of the war.
Jan. 12-Government appeals to women to induce men to enlist.
Jan. 15-War Office issues statement that letters destined for hostile countries will be held up unless they are unsealed. Jan. 16-Seven British naval officers, interned in Holland, escape, but five are recaptured.
Jan. 23-Statement shows that total casualty list of officers up to Jan. 12 was 4,344, of whom 1,266 were killed, the rest being wounded and missing; many interned Germans and Austrians released on parole. Jan. 27-Two Hindu soldiers win Victoria Crosses; London financial papers deprecate a joint loan for the Allies. Jan. 27-Many Oxford "blues " are serving in the army.
Jan. 31-There are 178 peers serving in the
Jan. 10-Government will surrender German surgeons and nurses held as prisoners of war only in equal exchange.
14 Socialist Senator demands postponement of war discussion in Parliament and says speeches must give way to voice of cannon.
Jan. 18-Paris darkened by police order. Jan. 22-Capt. Uhde, stated to be a relative of the Kaiser, is sent to concentration camp after being accused of having spied on the French fleet at Toulon. Jan. 27-Many doctors have been killed, wounded, and taken prisoner, the reason for lengthy casualty list being stated to be that the French doctors do not desert their wounded on approach of the enemy. Jan. 29-Officer stops Mrs. Asquith and party on way to the front for a weekend.
Jan. 8-Government charges that San Marino. has been encouraging espionage by its wireless station.
Jan. 9-Tobacco sent to French prisoners to be admitted free of duty. Jan. 10-Retired Belgian General and Lieutenant sentenced to life imprisonment for aiding Belgians to escape to Holland; it is said that the Landsturm can still furnish 5,000,000 men; Socialist meeting prohibited in Saxony.
Jan. 11-Reports from Russia state that German women in men's uniforms have been taken prisoners in bayonet charges recently and that some of them are wounded and in hospital; sale of blankets forbidden in Berlin and Brandenburg; the stocks are to be placed at the disposal of the military authorities; French women and children taken from occupied territory are being sent home.
Jan. 12-The Pope is negotiating for better treatment of clerical prisoners.
Jan. 17-Official reports state that the prisoners of war held by Germany and Austria are now 800,000.
Jan. 22-Escaped British officer charges cruelty toward British prisoners. Jan. 23-Money prizes are offered to the first invaders of England.
Jan. 25-Secretary Bryan makes public the text of German Government's notification of cancellation of exequaturs granted by Belgian Government to foreign Consular representatives, and the reply of the United States.
Jan. 27-Prince von Bülow tells Italian statesmen that Italy's preparations for war are resented and that an ultimatum may be sent; French charge that German soldiers reverse bullets for short-range fighting; wife of Greek Consul at Liége sentenced to prison for aiding Belgians to escape; all neutrals to be expelled from Upper Alsace; Gen. von Bissing orders all Englishmen in Belgium sent to Germany.
Jan. 30-Value of French territory occupied by the Germans is estimated at $1,900,000,000 by the Inspector General of the Crédit Foncier, of 7.2 per cent. of the total value of all France; according to the census of 1911 3,255,000 persons, or 8.2 per cent. of the population of France, live in this territory; Berlin night life is under the war ban, yet the opera and theatres are open.
Jan. 11-Troops sent to garrison the Italian islands in the Aegean.
Jan. 12-Demonstration when the body of Constantino Garibaldi, killed while serving with the French, arrives in Rome; many applications for nationality by Germans are being refused; Committee of National Defense formed at Milan. Jan. 13-Italians in all parts of the world are offering to enlist in event of war; a special police census shows 700,000 Austrians and Germans in the country; embassies advise them to leave.
Jan. 23-Vice Consul at Liége dismissed for aiding Belgians; prominent Italians appeal to neutral countries to take steps to preserve art treasures in belligerent countries.
Jan. 25-Radicals want war.
Categories are called to the colors; retired officers fit for service are liable to be recalled.
Jan. 30-Contracts for army and navy supplies are placed in the United States. Jan. 31-Riots in Rome against neutralists.
Jan. 8-The nation is mobilizing 750,000 men, of whom 500,000 form the field army. Jan. 11-London experts think that Rumania will soon enter war on side of Allies, her army linking with the extreme Russian left.
Jan. 16-Students in Switzerland summoned home because of mobilization.
Jan. 22-Orders are placed with Swiss firms for medical supplies.
Jan. 26-Exportation of army supplies to
Jan. 9-Girl fights with Cossacks and wins Cross of St. George.
Jan. 10-Only half the number of this year's recruits liable for military service are called out.
Jan. 20-It is reported that some members of the imperial family are opposed to the
Jan. 21-Troops are warned against bogus proclamations, bearing Czar's name, circulated by Austrians.
Jan. 22-Orders issued for expulsion of Austrian and German subjects.
THE NEW YORK TIMES CURRENT HISTORY
Jan. 26-Foreign Minister Sazonof says there will be no peace while a single soldier of the enemy remains on Russian soil. Jan. 29-Poles form legion at Warsaw.
Jan. 8-California's relief cargo is on the way to Rotterdam.
Jan. 9-To date the value of cargoes of food, clothing, and medical supplies delivered, in transit on the Atlantic, or arranged for from the United States to Belgium amount to more than $14,000,000; milk and sugar scarce in Belgium, the babies feeling the influence of the food crisis. Jan. 10-Antwerp Council passes resolution of thanks to Americans, whose help "is literally saving us."
Jan. 11-American party sent to relieve German and Austrian prisoners in Russia is halted by the Russian Government pending negotiations.
Jan. 15-Large consignment of supplies is sent to Saloniki by American Red Cross; Virginia and Maryland send Belgian relief ships; Georgia is raising funds for a ship.
Jan. 21-American Red Cross issues report of its European activities from Aug. 1 to Jan. 9; war fund thus far amounts to $1,188,000; forty-five American Red Cross
surgeons and 150 nurses are on war duty in Europe; Sing Sing prisoners are to knit socks for Polish destitute. Jan. 23-Mme. Grouitch, wife of the Secretary General for Foreign Affairs of Servia, arrives in New York seeking funds for seeds for the Servian Spring planting; Dr. Wickliffe Rose and Ernest Bicknell, who have been in Russian Poland for the American Red Cross, report from Berlin that conditions in Poland are worse, if anything, than those in Belgium. Jan. 24-Commission for Relief in Belgium has thirty-five chartered steamships running between American ports and Rotterdam carrying supplies.
Jan. 26-American Red Cross ships large consignment of supplies for Constantinople and Servia.
Jan. 27-Commission for Relief in Belgium states that 76,000 tons of food, in addition to supplies in sight, are needed for next three months; there are now 1,400,000 destitute and the number is increasing daily.
Jan. 28-Committee of prominent American educators plans to have the 20,000,000 children of the United States help war sufferers through a new fund, to be called the Children of America's Fund.
Jan. 31-Rockefeller Foundation denies that it has withdrawn from Belgium relief work.