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war, preparations had been made to carry this plan into effect.
Dr. B. Dernburg says that the onesidedness of the Belgian inclination is indicated by the placing of all Belgian fortresses on the eastern frontier. The distinguished statesman (apparently confused by the ardor of discussion) has already in another article, published in The Independent of Dec. 7, 1914, placed Antwerp at the mouth of the Rhine; today he places Namur on the German frontier, whereas that fortress is situated near the frontier of France. There are three fortresses in BelgiumAntwerp, Liége, and Namur. Antwerp is in the north, Liége in the east, and Namur in the south. Namur, being near the French frontier, could meanace Germany only in case the Germans should have penetrated about one-third of Belgium. It is, in fact, a fortress against France.
Nothing has been brought forward to show that, if Germany had not invaded Belgium, France or England would have done so. The exact contrary is clearly indicated by the documents.
Dr. B. Dernburg cites a decision of the Supreme Court of the United States and attempts to apply it to the case of Germany's violation of Belgian neutrality and to justify Germany by the law of necessity. The example chosen (the Chinese question) does not involve massacres, bombardments, nor the burning of
towns. It is not an analogous case. The following would be a closer analogy to Germany's action in regard to Belgium: A man pretending that he has been attacked in the street by a powerful enemy, claims that he is justified in killing an innocent person, if by doing so he can gain an advantage over his adversary.
It would be difficult for any one to produce a decision of the Supreme Court justifying a crime on the plea that the perpetration of the crime was advantageous to the culprit who committed it.
When a nation has to resort to such arguments to defend its actions it must realize that its case is desperate.
Germany has converted smiling and peaceful Belgium into a land of sorrow, of mourning, and of ruins. There is not a family that does not mourn one of its dear ones. In the face of the indignation which has aroused the world, Germany, today, endeavors to refute the accusation which rises against her from so many tombs, and she endeavors to throw upon the innocent the terrible responsibility of her own crimes.
It is not probable that this course of action will win back to Germany the sympathy which she has lost throughout the world.
The foregoing documents show clearly that Belgium had made no agreement with England for attacking Germany, nor even an agreement for British military defense of Belgian neutrality.
[Having replied to the representations made in the German indictment drawn by Dr. Dernburg, the Belgian authorities proceeded to compile a pamphlet, the contents of which are reproduced on the following pages, purporting to show from original documents the manner of the German violation of Belgium's neutralized territory.]
[BELGIAN LEGATION ARTICLE NO. 2.]
"Why Belgium Was Devastated"
"As Recorded in Proclamations of the German
[This article, including the title, is reproduced from the second pamphlet
'Necessity knows no law."
"The wrong that we are committing we will endeavor to repair as soon as our military goal has been reached."
-BETHMANN-HOLLWEG. EXTRACT FROM A PROCLAMATION
TO THE MUNICIPAL AUTHOR-
The inhabitants of the town of Andenne, after having declared their peaceful intentions, have made a surprise attack on our troops.
It is with my consent that the Commander in Chief has ordered the whole town to be burned and that about one hundred people have been shot.
I bring this fact to the knowledge of the City of Liége, so that citizens of Liége may realize the fate with which they are menaced if they adopt a similar attitude.
The General Commanding in Chief. (Signed) VON BUELOW. NOTICE POSTED AT NAMUR, AU
GUST THE 25TH, 1914
(1) French and Belgian soldiers must be surrendered as prisoners of war at the prison before 4 o'clock. Citizens who do not obey will be condemned to enforced labor for life in Germany.
A rigorous inspection of houses will begin at 4 o'clock. Every soldier found will be immediately shot.
(2) Arms, powder, dynamite, must be surrendered at 4 o'clock. death by shooting.
The citizens who know
store of arms is located must inform the Burgomaster, under penalty of enforced labor for life.
(3) Each street will be occupied by a German guard who will take ten hostages in each street, whom they will keep in custody.
If any outrage is committed in the street, the ten hostages will be shot.
(4) Doors must not be locked, and at night after 8 o'clock three windows must be lighted in each house.
(5) It is forbidden to remain in the street after 8 o'clock. The people of Namur must understand that there is no greater nor more horrible crime than to endanger the existence of the city and the life of its inhabitants by attacks upon the German Army.
The Commandant of the City. (Signed) VON BUELOW. Namur, 25th of August, 1914. (Imprimerie Chantraine.) LETTER ADDRESSED ON AUG. 27,
1914, BY LIEUT. GEN VON NIEBER TO THE BURGOMASTER OF WAVRE
On Aug. 22, 1914, the General commanding the Second Army, Herr von Bülow, imposed upon the City of Wavre a war levy of three million francs, to be paid before Sept. 1, as expiation for its unqualifiable behavior (contrary to the law of nations and the usages of war) in making a surprise attack on the German troops.
The General in command of the Second Army has just given to the General commanding this station of the Second
Army the order to send in without delay, this contribution which it should pay on account of its conduct.
I order and command you to give to the bearer of the present letter the two first installments, that is to say, two million francs in gold.
Furthermore, I require that you give the bearer a letter, duly sealed with the seal of the city, stating that the balance, that is to say, one million francs, will be paid, without fail, on the 1st of September.
I draw the attention of the city to the fact that in no case can it count on further delay, as the civil population of the city has put itself outside the law of nations by firing on the German soldiers.
The City of Wavre will be burned and destroyed if the levy is not paid in due time, without regard for any one; the innocent will suffer with the guilty. PROCLAMATION POSTED AT GRIVEGNEE, Sept. 8, 1914
Commune of Grivegnee.
The Major Commandant Dieckmann, at the Château des Bruyeres, requests me to bring the following statement to the knowledge of the inhabitants: Dieckmann Battalion, Château des Bruyeres, Sept. 6, 1914. Present at the discussion:
(1) The Curé Fryns of Bois de Breux.
(6) The Burgomaster Hodeige of
(7) Major Dieckmann.
(8) Lieut. R. Reil.
Major Dieckmann brought to the knowl
edge of the persons present the following orders:
"(1) Before the 6th of September, 1914, at 4 o'clock in the afternoon, all arms, munitions, explosives, and fireworks which are still in the hands of the citizens must be surrendered at the Château des Bruyeres. Those who do not obey will render themselves liable
to the death penalty. They will be shot. on the spot, or given military execution, unless they can prove their innocence.
“(2) All inhabitants of houses in Beyne-Heusay, Grivegnee, Bois de Breux, and Fleron must remain at home after sunset, (at present 7 o'clock P. M., German time.) The aforesaid houses must be lighted as long as any one remains up. The entrance door must be shut. Those who do not conform to the regulations expose themselves to severe penalties. Any resistance to these orders will be followed by sentence of death.
(5) In order to be sure that this permission is not abused, the Burgomasters of Beyne-Heusay and of Grivegnee shall immediately draw up a list of persons who shall be held as hostages, at the fort of Fleron, in twenty-four-hour shifts; on Sept. 6, for the first time, from 6 o'clock in the evening until midday, Sept. 7.
"The life of these hostages will depend upon the population of the aforesaid communes remaining pacific under all circumstances.
"During the night it is strictly prohibited to make any luminous signal whatever. The circulation of bicycles is only allowed from 7 A. M. until 5 P. M., German time.
the penalty of death if the substitution
is not made.
"(7) Hostages will be chosen, primarily, from among priests, Burgomasters, and other members of the civic administration.
"(8) I demand that all civilians living in the vicinity, especially in BeyneHeusay, Fleron, Bois de Breux, and Grivegnee, shall show deference toward the German officers by taking off their hats and by carrying the hand to the head in military salute. In case of doubt, every German soldier must be saluted. If any one refuses to do so, he must expect the German soldiers to make themselves respected by any means they may select.
"(9) The German soldiers have the right to visit any wagon or package belonging to the inhabitants of the surrounding country. Any opposition will be severely punished.
"(10) Any one knowing of the location of a store of more than one hundred litres of petroleum, benzine, benzol, or other similar liquids in the aforesaid communes, and who does not report same to the military commander on the spot, incurs the penalty of death, provided there is no doubt about the quantity and the location of the store. Quantities of 100 litres are alone referred to.
"(11) Any one who does not instantly obey the command of hands up' becomes guilty (sic) of the death penalty.
"(12) The entrance to the Château des Bruyeres and to the park is prohibited under the penalty of death from dark till dawn, (6 P. M. to 6 A. M., German time,) to all who are not soldiers of the German Army.
"(13) During daytime entrance to the Château des Bruyeres is allowed only by the northeast entrance, where there is a guard, and only to the people to whom cards of admission have been given. Any gathering near the guard is prohibited in the interest of the population.
“(14) Any one who by spreading false news prejudicial to the morale of the German troops or who by any means tries to take measures against the Ger
man Army renders himself a suspect and incurs the risk of being shot immediately.
"(15) Whereas by the above regulations the inhabitants in the vicinity of the fortress are threatened with severe penalties if they violate these regulations in any way, on the other hand these same inhabitants, if they remain peaceful, may rely upon the most benevolent protection and help on all occasions when wrong is done them.
“(16) The requisition of cattle in specified quantities will take place daily from 10 A. M. until noon and from 2 P. M. to 3 P. M. at the Château des Bruyeres before the Cattle Commission.
"(17) Any one who under the protection of the insignia of the Swiss (Red Cross) Convention harms, or even tries to harm, the Germany Army and is discovered shall be hung."
Major in Command.
Grivegnee, Sept. 8, 1914.
For certified copy: the Burgomaster,
SUMMONS TO CAPITULATE
Sept. 4, 1914. To the Commander of Termonde and, at the same time, to the Burgomaster of Termonde:
The Germans have taken Termonde. We have placed the heaviest siege artillery all around the town. Still, at the present time, one dares shoot from houses upon German soldiers. The town and the fortress are summoned to hoist immediately the white flag and to stop fighting. If you do not yield to this summons immediately the town will be razed to the ground within a quarter of an hour by a heavy bombardment. All the armed forces of Termonde will immediately lay down their arms at the Porte de Bruxelles (Brussels Gate) at the south exit from Termonde. Arms held by the inhabitants will be deposited at the same time and at the same place.
The General Commanding the Ger-
PROCLAMATION POSTED IN BRUS
SELS SEPT. 25, 1914
It has happened recently in some places which are not at the present time occupied by strong forces of German troops, military convoys or patrolling parties have been attacked by surprise by the inhabitants.
I draw the attention of the public to the fact that a record is kept of the towns and villages in the vicinity in which such attacks have taken place and that they must expect their punishment as soon as German troops pass near by.
The Governor General of Belgium, (Signed) BARON VON DER GOLTZ, Field Marshal.
Brussels, 25th September. NOTICE POSTED AT BRUSSELS OCT. 5, 1914, AND PRESUMABLY IN MOST OF THE COMMUNES IN THE COUNTRY
On the evening of Sept. 25 the railway and telegraph lines were destroyed on the Lovenjoul-Vertryck line.
Consequently the two above-mentioned places on the morning of Sept. 30 had to give an account and to furnish hostages.
In the future the communities in the vicinity of a place where such things happen (no matter whether or not they are accomplices) will be punished without mercy.
To this end hostages have been taken from all places in the vicinity of railroad lines menaced by such attacks, and at the first attempt to destroy the railroad tracks or the telegraph or telephone wires they will be immediately shot.
Furthermore, all troops in charge of the protection of the railroad lines have received orders to shoot any person approaching in a suspicious manner the railroad tracks or the telegraph or telephone lines.
The Governor General of Belgium, (Signed) BARON VON DER GOLTZ, Field Marshal.
NOTICE POSTED AT BRUSSELS, NOV. 1, 1914
A legally constituted court-martial has pronounced, the 28th of October, 1914, the following condemnations:
"(1) Upon Policeman de Ryckere for attacking, in the exercise of his legal functions, an agent vested with German authority, for willfully inflicting bodily injury on two occasions in concert with other persons, for facilitating the escape of a prisoner on one occasion, and for attacking a German soldier-Five years' imprisonment.
"(2) Upon Policeman Seghers for attacking, in the exercise of his legal functions, an agent vested with German authority, for willfully inflicting bodily injury upon said German agent, and for facilitating the escape of a prisoner (all these offenses constituting a single act)-Three years' imprisonment."
These sentences have been confirmed by Gov. Gen. Baron von der Goltz on Oct. 31, 1914.
The City of Brussels, excluding suburbs, has been punished for the crime committed by its policeman de Ryckere against a German soldier by an additional fine of 5,000,000 francs.
The Governor of Brussels, (Signed) BARON VON LUETWITZ, Brussels, Nov. 1, 1914. General.
EXTRACT FROM THE SIXTH REPORT OF THE BELGIUM COMMISSION OF INQUIRY
After such proclamations, who will be surprised at the murders, burnings, pillage, and destruction committed by the German Army wherever they have met with resistance?
If a German corps or patrolling party is received at the entrance to a village by a volley from soldiers of the regular troops who are afterward forced to retire the whole population is held responsible. The civilians are accused of having fired or having co-operated in the defense and, without inquiry, the place is given over to pillage and flames, and a part of the inhabitants are massacred. The Commission of Inquiry has al