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train (ten cars) easily, and they generally have at least four siding's apart from the through up-and-down lines. Moreover, at almost every station there are two lines of siding long enough for troop trains, so that they can be used to some extent as detraining stations, and so that a couple of troop trains can be held up at any time while traffic continues uninterrupted.
It is impossible to believe that this. system was constructed for any other purpose than to prepare for the exigency which might some day force Germany to ignore the Treaty of 1839 and invade Belgium. At least it presumably accounts for the vast armies which invested Liége and Namur in the early days of last August.
Its existence, in both the light and the darkness of the Treaty of Neu
trality, shows that Belgium was justified in taking any measures which were likely to preserve her national existence, so obviously threatened. That these measures were always within the letter and spirit of the Treaty of 1839 is so much to her credit.
The strategic lines that Germany built on her frontier would have justified her in going further. Her obligations to herself and to her pledged protectors prevented this. Germany went on with her railway building unchallenged. She laboriously constructed an edifice which is both a monument and an altar-a monument to military forethought and expediency, an altar on which she has sacrificed her national honor.
Showing Progress of Campaigns on All Fronts and Collateral Events From Oct. 15, 1914, to and Including Jan. 7, 1915*
CAMPAIGN IN EASTERN EUROPE
Oct. 19-Fierce fighting near Warsaw and Przemysl ; Servians capture Serajevo forts.
Oct. 20-Przemysl forts damaged; Austrians advance in Stryi and Stica Valleys; Servians win at Prekiet.
Oct. 21-Russian General Staff announces German rout in Poland and halting of Austrians at the San; Servians repel Austrian attacks in Bosnia.
Oct. 22-Russians defeat Germans near Warsaw; Russians capture many Austrian soldiers and some guns in Galicia. Oct. 23-Russians pursue retreating Austrians in Poland; Germans move fortified positions to River Warthe and claim victory west of Augustowo; Austrians reoccupy Czernowitz and announce capture of fortifications around Sambor.
Oct. 24-Russians drive Germans back forty
Oct. 26-Battle raging between Rawa and the Iijanka River.
Oct. 27-New Russian army crosses the Vistula north of Ivangorod; Russians drive Germans from Rawa; Austrians claim victory in Galicia.
Oct. 28-Germans admit that German and Austrian troops have been forced to retire from Russian Poland as fresh Russians come up; fighting along River San; Hungarian cavalry division almost annihilated in Galicia.
Oct. 29-Russians split opposing armies north and south of Piliza River; Northern German army in retreat.
Oct. 30-German Army retreating from the Vistula is hard pressed by the Russians, who capture guns and aeroplanes and reoccupy Czernowitz; Austrian defeat near Tarnow.
Oct. 31-Germans lose heavily on East Prussian line; Russians occupy towns beyond the Vistula; Austrians capture several Russian positions and win victory on border of Bukowina.
Nov. 1-Russians regain more of Poland and advance along whole front beyond the Vistula; fighting at Opatow; Montenegrins bombard Cattaro and advance in Herzegovina; Austrian movement
checked at Nadworna.
Nov. 2-Russians advance on East Prussia, while northern force covers Warsaw; Germans retreat in three lines; GermanAustrian armies in Poland make another stand; battle between Austrians and Servians near Rovrye.
Nov. 3-Russians continue advances in East Prussia and Poland; Austrians storm Sabao.
Nov. 4-Russians capture Barkalarjewo, drive left wing of German army back toward Biala and Lyck, and dislodge rear guards from Kola and Przedborz; Austrians defeated on entire front from Kielce to Sandomierz.
Nov. 5-Germans in critical position; frost a new misery of the campaign. Nov. 6-Russians recapture Jaroslaw; Austrians in retreat along entire Galician front; Germans continue to retreat in East Prussia.
Prussian frontier; they occupy Goudapp: Germana mandram farther from the Vie tola: Austrians are pushed back toward Cracow, Russiana take many prisoners near Przemys; Germana win victory near Dyschtamiz Lake and capture 4,000 prisoners, Berans force Austrian retirement near Snamata; Russiana are twenty miles from Insterburg and sesenty from Posen; Kaiser's estate at Kiminten ruined. Now 10 Right wing of German Army driven back toward Masurian Lakes, Germans rush reinforcements to Thorn and Posen; Russians empy Miechcow; Austrians deTent Servians near Loanitza No. 11 Russians attack Cracow defenses; Austrians are pursuing Servians on Shabats-Loritza line.
12 Russians control Fast Prussian frontier railway; siege of Przemysl resuffer, Austrians win victory at Pruth; at the Han River they try to halt advance on Cracow, Servians rout Austrians who attempt to cross the Danube near Semandria.
15 Germans withdraw from Kalisz and Weljun; they are repulsed near Czenstochow: Russians reach Angerburg. Nov. 16 Germans check Russian advance in East Prussia at Stallupoenen; Russians advancing from Soldau are defeated and driven back toward Plock; Russians in Iussian Poland driven back to Kutno after German success at Wlozlawsk; Cracow is besieged.
Nov. 17 Great battle is being fought in Poland between the Vistula and Warthe Rivers: Germans are falling back on the entire line between Gumbinnen and Angerburg: Austrians reach the Kolubara River and capture 8,000 Servians. Nov. 18--Russian advance guard between the Vistula and the Warthe driven back toward the Bzura; battle fought at Soldau; Russians advance in East Prussia; Servians and Montenegrins win fight near Trebinje forts.
Now. 21-Rosmans check von Hindenburg on the Vistula-Warthe line and win success Bear Lodz; both skies clazm success on Cracow -Czeficctowo Line : Russian advance contines in East Prussia around Masurian Lakes; Russians take four towns in Galicia
Nov. 21-Russians take Przemysl trenches and find them filled with lime as cholera preventive: heavy fightin in Poland; fighting at Cracow: lull in East Prussia; Servians fall back on strong positions: they deny Austrian reports of victories. Nov. 2-German Army advances to forty miles from Warsaw; fighting on line from Lowicz to Skierniewice; Russians take Gumbinnen; Austrians
Sandec: Russians take 2,000 prisnear Cracow : Austrians cross Kolubara River and capture many Ser
33-German advance on Warsaw checked by arrival cf Russian reinforcements: many Germans captured near Lowicz; Austrian capture 2,400 Russians at Pilica; successful sortie by Przemysl garrison.
Nov. 24-Ten-day battle in Poland ends in Russian victory, Germans being pressed back.
Nov. 25-Left wing of main German Army surrounded in Russian Poland; remainder of army tries to retreat north of Lodz; von Hindenburg reported cut off from Crown Prince; Russians again invade Hungary and corner Austrians in Carpathian passes; Servians rout Austrians, who crossed the Kolubara. Nov. 26-Russians report continued successes, while G mans report victories between Lodz and Lowicz; Servians make gains; Austrians report Przemysl undamaged.
Nov. 27-Germans re sending reinforcements: Austrians admit evacuation of Czernowitz; Montenegrins defeat Austrians near Vishegrad.
Nov. 28-Germans retreat in Poland, fighting hard; Russians gain near Cracow, and near Strykow; Russians in Czernowitz.
Nov. 29-Montenegrins defeat Austrians in Bosnia; Russians split German Army at Lodz into three parts and repulse relief column at Bombin; fighting at Strykow and Zgierz; fighting in the Carpathians. Nov. 30-Three battles are being fought in Poland; Russians report capture of ten miles of German trenches near Lowicz: Russians fail in attack on Darkehmen; Russians have successes in Galicia and the Carpathians.