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Rome, in S. Mark's at Venice, and at Milan, the old Italic psalter is still used. The council of Trent declared the Latin Vulgate to be an authentic translation of the holy Scriptures, but gave full liberty to any persons to consult them in the original languages. In the English psalter, the words of intonation of each psalm are taken from the Latin Vulgate, though the general translation follows more closely S. Jerom's own version from the Hebrew. The psalter in the English Bible is still nearer it. It is perhaps needless to mention that the 9th psalm, Confitebor Tibi, in the Latin Vulgate, includes the 9th and 10th in the English psalter. The 113th psalm, In exitu Israel, contains the 114th and 115th of the English version. The 114th, Dilexi quoniam, ends with the ninth verse of the English 116th psalm, and the tenth verse, Credidi, is the first of the Vulgate 115th. And the 147th psalm, Lauda Jerusalem, in the Vulgate begins with the twelfth verse of the English 147th.

S. Jerom also wrote many treatises in explanation of holy Scripture, and commentaries on the prophets and on the Gospel of S. Matthew. He compiled a book of ecclesiastical writers, which contains the names of all who had illustrated the Christian faith by their works, from the blessed Prince of the Apostles till his own day. His labours against the enemies of the Church we have already seen. greatest monuments of his zeal and learning, besides his treatises on holy Scripture, are his books against Helvidius, Jovinian, Vigilantius, and Rufinus; and his Dialogues against the Pelagians. More than a hundred of his epistles have been preserved. The


Martyrology which is called by his name, has been proved not to have been written by him, though it is very ancient. Dacherius says that he published it from a manuscript written about the year 600'.

Four congregations of religious bear the name of S. Jerom as their principal patron. One of these is in Spain, the others belong to Italy. They now adopt the rule of S. Austin, with a few constitutions drawn from the epistles of S. Jerom.

The peaceful star of Bethlehem

Came o'er thy solitude,

The radiance of the heavenly gem

Lit up thy sterner mood;

Yea, like a star in murky wells,

Cheering the bed where darkness dwells,
The images of earth its happier light endued.

The thought of the Eternal Child

Upon thy cloistral cell

Must sure have cast an influence mild,

And, like a holy spell,

Have peopled that far Eastern night

With dreams meet for an eremite,

Beside that cradle poor bidding the world farewell.

Cathedral, p. 297.

1 Spicilegium, Pref. ad tom. iv.

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S. Remigius, Bishop.


S. REMIGIUS was born in his ancestral castle of Laon in Gaul, where his father Emilius kept the state suitable to his rank. Principius, his elder brother, became bishop of Soissons, and is honoured as a saint in the Western Church, on the 25th of September. When his mother Celinia was very old, Montanus, a blind monk, foretold that she should have another son, who should be the cause of salvation to many. His prophecy was fulfilled, probably about the year 450. From his childhood Remigius was remarkable for the gravity and thoughtfulness of his demeanour, and for his tender benevolence towards all around him. He withdrew from his father's house, to seek greater retirement from the world in solitude. He spent great part of his time in prayer and mortifications and vigils. So eminent did he become in the spiritual life, that he was elected by universal consent to the vacant see of Rheims, in the twenty

second year of his age. His rare virtues were deemed a sufficient reason for setting aside the canon in his favour.

Fortunatus, bishop of Poictou in the seventh age, and the earliest historian of his life, describes the saint in these words; "He was liberal in alms, devout in prayer, sedulous in vigils, perfect in charity, abased in humility, distinguished in doctrine, ready in speech, most holy in conversation. He showed the sincerity of his mind in the serenity of his countenance, and the gentleness of his heart in the sweetness of his discourse. He taught by deeds rather than by words." The great strength and clearness of his arguments, united to the most winning gracefulness of style, made him be deservedly thought the most eloquent man of his time. Many miracles are related to have been performed by him. On one occasion, as he was making the circuit of his diocess, he cured a blind man who was possessed by an evil spirit. At another time, the city of Rheims took fire, but was saved by his prayers. He also restored to life a young girl.

At that time, the ancient inhabitants of Gaul were fast merging in the nation of the Franks, who had come from the east of the Rhine, and had spread over a great part of Gaul, by adopting the manners and language of the aboriginal people, as well as by force of arms. Childeric, king of the Franks, dying in 486, was succeeded by his son Clovis. During a war with Syagrius, king of the Romans, the army of Clovis committed many outrages on the property of the Church. But the king himself, though a pagan, seems to have frequently restrained his followers

from these excesses. He ordered a rich vessel, which had been carried away from the church of Rheims, to be restored, at the urgent request of S. Remigius. And when the plunderer refused to part with it, he killed him with his own hand.

Clotildis, his queen, was a Christian, and earnestly desired the conversion of her lord. For a long time her lessons and prayers seemed unavailing. Her eldest son Ingomer was baptized, at her desire, but died within a week after receiving the holy sacrament. Clovis reproached the queen as the cause of his death, which he ascribed to the superstitious rite, as he deemed it. But she meekly replied, I thank my God Who has thought me worthy to bear a child whom He has called to His kingdom. Their second son also was baptized, by the name of Chlodomir. He too was at the point of death, and the king was in the utmost despair. But God granted his life to the tears of his mother. And at length it pleased Him to reward her piety by the conversion of her husband. The occasion of it is memorable.

During his wars with the Alemanni, in the year 496, his army was engaged in a desperate battle with the enemy. The day seemed irrecoverably lost, when the king cried out in an agony, O Jesu Christ, Whom Clotildis proclaims to be the Son of the living God, if Thou wilt make me victorious over my enemies, I will believe in Thee, and will be baptized in Thy Name. Fresh courage animated his army, and he gained the victory. He immediately began to prepare to fulfil his vow. He sought the aid of S. Vedast, a holy priest, who instructed him in the Christian doctrines. The queen heard of his change

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