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Besides his irreproachable character, O'Connell had what is half the power of the popular orator; he had a majestic presence. In his youth he had the brow of a Jupiter or a Jove, and the stature of Apollo. A little O'Connell would have been no O'Connell at all. These physical advantages are half the battle. You remember the story Russell Lowell tells of Webster when, a year or two before his death, the Whig party thought of dissolution. Webster came home from Washington and went down to Faneuil Hall to protest, and four thousand of his fellow Whigs went out to meet him. Drawing himself up to his loftiest proportions, his brow charged with thunder, before that sea of human faces, he said: "Gentlemen, I am a Whig; a Massachusetts Whig; a Faneuil Hall Whig; a revolutionary Whig; a constitutional Whig; and if you break up the Whig party, where am I to go?" "And," says Lowell, "we held our breath thinking where he could go. If he had been five feet three, we should have said: 'Who cares where you go?"

Well, O'Connell had all that. There was something majestic in his presence before he spoke, and he added to it what Webster had not, the magnetism and grace that melts a million souls into his. Then, he had a voice that covered the gamut. Speaking in Exeter Hall, London, I once heard him say, "I send my voice across the Atlantic, careering like the thunderstorm against the breeze, to tell the slave-holder of the Carolinas that God's thunderbolts are hot, and to remind the bondman that the dawn of his redemption is already breaking." And you seemed to hear his voice reverberating and re-echoing back to London from the Rocky Mountains. And then, with the slightest possible Irish brogue, he would tell a story that would make all Exeter Hall laugh, and the next moment tears in his voice, like an old song, and five thousand men wept. And all the while no effort - he seemed only breathing,

"As effortless as woodland nooks

Send violets up, and paint them blue."


Force deals with the expression of feeling. It includes Climax, the height of force, and Volume, expressive of largeness in conception or description. In all its phases, the mastery and use of Force distinguishes the successful speaker from the indifferent or mediocre. The speaker should learn to adapt his voice to the audience-room and to the emotional content of his speech by appropriate loudness and volume, and by bringing out the climaxes. Above all must emotion, induced by the mental concept, be the inspiration and guide in the use of Force.



Tone-color. Tone-color (German Klang-farbe) signifies that quality of voice whereby emotions find expression. Reference has previously been made, expressly or impliedly, to the leading feature of this element, but its Importance as a medium of expression will justify something of a repetition here.

And first, tone-color is expressive of emotion growing out of, and given along with, the intellectual aspects of the thought. Its basis is sympathy. It is not primarily expressive of ideas or logical relations. It shows rather the speaker's point of view; it reveals the nature and degree of his responsiveness to the thought. Now, since tonecolor grows out of emotional states, and emotional states grow out of the point of view, and the point of view depends upon the individual speaker, we must conclude that the classification by some writers of a given selection as adapted to a given "tone," that certain emotions labelled with certain adjectives require the "orotund," or "falsetto," or "aspirate," or "pectoral" quality; that such a classification is as artificial as the speaker must be who attempts to follow it. Conscious attention to tone-color as such is apt to result in artificiality; the attention had best be directed to clarifying and intensifying the ideas that give rise to the emotions. True, certain physical states react upon and produce emotional states. One may, for example, "bring his voice up in the throat" and by a tremulous vocalization in

duce a certain degree of sorrow. It is such vocal gymnastics as this by certain speakers and "readers" that render their utterance excruciating to a sensible mind and sensitive ear. Attention must therefore be directed mainly to awakening ! the appropriate emotions. To this end let us consider two phases of tone-color: (1) word-coloring, and (2) the emotional setting, or "atmosphere," of a paragraph or selection as a whole.

Word-coloring. In the formative period of language development, men attempted to convey a given picture by imitative sounds. There are many such words in our language, such as buzz, swish, hiss, hum, bang, boom, etc. Tone-color, however, while it may include onomatopoeia, is a great deal more than mere imitation. Its use is to mirror the emotional significance of words over and beyond their literal signification. Strong men infuse into their work a great deal of their own spirit. Likewise strong speakers; their words are charged with a suggestion and meaning beyond the mere sound.

Says Cicero, in his De Oratore, "The tones of the voice, like musical chords, are so wound up as to be responsive to every touch, sharp, flat, quick, slow, loud, gentle. Anger, fear, violence, pleasure, trouble, each has its own tone for expression." Now, it is the function of tone-color to show the speaker's responsiveness to the emotional touch. Beauty of sentiment must be mirrored by melody of voice, strong feeling by strength of voice, tenderness by gentler tones, and so on. To do this, the most that can be said by way of direction is: Dwell upon the important words, and allow time for the emotion to express itself. Take the following from Curtis's eulogy of Phillips; note the variety in emotional expression and aim to give the words their appro priate tone-color.

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He faced his audience with a tranquil mien, and a beaming aspect that was never dimmed. He spoke, and in the measured cadence of his quiet voice there was intense feeling, but no declamation, no passionate appeal, no superficial or feigned emotion. It was simply colloquy - a gentleman conversing. And this wonderful power, it was not a thunderstorm; yet somehow and surely the ear and heart were charmed. How was it done? Ah! how did Mozart do it, how Raphael? The secret of the rose's sweetness, of the bird's ecstasy, of the sunset's glory, – that is the secret of genius and eloquence. What was heard, what was seen, was the form of noble manhood, the courteous and self-possessed tone, the flow of modulated speech, sparkling with richness of illustration, with apt allusion and happy anecdote and historic parallel, with wit and pitiless invective, with melodious pathos, with stinging satire, with crackling epigram and limpid humor, like the bright ripples that play around the sure and steady prow of the resistless ship. The divine energy of his conviction utterly possessed him, and his


"Pure and eloquent blood

Spoke in his cheek and so distinctly wrought
That one might almost say his body thought."

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Atmosphere " of the Address. Have a proper perspective of the thought-breathe the atmosphere, and so enter into the spirit, of an address as a whole. While the emotions within an address are often complex, now one and now another coming to the surface, there is usually some one emotion that represents the speaker's purpose and feeling, and dominates the address as a whole. "The whole must have that toning which reveals the spirit of the whole." Take, for example, the following eulogy of the oldtime Southern gentleman, by Grady, and give it the tonecolor to voice the appropriate emotion.

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