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save floor space without the use of the double desk. If found satisfactory in other respects, it will have the additional advantage of allowing more room for passages, and particularly for a wide middle passage, and for outside passages along the walls. The dividing or partition board seems liable to the objection of somewhat interfering with the arm in writing, unless the top of the desk be very large.

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FIG. 10.-INTERIOR SEATING OF A SCHOOL-HOUSE.

Explanation:-A. A. First rows of desks; B. B. Corresponding seats: C. C. Second rows of desks
D.D. Separate partitions; E. Teacher's desk; a. a. Cast-iron desk standards.

The engraving on page, represents the plan so plainly, that very little more is required to be said respecting it.

By this new arrangement two rows of desks are combined together, with a separating partition between them; or, with a standard at each end, the partition may be dispensed with. Two rows of desks, A A and C C, are shown, cennected to each partition board, D. The teacher's desk is represented at E; B are the seats of the scholars at the desks; a a are the desk standards. Each scholar's desk is arranged opposite the seat space of the opposite scholar, thus separating them, and preventing playing and whispering. By this arrangement as many scholars can be seated at single as at double desks, and they will only occupy the same floor room. There is also a gain over single desks as arranged in the common way in schools, by seating forty-eight scholars, with these desks, in the same space as thirty-six are commonly seated. The desks and chairs are arranged diagonally on the floor, so that no one scholar can see the face of another without one of

the two being at right or left half face.

When the school is called to procession, all can rise at once, and step into files in the aisles, without coming in contact with one another. Scholars are more directly under view of the teacher, and can therefore be kept in better order.

RELATIVE SIZES OF SEATS AND DESKS.-The desks and seats for pupils should be of different dimensions. We think it most desirable for two to sit together; and each desk for two may be 3 or 4 feet long. The younger pupils being placed nearest the master's desk, the front ranges of desks may be 13 inches wide, the next 14, the next 15, and the most remote 16 inches, with the height, respectively of 24, 25, 26 and 27 inches. The seats should vary in like manner-those of the smallest class should be 10, the third 11, the fourth or largest class 11 or 12 inches wide; and being, in height, 13, 14, 15 and 16 inches respectively. All the edges and corners should be carefully rounded. The desk for a single pupil should be, at least, two feet long (2 is better) by 18 inches wide, with a shelf beneath-as indicated by the dotted lines in Fig. 3-for books, and a narrow deep opening between the back of the seat in front of the desk itself to receive a slate--as at b in Fig. 10. The upper surface of the desk, except three inches of the part nearest the seat in front, should slope one inch in a foot, and the edge should be in the same perpendicular line with the front of the seat. The three inches of the level portion of the surface of the desk should have a groove running along the line of the slope, a, Fig. 11, to prevent pencils and pens from rolling off, and an opening at c, (same Fig.) to receive an inkstand, which should be covered with a metalic lid. The end pieces or supporters of the desk should be so made as to interfere as little as possible with sweeping.

The following table is said to show pretty accurately the proportion which should exist between the heights of seats and desks for the various sizes of pupils; the corresponding width and length of the desks; and the proper distances between desks of the same size in the same row, so asto admit the chair between them.

FIG. 11.-TOP OF DESK.

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THE INK-WELL.--The ink-stand or well is an indispensable accompaniment of the desk, and, if not of a proper form or properly secured, often gives much trouble. A loose ink-stand or bottle on a small desk, the greater part of whose lid is considerably inclined, is liable to be upset or thrown off. A wide-mouthed glass cup with a rim to it, and let into the corner of the desk, is secured from falling or upsetting, but receives the dust of the room to the injury of the ink. Hence one let into the desk, with a hinged lid or cover, so arranged as to exclude the dust and yet not to be in the way of books, slates, &c., when closed, seems to be the best and cheapest expedient that can be adopted. Many wells have been prepared for these purposes. Fig. 11 in the margin will serve to convey the idea, with without further explana

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FIG. 12.

tion.

Another kind of ink-bottle is given in the following figures, 13, 14, 15, and 16:

100

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Fig. 13.

Fig. 14.

Fig. 15.

LEADLEY. MILLER MIX

Fig. 16.

Explanation.-The malleable iron-plate (fig. 15), with a screw-thread on its rim, is held securely to the desk or table by two common screws. On this is placed the glass cup (fig. 14) to contain the ink. The cap (fig. 13) of Japanned iron, surrounds the glass cup, and is screwed on to the base-plate, or removed at pleasure, by the lever (fig 16.)

This ink-stand is said to combine the following excellencies: 1. It furnishes perfect security against injury to books and furniture, occasioned by the accidental spilling or careless use of ink. 2. In the school-room, it places the ink appropriated to the use of the pupils wholly within the control of the teacher-the removal of the cap (fig. 12) by ordinary means being impossible. 3. It protects the ink from dust, prevents evaporation, and affords better security against freezing than any other inkstand in use. 4. While it combines beauty of design with the highest degree of durability, the price at which it can be afforded is but little in advance of the cost of ink-stands ordinarily used in the school-room. It is asserted by experienced teachers, that the amount saved in the prevention of injury and waste, will pay for its introduction in a single term. These, and other school ink-stands, are for sale at the Educational Depository, Toronto.

CLASS SPACE. In a school-house without recitation rooms, or with but one teacher, a sufficient space in front of the platform, for classes during recitation, will be indispensable. It should be as large as possible, after making full allowance for the necessary passages. The full breadth of the room should be allowed for this purpose, if practicable; if not, space for painted or brass semi-circles at the side rows of seats should be allowed.

PLATFORM.-In all contracts for the erection of school-houses, the platform should be included, and it should be ample and substantial. The north end of the main room has frequently been pointed out of the most desirable situation; but this will depend on the position as the house and of the windows. The platform should extend across the whole end or side of the room where it is placed, if not curtailed by doors; and it should be one full step higher than the floor, but probably two steps will be found equally useful for ordinary purposes, and more so in times of exhibition, &c. Across each end of, and upon the platform, will be an appropriate place for two standing closets-one for apparatus, and the other for a library, if no room be specially provided for those purposes. This part of the wall, as it does not face the school, will not be so desirable for a black-board as the cross wall, and can more readily be dispensed with for closets than any other. No platform should be narrower than four feet, but five would be better, and six ample for all purposes.

TEACHER'S DESK.-Many forms of teachers' desks are in use. Any of them will do if it have the following qualities: 1. A large, level, table-like surface on the top, not less

than two and a half feet wide by five feet long, with a ledge not higher than two or three inches at each end of the back, and a moveable inclined surface for writing on, if desired. If the ledge is higher, it will interfere with the teacher's view of a class in front of him, and may impede the pupils' view of articles or experiments when exhibited on the desk; and the inclined writing surface should be moveable, to leave the whole desk-top free for similar occasions. 2. It should have no deep box, covered with a lid, but side drawers or shelves with doors, or both, always accessible without disturbing the articles necessarily placed on the top.

TEACHER'S CHAIR.-The platform should have at least one large, comfortable, and sedate looking chair; not that the chair, or the desk, or any other part of the schoolroom furniture or apparatus, will supply any defect in the teacher; but every proper means should be adopted to add to the respectability of his position and the dignity of his office. The platform should also have a half-dozen other chairs for visitors, and particularly for the Board of Trustees, who, when they visit the school, should always, during at least a portion of their stay, appear on the platform, and be seen and known in their official character. Children are naturally inclined to be much influenced by the presence of those in authority; and it is a great error in any system for the education of a people, whose laws and the agents of whose laws depend wholly on voluntary obedience, to weaken-or rather not to strengthen-this right feeling. This salutary habit of respect for the law and its officers, will not only be strengthened by the official reception and presence of School Trustees, but the teacher will find his heart cheered and his hands strengthened by their frequency. When it is known that this is a matter of periodical recurrence, it will be expected and prepared for; and when the rules of the school are understood to emanate from other authority, and their results to be reported to another tribunal, parents will have an additional motive for conformity, and pupils one more strong stimulant to progress.

BLACK-BOARD.-By all competent teachers, the black-board is now known to be the most useful, and, next to seats and desks, the most indispensable article of school furniture. With a sufficiency of black board, the well-qualified, experienced teacher can do almost anything in the way of instruction; without it, he feels himself at a loss in every branch.

As to the quantity requisite, it may be said that it can readily be too little, but cannot well be too great. The whole wall behind the teacher's seat, and all the spaces between the windows and doors on the other walls, if covered with good black surface, extending five feet upwards, from a point two feet above the floor or platform, would not be too much; but a black board of the height specified, and extending the whole length of the platform, is indispensable. This position faces the whole school, and is, therefore, the most suitable for the instruction of the whole at once; while it is as proper as any other for the use of individual pupils.

A number of expedients have been tried to supersede the painted and varnished board, first and still most generally used for this purpose. The objections to the wooden surface are, that it is liable to warp and crack, is costly, and requires to be painted very frequently. Several of the black surfaces now in use will be described; the wooden board requiring no other directions than that it should be composed of the widest, soundest, and clearest boards that can be procured, perfectly seasoned, exactly jointed, and well glued to gether; and that it should be firmly fastened to the wall, so as to prevent, as much as possible, the noise made by the chalk in writing upon it. PAPER SURFACE.-Let the surface be cleared of all roughness or inequality, with sand paper. Take common wall paper, let it be pasted smoothly and firmly on the required spaces, and covered according to the following recipe :-" Lamp-black and flour of emery, mixed with spirit varnish. No more lamp-black and flour of emery should be

used than are sufficient to give the required black and abrading surface; and the varnish should contain only sufficient gum to hold the ingredients together, and confine the composition to the wall. The thinner the mixture the better. The lamp-black should first be ground with a small quantity of alcohol, to free it from lumps. The composition should be applied to the smooth surface with a common painter's brush. Let it become thoroughly dry and hard before it is used." This kind of surface, if properly made and used, will last for several years.

Another paper surface may be speedily and cheaply prepared, by pasting strong wall paper smoothly on the wall, then sizing it to prevent the paint from sinking into the paper, and afterwards giving it a couple of coats of black oil-paint, with a small mixture of emery to give it a grit, or hold on the crayon, and enough varnish to cause it to dry rapidly.

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COMPOSITION BLACK-BOARD.-For twenty square yards of wall, take three pecks of mason's putty (white finish), three pecks of clean fine sand, three pecks of ground plaster,

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