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hung with hinges on the upper side, and fastened with hooks and staples at the lower edge, may be opened by raising them into an horizontal position, where they are fastened with hooks as when closed. With this arrangement it is easy to keep the cellars well ventilated at all seasons. The openings for the admission of fuel into the boxes, 0, 0, are furnished with sheet-iron shutters, fastening on the inside. The school-house is provided with an abundant supply of good water, obtained from a fountain or from a well, which is generally outside the building, the water being brought in by a pump, P. A supply of good water for a school-house should not be considered merely as a convenience, but as absolutely necessary.

The horizontal section of the furnace, F, merely shows the ground plan. The cold air passes through a to the air-chamber, where it is warmed by the fires in p, p,-two castiron cylinders, 14 inches in diameter. The evaporator, e, holds about fifteen gallons of water, which is kept in a state of rapid evaporation, thus supplying the air-chamber with an abundance of moisture. In the plan and construction of the various parts of the furnace, special pains have been taken to remove all danger of fire-a consideration which should never be overlooked. The furnace is covered with stone, thickly coated with mortar, and the under-side of the floor above is lathed and plastered, not only above the furnace, but at least ten feet from it in every direction.

The cellar walls and the stone piers c, c, c, c, c, are well pointed, and the whole inside, including the wood work overhead, is neatly whitewashed, giving this apartment a neat and pleasant appearance. The walls of the building itself are of stone, about two feet thick, faced with brick, and painted a tasteful color.


In this Plan (Fig. 3) there are three entrances to the building; the front, A, and the two side doors, B for boys, and G for girls, leading into the entries F, C, C. The front beautiful frontice of fine hammered granite. At all the

is a large double door, with a

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outside doors are two or three hewn granite steps, furnished with four or six scrapers at each door. Pupils belonging to the Schools in the lower story, pass from the side entries into the middle one, and ascending two steps at a, enter their respective rooms T, S, which are rather larger than those in the primary and intermediate School houses, being 36 feet by 82 feet inside, and 11 feet high in the clear. In each of the en trances 0, 0, there is a provision t, t, t, t, for setting up umbrellas.

The seats and desks in the rooms T and S, are of the same dimensions and arranged in the same manner as those in the primary School-house described at length on the 13th page of the Journal for January, 1849. A section of these seats and desks may be seen in Fig. 5. The small iron posts c, c, c, c, about 24 inches in diameter, supporting the floor above, are placed against the ends of the seats, so as not to obstruct the passages at all. Besides the platforms P, P, 20 feet by 6 feet—the tables, 3 feet by 4 feet, for the Teachers, and the closets l, l, for brushes, &c.—there are blackboards, painted upon the walls, extending from the doors D, D, to the windows, 14 feet long by 14 feet wide, with the lines of a stave painted on one end, to aid in giving instruction in vocal music.

These rooms are well warmed by heated air, admitted through registers r, r, (Figs. 3 and 4,) 18 inches in diameter, from the furnace below, F, (Fig. 2, from which the tin pipes p, p, (Figs. 2 and 8,) 14 inches in diameter, convey the air to the School-room in the second story. Each room is provided with two ventilators, each 3 feet long by 15 inches wide, opening into flues of the same dimensions, which open on a level with the floor, and leading into the attic, from which the impure air escapes at circular windows in the gables. These flues thus remove the foul air from the lower parts of the room and cause fresh, warm air to slowly settle down upon the scholars-a very pleasant and healthful mode of ventilation.

The School room in the second story is large, and with an arched ceiling (see Section, Fig. 5) measuring 12 feet to the foot of the arch and 17 feet to its crown. It is provided with two ventilators 84 feet in diameter, placed crown of the arch, 20 feet apart.



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The entrances to the second story School room are by two short flights of stairs on a side; from the lower entries to s, s, (Fig. 4,) spaces about 3 ft. square, and thence to A, A, spaces 3 x 5 ft., extending from the top of the stairs to the doors opening into the School room.

The Master's table c, as well as the tables d, d, for the Assistants, are moveable. The large area B, B, being 14 inches above the floor of the room, is 8 feet by 64 feet long. with large closets u, u, at the ends, filled up with shelves, &c., for the use of the Teachers The School room and the recitation rooms R, R, are warmed by heated air, admitted at the registers 7, r, r, r, r, all of which are connected with the furnace in the cellar, by large tin pipes or conductors.

The black-boards, 4 feet wide, painted upon the hard finished walls, are indicated by the lines b, b, b, b, b, in the recitation rooms, and along the walls behind the Master's table, extending on each side to the windows beyond, e, e, making in the School about 300 feet of black-board. The long benches e, e, are used for seating temporarily new pupilt on their entering School, until the Master can assign them regular seats; also for seating Visitors at the Quarterly Examinations. The space P,P, a broad step, 18 feet by 2 feet wide, is used for some class exercise on the black-boards. The passage t, t, about 18 inches wide, running the whole length of the room, affords great facility in the movements of pupils to and from the recitations and other class exercises. The Master's class generally recite in the space o, o, at the back of the room, which is 4 feet wide by 64 feet long.

The windows W, W, which are hung with weights, and furnished with inside blinds, contain 12 lights each of 10 by 16 in. giass. The quantity of air furnished for each scholar is a matter of no small importance. Each room in a Grammar School, intended to accommodate 200 pupils, should contain over 35,000 cubic feet, deducting the space occupied by the furniture. This estimate allows every child about 150 cubic feet of air for every hour and a half, on the supposirtion that no change takes place, except at the time of recess. But the rate at which warm air is constantly coming into the rooms from

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the furnace, increases the allowance for every child to about 300 cubic feet for every hour and a half.

Fig. 5 exhibits a section of the building as if it were cut through the centre. It shows in an end view the projection, belfry, rooms, seats, desks and cellar. An imperfect outline of the warming apparatus is presented, giving an outline of the plan of its con


struction. The smoke pipe, connected with a, the heater, coiled twice around in the air chamber, passes off in the di ection of b, b, to the chimney. The short tin pipes c, c, conduct the warm air into the lower rooms; and the long ones e, e, corvey it to the rooms in the second story. On each side of the projection, over the door d, is a window,



lighting the outside entry, and also the middle entry by another window over the inside door. The end view of the seats and desks do not represent the different sizes very accurately, but sufficiently so to give a correct idea of the general plan.

We give, on the preceding page, the front view of a High School house, which may serve as an exemplar of a Central Town School house. The building is intended to accommodate 600 pupils.

In such a Central School house, there may be a primary department in the basement story for small children, both male and female, taught by one or more female teachers. The first floor may be appropriated to an intermediate School, or second department, with separate apartments for boys and girls, and taught by a male and female teacher respectively, or by male teachers, as may be preferred. The second floor may be appropriated to the High School, or highest department of the Common School-taught by the Head Master of the whole establishment. As the pupils advance through the prescribed courses in the lower departments, they should be advanced to the next higher department, until they complete the course of instruction in the senior department, or High School. The same system of teaching should be observed throughout; and the pupils will not be impeded, and the parents will not be put to needless expense, by various modes of teaching and the use of unsuitable and improper books.

This School house occupies an elevated and beautiful situation. It is a specimen of plain but tasteful architecture; and every School house should be attractive in its very appearance-emblematical of what is taught within. The fence, the grounds, the trees, should be such as to please the eye, improve the taste, and excite cheerful feelings. The yards around this building are enclosed by a handsome baluster fence, resting in front on heavy blocks of rough granite. The steps are of hewn granite, twelve feet long, making a very convenient entrance. The grounds are planted with trees.

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The size of the building is fifty feet by seventy-six, with a projection of seven feet. The walls of the basement are of stone; the remaining portions of the walls are of brick.

The School being designed for both boys and girls, an entirely separate entrance is provided for each department. The front door at which the girls enter has a very beautiful frontispiece, with double columns (thus providing for large side lights) and a heavy

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