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The HORSE exercises must not be attempted until the preceding exercises have been performed, so as to realise perfect capability in their performance. The gymnast should perform only one of these actions at a time, gaining perfect capability in each before proceeding

to the next.

In performing the following exercises, the body and head are to be kept upright, and the knees and ancles straight, unless otherwise expressed, or where a change is absolutely necessary.

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IV. SIMPLE GYMNASTICS FOR SCHOOL-BOYS.

In addition to the foregoing detailed course of gymnastics, we insert the following further illustrations of a shorter and simpler course for the pupils of a common or grammar school :—

MEANS OF EXERCISE.-In the country school sections, where the play-ground is extensive, and suitable for the use of bats, balls, hoops, stilts, jumping sticks, &c., which the pupils will themselves furnish in abundance, it will render any special provision in this respect less necessary. But in case the grounds are small, and in towns where greater variety of means is required, additional arrangements should be made for such physical exercise as may secure proper muscular development.

Amongst boys, running and leaping are favorite pastimes, and both are conducive to health. For running, no other preparation of the ground is needed than that there shall be space enough, and that the surface be sufficiently level to be safe.

Some kinds of leap require preparation. The long leap, along the surface of the ground, only needs a level space for the run, and ground not too hard for the leap

itself. The high leap may be made
a useful and safe exercise by means
of a proper leaping cord or bar, so
constructed as to be elevated in
proportion to the increase of the
youth's activity by practice, yet so
arranged as to prevent the injury by
striking the feet against the cord
or bar.

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The pole leap brings the muscles of the hands and arms into play as well as those of the lower limbs; and if it be cautiously practised and gradually increased, will give a degree of confidence and activity to the performer, which may be valuable to him in the dangerous and trying positions of after life.

HIGH LEAP.

POLE LEAP.

Vaulting is another kind of exercise which strengthens the muscles of both upper and lower limbs. The power to swing oneself over a fence too high for a leap, in

LEA

VAULTING.

times of danger or great haste, is desirable. Rapid and graceful mounting on horseback may also be thus taught. The necessary fixtures cost little and add to the variety of the play-ground.

The parallel bars are admirable contrivances to exercise and strengthen the arms, and open and expand the chest. If of different heights and sizes, they may be used by pupils of all ages. They possess the advantage of being perfectly free from the

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possibility of accident to the smallest boy who uses them; and should therefore be among the first means for exercise introduced upon the play-ground.

I

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