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Farming in South Africa.

Bulgaria Since the War. Portugal Old and
New. The Country of the Passion-Play: the Highlands and Highlanders
of Bavaria. Friends and Foes in the Transkei.

Politics, Science, and Art.-Free Land. The Succession to the English Crown.

The Criminal Code of the Jews, according to the Talmud: Massecheth

Synhedrin. A Popular Handbook of Parliamentary Procedure. Hodge and
his Masters. Workhouse Visiting. Fossil Men and their Modern Repre-
sentatives. The Crayfish an Introduction to the Study of Zoology. An
Elementary Text-book of Botany. Chapters from the Physical History of
the Earth; an Introduction to Geology and Palæontology. The Constitu-
tion of the Earth. Handbook of Pottery. Seeing and Thinking.

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History, Biography, and Travels.-The Congregationalism of the last Three

Hundred Years. History of the English People. A History of Our Own

Times, from the Accession of Queen Victoria to the General Election of

1880. A Short History of India, and of the Frontier States of Afghanistan,
Nepal, and Burma. Cassell's Illustrated History of England. Life and
Letters of Horace Bushnell. The Life of the Prince Imperial of France.
Life of Elihu Burritt. Memories of my Exile. Monsieur Guizot in Private
Life, 1787-1874. Pope. St. Simon. The Trial and death of Socrates.

Politics, Science, and Art.-Modern Greece, The Liberty of the Press, Speech,

and Public Worship. Egypt for the Egyptians. The Church in Relation

to the State. Popular Sovereignty: being some Thoughts on Democratic

Reform. Early Man in Britain, and his Place in the Tertiary Period.

Essays on Art and Archæology. The Spirit of Nature: being a Series of

Interpretative Essays on the History of Matter, from the Atom to the Flower.

Nature's Byepaths: a Series of Recreative Papers in Natural History. The

Brain as an Organ of Mind. English Trees and Tree Planting.

Belles Lettres, Poetry, and Fiction.-A History of Classical Greek Literature.

Linguistic and Oriental Essays. Selections from the Attic Orators, Anti-

phon, Andocides, Lysias, Isocrates, Isaeus. Studies of the Eighteenth

Century in Italy. The Complete Works of Bret Harte. Caroline von

Linsingen, and King William the Fourth. Passages from the Prose

Writings of Matthew Arnold. Byron. A Study of Shelley. Four Cen-

turies of English Letters. Round about a Great Estate. Philosophy of

Charles Dickens. Miracle Plays and Sacred Dramas: a Historical Survey.

Eikov Baσilikη. Shakespeare's Knowledge and Use of the Bible. The

Odyssey of Homer. Dramatic Idyls. The Defence of Rome, and other

Poems. New and Old. Ginevra and the Duke of Guise. The Song of

Roland. The Innocents. Maiden Ecstacy. Collected Verses. Allaooddeen.

Poems. Theocritus, Bion, and Moschus. Exemplaria Cheltoniensia. The

Skies and Weather. Passages from the Diary of an Early Methodist.

The Boy's Own Annual. The Girl's Own Annual. Novels of the Quarter.

Theology, Philosophy, and Philology.-Hours with the Mystics. The Hibbert

Lectures, 1880. The Foundations of Faith Chinese Buddhism. The

Religions of China. The Sacred Books of the East. Discussions on

History and Theology. Demonology and Devil Lore. Elizabethan De.

monology. The Life, Times, and Correspondence of the Right Reverend

Dr. Doyle, Bishop of Kildare and Leighlin. A Life's Decision. The

Christian Policy of Life. The Religious Condition of Christendom. Adam,

Noah, and Abraham. The Patriarchs. The Age of the Great Patriarchs,

from Adam to Jacob. Notes for Lessons on the Gospel History for Sunday-

school Teachers. The Expositor. Plain Reasons against joining the Church

of Rome. The Prophecies of Isaiah. Commentary on the Books of

Hézegiél Yesaya' xl.-lxvi. The Sunday-school Centenary Bible. Das

erste Sendschreiben des Apostel Paulus an die Korinther. Notes, chiefly

Critical and Philological, on the Hebrew Psalms. Path and Goal. Der

Realisimus der modernen Naturwissenschaft. Books Received.

THE BRITISH

QUARTERLY REVIEW.

JULY 1, 1880.

ART. I.-The Two Nations and the Commonwealth.

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SOCIETY progresses and improves, yet our country still contains Two Nations as truly as when Disraeli used this phrase in his novel of Sybil.' Not that we hold the pessimist view, that the rich are growing richer and the poor poorer. That doctrine, unhappily, holds good generally in old societies, where the depths of poverty remain, while wealth's pinnacles shoot up higher and higher. And so it must be under social organizations on the principle of unlimited competition—a system which, although absent in some of the most ancient States of the world, has always been more or less supreme among the communities of Europe. So long as the combative and ruthless principle of unlimited competition is the sole basis of industrial society, the power of capital, vastly multiplied by machinery, while augmenting the fortunes of the rich, tends to widen the gulf which separates them from the working classes.

From thirty to fifty or more years ago this state of matters was supreme, and almost without mitigation, at least in the non-agricultural region; and the bitterness of class-antagonism in the manufacturing centres amounted at times to a national danger. Happily since then counter forces, partly moral and partly material, have come into play, greatly mitigating the bitterness, although not the power, of class-antagonism. But the dividing gulf between rich and poor, employers and employed, masters and servants, is as wide as ever. It is true that the condition of the working classes has vastly improved; the level of the poor man's comforts has been perceptibly raised: but not less, indeed still more, has there

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been a rise in the scale of living of the middle class, together with a diminished intercourse between masters and workmen; while vast fortunes have multiplied, and idle luxury more than ever flaunts itself exasperatingly before the hungry eyes of poverty. The social Ghauts which sever the rich from the poor are quite as high and perpendicular as ever. Nevertheless, there has been an improved temper in the relationship, and the toiling masses do not look up with the former rancour at the classes seated upon the heights.

Human nature shrinks from contemplating disagreeable things, even in prospect; and we are all prone to believe in the permanency of any state of affairs which is agreeable or useful to us. But it must be borne in mind that improvements in social condition are not like progress in industrial invention or physical science, which is bound to endure and increase. Prosperity, however produced, creates contentment; while it lasts, grievances are little thought of. It is suffering that is the touchstone of the social fabric; and, further, a social condition satisfactory in one age becomes inadequate, intolerable, in a subsequent one. Historical writers of the recent generation have held that the condition of the common people in England was at its best in the middle of the last century; but that did not prevent the first half of the present century witnessing a wholly different state of things. Down to 1850, the urban labouring population cherished so bitter a feeling against their betters that, in heart at. least, and sometimes by actual demonstration, they were in a state bordering upon political and social insurrection. During the last thirty years this insurgent feeling has disappeared. Legislation has done much to produce this change, and the growth of the Social Sentiment (as we shall show) is doing still more. Nevertheless, it must be remembered that the change has been favoured by exceptional events; for, in 1851, this country, and indeed the whole world, entered upon the most remarkable epoch of prosperity which has ever visited mankind, an epoch which, literally as well as metaphorically, may be styled the New Golden Age. On the other hand, during the last three years the country was subjected anew to hard times, even the stars in their courses were fighting against us; and the attitude of our people has presented a happy contrast to what it used to be in the periods of distress previous to 1851.

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But has there really been a parallel to the national suffering which bred riot and sedition in the old times? Unlike almost every other such period of national distress, it is not

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