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delivered to the saints;' but not a word of proof what He did so deliver, or that He delivered any.

Mr. Miller lays down some amusing doctrines concerning the relations of the clergy and laity. We will only say concerning his dictum, that ' questions that concern the faith should be left only in the hands of the clergy, with a subsequent confirmation from the laity ;'. that in the history of the Church its chief heresiarchs have been found among its clergy, and their heresies have been chiefly withstood by the laity.

So in dealing with the question of tithes, Mr. Miller wisely contents himself with quoting charters or accomplished facts. He is commendably silent concerning the political exigences which prompted Ethelwolf to proffer the bribe to bishops, and the popular resistance which rendered re-enactment necessary by every king after Ethelwolf to the Norman Conquest; and concerning the penalties of refusal, which furnish so rich an illustration of the 'pious willinghood,' and the pious founder' theories. Now, concerning none of these points does Mr. Miller furnish a particle of evidence. We are compelled to conclude him grossly and conveniently, ignorant of all these adverse facts, seeing that he has not knowingly omitted reference to one. This one-sidedness makes his work absolutely

worthless in the controversy.


As another instance of his convenient interpretations, he declares the evidence of the religious census of 1851 worthless, and, on the authority of Mr. Hubbard, he assumes for purposes of argument that Dissent in England and Wales only amounts to twenty-eight per cent. of the entire population. Most readers will agree with us that argument would be wasted on such audacious assumptions.

We commend to controvertists on both sides the question, the very naïve recommendations for reconstruction which Mr. Miller gives in his concluding chapters, which would go a long way to restore the ages of faith. Does he really think that such things come within the pale of practical politics in this England of the nineteenth century?

Popular Sovereignty: being some Thoughts on Democratic Reform. By CHARLES ANTHONY, Jun. Longmans and Co.

Mr. Anthony is an enthusiastic Liberal, but he feels the necessity of supplying reasons for the political faith that is in him. And the principle which is fundamental with him is the supremacy of public opinion. This does not imply recognition of, or give pretext for charging on the author belief in, the excellence of what is called mob-rule. Not the impulses and passions of a fickle populace, but the settled and firm convictions and judgments of the masses of the people, or, as it may be otherwise put, of an instructed public opinion, is the standard and ultimate test of what is politic and useful in legislation. Thus guarded, the principle will be accepted not only by Liberals but by constitutional Conservatives; for selfgovernment by an instructed public opinion has been as clearly set forth by the Conservative Lord Cairns as by the Liberal Lord Selborne. Mr.

Anthony's definition of it as 'the self-rule of the masses by the orderly, constitutional, and irresistible supremacy of the popular will,' as the just and proper form of government for a free nation, will only, indeed, be called in question by intelligent Conservatives if the popular sovereignty thus expounded is erected into a moral standard of what ought to be, as well as a practical test of what is legislatively right and expedient. In this confusion of the moral and legislative lies the peril of democracy; but when the necessity for the maintenance of educative influences to shape and fashion public opinion aright is acknowledged, the danger ceases. And it is fully acknowledged by Mr. Anthony in this little work. No objection, then, need be taken to the application of the principle of the supremacy of public opinion to the various questions in practical politics of the present day with which Government and Parliament have to deal. The bulk of the volume is devoted to this task. Accordingly we find in it a series of forcible discussions of various important topics that have lately occupied public attention. In so wide a range, beginning with 'Parliamentary Deadlocks' and going on through 'Local Legislation,' < Liberal Foreign Policy,' and 'Land Reform,' to 'The Burdens of Taxation,' there is necessarily room for much diversity of opinion. And Mr. Anthony would be the last to deny the right of others to question the validity of his own positions, in the exercise of that freedom on which he sets such store. Many Liberals, for example, will altogether decline to accept the conclusion he arrives at in discussing taxation-that the State ought to extend widely its functions in competition with private enterprise, in order to earn money to allow the remission of taxation. The State of late has gone very far in this direction; for it has taken over the Telegraph Service as well as the Post-Office; and in the Savings Bank Bill of the present Government we have a further advance in the same direction. But many earnest Liberals doubt the wisdom of such a policy; and obviously it may easily be carried to dangerous extremes. Apart, however, from such differences of opinion, the thoughtful reader will find help in the treatment of many important political and other questions in the admirable series of discussions contained in the volume before us.

Early Man in Britain, and his Place in the Tertiary Period. By W. BOYD DAWKINS, M.A., F.R.S., Professor of Geology, &c., in Owens College, Manchester. Macmillan and Co. In this volume we have one of the most important contributions to the study of Early Man which recent years have produced. Professor Boyd Dawkins has brought to the elucidation of his subject unbounded stores of knowledge, and we see everywhere traces of a mind as powerful as it is clear, and as clear as it is free from prejudice. It is necessary, of course, to bear in mind from the first his distinct and honestly expressed leaning towards the doctrine of evolution-a leaning which is perceptible throughout the book, but which, we are bound to confess, never tempts him to any unfair twisting of facts. Indeed, there are some parts of the work to

which we fancy the evolutionist may demur, as allowing too much to those who differ from him. Leaving this matter, we turn now to the book, not to criticize it, but rather to give the reader some slight idea of its contents. The first four chapters describe the 'Biological and Physical Changes in Britain before the Arrival of Man.' Beginning with the Eocene period, we see Britain not as now an island, but as touched by the sea only to the south-east, while to the north and west land stretched onward till it joined the American continent. The mountains and the water-sheds were much as they are now. The vegetation was tropical, the trees being such as the palm and the cypress; while the animal world was represented by mammals of the marsupial order. The opossum was to be found, as also the curious Hyracotherinus. In the mid-Eocene period the vegetation became richer, while of its mammals few traces are to be found. With the close of this period, however, these latter became more abundant and varied; and in the Upper Eocene forests of France are representatives of the highest order of mammalia, the Primates.' But man is nowhere traceable. From the Eocene period Professor Dawkins comes to the Miocene, and gives a like graphic picture of the appearance, the products, and the animals prevalent in Britain, as well as on the continent; but we are mainly interested in the position which he maintains that man is still nowhere traceable. As is well known, it has been held that man did exist at least on the continent during this age. Splinters of flint have been found, and a notched fragment of a rib of an extinct kind of manatee' has also been discovered; and these discoveries seem to point to the action of man. Professor Dawkins, however, clings to the à priori unlikelihood that, out of all the land mammals, man alone should have survived-no living species of land mammal occurring in Miocene fauna. Whether Professor Dawkins's way of explaining the notching be right or not, there is much weight in his argument. Not even under the Pleiocene period does he think the evidence for the presence of man satisfactory. Certainly striking discoveries have been made-cut bones having been found, and along with them flint flakes and a fragment of pottery. But the strata from which these were obtained may, the author thinks, have been disturbed; and if so, the evidence which they give is useless. On the other hand, there is the fact that of twenty-one fossil mammalia of this age one species only, and that the hippopotamus, remains-a fact which bears strongly against the probability of the presence of the human type. It is not, indeed, until we come to the mid-Pleistocene period that Professor Dawkins admits the evidence for man's presence, but here he asserts it unhesitatingly. He finds it in the discovery (1872) of a flint-flake at Crayford, and of a 'second implement in the same series of beds at Erith'-'a roughly chipped flake, considerably worn by use.' This kind of implement is associated with human use everywhere, and he considers that its being found in two places is a proof that man then lived in the valley of the lower Thames. The descriptions which follow, first of the river-drift men, and then of the cave men, are most interesting and graphic. We

must refer the reader to the book for a sketch of the old river-drift man with his flake, his pebble chopper, his oval hache-a man he is of little resource and few occupations, knowing nothing of cultivating the ground or of digging in it for materials wherewith to make tools. Still more attractive are the later cave men, of whom Professor Dawkins indicates abundant traces. In the cave of Pont Newydd, in North Wales, several remains of implements are found, and, more remarkable than all, ‘a human molar tooth,' which, as Professor Dawkins afterwards mentions, is the only piece of the human frame of late Pleistocene age found in Great Britain.' It is also noteworthy that in this cave traces of man are associated with those of the hippopotamus-an association which may, we imagine, throw some light on the question of man's presence in the Pliocene period. These cave men had their winter homes, so to say, among rocks and in the mouths of caverns, while there are traces of their also having huts in the open air. Their clothing is supposed to have been of fur' sewn together with sinews.' At this stage man was no longer a hunter only, but traces of the snowy owl show him to have been a fowler also. We observe also the dawn of art in the form of engraving, a figure of a horse having been found in the Cresswell caves 'delicately incised in a fragment of rib.' Skeleton remains appear; among others a lower jaw, which is massive and prognathous.' It would be interesting to follow the author in his attempt to establish a connection between these cave men and the Eskimo race, on the evidence of similar habits, similar implements, and, curiously enough, a similar gift for animal-sketching.

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Into the contents of the latter half of the book, which traces what might be called the evidence for the broadening light of human life, we cannot enter. With the prehistoric period a new history opens. The abundant remains of that age point, as the author believes, to an entirely different race, and the position which he maintains is that the Neolithic Britons were Iberic in their origin. But for the discussion of this important question, as well as for the full description of later prehistoric man in Britain, we must refer the reader to the volume itself. It would be an important omission were we to leave the illustrations unnoticed. They are numerous, and not only good, but as good as they can possibly be. It is, we think, no exaggeration to say that the part of the volume which describes the Bronze Age would lose much of its value if it was not accompanied by such a rich profusion of illustrations. We have throughout studiously avoided any expression of opinion on the question of the antiquity of man: to our mind it is a problem which is still unsolved, and is likely to remain so for many a day; but such a work as this certainly makes us feel that we are on the way towards its solution.

Essays on Art and Archæology. By C. T. NEWTON. Macmillan and Co.

Although all the papers in this volume have appeared before, they are more than worthy of being rescued from the dusty oblivion of back num

bers of reviews. In this present shape, indeed, revised where necessary, and arranged in order, they acquire even an additional value. For while separately they give the pith and substance of the most important work done within the last few years at Mycenæ, Ephesus, Olympia, &c., combined they present in popular form a tolerably complete introduction to the study of Greek archæology as a science. For in such matters nothing is single and alone. The excavations of one region help us to explain the date, the origin, the workmanship of the discoveries in another. Details from Halicarnassus throw a light upon the architect-sculptor of a temple at Priene. A toy-offering in a Rhodian tomb is corroborative evidence of the alphabet employed by the early Greek colonists of Ionia. The sepulchral mound of a Kimmerian archon acquires fresh significance when compared with the tombs adorned and furnished by' præ-Dædalean' workmen for the primitive rulers of Mycena. Of all the papers in the volume the most important is that on Greek inscriptions. It is only perhaps since the publication of the great work of Boeckh that the quantity and importance of these inscriptions have been thoroughly understood, and already, since Boeckh's work was compiled, their number has been multi plied fourfold. It was fortunate for Greece that few great medieval citie grew up upon the site of the old historic towns. There was no semibarbarous and feudal Rome, where slender marble stele and broad slabs were swept straightway to the lime-kiln. Bronzes might indeed be melted down, and gold or silver pilfered by the invader. The pure marble overturned or even shattered, left where it fell, or built into the wall of house or fortress, retained the sharp-cut inscription still, as legible as when it was first set up. And these inscriptions were to the ancient Greeks at once their blue-books and their gazettes. There is hardly a phase of public or private life on which they do not throw some light. Treaties with independent states, laws regulating domestic government, rules for the cercmonial worship of the gods, and deeds of sale of property held by or forfeited to the temples, funeral notices, votive offerings, are all inscribed in them. They preserve for us manners and customs, prices of goods and changes of fashions, practices of war and peace, varieties of dialect, fusions of race. They tell us even what was thought of things beyond the present world. The gold cylinder hung round the neck of the corpse contains directions to guide him in the realm of shadows. The wife attests her faith in a future state and her own assurance of a place among the blessed on the same slab on which the less believing husband records his absolute negation of such hopes. The Budrum inscription given in full in the appendix, and singularly interesting as a unique memorial of the sale of temple lands under the joint guaranty of the gods themselves and of the wardens of the shrine, is no less interesting to the philologer for its list of Karian proper names of purchasers and their (apparent) sureties. Next to this paper and the introductory essay on the object and limits of archæology as a science rank those on the Mycena and Olympia 'finds,' and on the 'collections in the British Museum.' While reasonably doubting whether the tombs explored by Dr. Schliemann are those of the legendary Atreus

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