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'In Memoriam' especially is full of references to scientific facts, and so is The Princess,' in which the curious protest against vivisection shows how carefully Mr. Tennyson had mastered the details of the dissecting-room.

Theology, as a science, finds no place in these poems; the dogmas of religion have never, as it would seem, had any attractions for Mr. Tennyson; a hopeful but vague faith in a future life and in a God who will redress the wrongs and explain the puzzles of this, is all that can be found for spiritual guidance.

What has been already said about the large amount of transcription into poetry of the thoughts of others will have prepared the way for the assertion that Mr. Tennyson does not possess the highest form of creative art. He is in no sense dramatic. His great rival, Mr. Browning, has a marvellous power of placing himself in the position of his heroes. Bishop Blougram, Sludge, Prince Hohenstiel-Schwangau live before. us scarce less vividly as real persons than do Hamlet or Macbeth. It is true they all express themselves in the words of Browning, and that those words have a marked idiosyncracy, but the characters are defined; there is no confusion of persons, nor do we think for a moment that in any of his creations the poet is reproducing himself. In other words, he is truly dramatic.

Mr. Tennyson's people stand before us only os év ypápais. There is a picture, but that is all. In so far as the speeches in the dramas are translations of Mr. Froude or Mr. Freeman, they vary, in so far as they are not, they all seem studies of the author's self. The hero of‘Maud' which is a drama in monologue, is in the condition in which Pope describes women to be-

Most women have no characters at all.

At best there is a faint suggestion of some things which would help us to build up from it and other poems some likeness of the poet. We could find Mr. Tennyson in his works, but who has found, who can find Shakespeare in his plays; who can find Mr. Browning in his 'Dramatic Idylls,' in his Men and Women.' Whatever of dramatic art exists in Queen Mary,' 'Harold,' or the 'Idylls of the King' is that of Froude or Freeman or Mallory; beyond it the personages are mere lay figures moving by machinery. The form of the drama is constructed after the pattern of Shakespeare's plays, and those not always the best. Queen Mary, for instance, closely resembles King Henry VIII.' in form, and is carefully cast in

the mould of that unattractive play. In order to be a dramatist it is not only necessary to be very free from self-consciousness and a habit of introspection, but a sense of humour is before all things essential. For life is humorous, a keen contrast of incongruities, and the drama presents these in a condensed form. But there is not a good hearty laugh in Mr. Tennyson's poems from one end to the other. Professor Wilson laughed at him, perhaps, unfairly. Lord Lytton did the same. The poet winced, altered his lines, and retorted in verses of which he has since grown ashamed; but no one has laughed with him. If we divest the Northern Farmers' of their Lincolnshire burr we find nothing to raise a smile except, perhaps, the one stanza about the sermons to which the poor man had so often listened. The would-be humour here and there is only amusing from its complete incongruity with the poems and their author, and this, it is true, is one element of humour.

The present has seemed a fitting time in which to indicate some of the excellences and defects of a foremost poet, because, although Mr. Tennyson may, and we trust will, long remain with us, he has shown so clearly what he can do in many directions, he is not likely to give fresh work which can alter any general judgment, so that we can examine his work without disturbing elements. Whatever he may bring forth of his treasures, new and old; whether like The Lover's Tale,' a young man's ornate translation of Boccaccio, pruned in some degree by mature judgment, or a lyric written long ago, and laid by for a time, or a rendering of some pages of a modern historian, is sure to be read with interest, sympathy, and a wish to admire.

But the notes of introduction blown by admirers when such works appear drown the fainter voices of critics, if indeed these are given any chance. Some of the poet's more recent efforts having appeared in a review, they have, to a certain extent, been taken out of the reach of criticism. Journals have been so hasty to quote that they have had no time to examine. In truth, it was better so, for the calmer critic can only feel that, while Mr. Tennyson's polish of words has become less pleasingly artificial, he has in great measure lost his very careful observation; he has, in adopting the ballad form, taken that which requires 'swing' and 'go,' for which his turn of thought most unfits him.

To take an instance from each ballad

And a dozen times we shook 'em off as a dog that shakes his ears,
When he leaps from the water to the land.

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Now a dog leaps into the water, but he cannot leap out of it. Not only is the bank generally higher than the water, but the animal's coat is so laden with moisture that he comes out slowly and with a bedraggled air, as far from a leap as it is possible that aught should be. Neither does he then shake his ears. A sort of shiver begins at the nape of the neck and runs down the whole body, which throws the water on all sides, and last of all the dog shakes his ears.

This may seem a little matter, but it is not the work of one who is still a close observer.

In the Lucknow ballad we find the refrain

And ever upon the roofs the banner of England blew.

To this it may be objected that there was scarce a breath of wind during the whole siege of Lucknow, and that to any one who knows India the cheery fluttering of a banner as in England is thoroughly alien to the local colour. And how does a banner blow? We may search the whole of English literature, we shall find only one such use of the words, and that in Mr. Tennyson's own line in 'The Day Dream:

The hedge broke in; the banner blew

far less objectionable than when used as a refrain, lending the word importance through the whole of a long and, it must be said, a dull poem.

We have not analyzed any of the works minutely. In regard to the earlier and better poems, this has been done fully and excellently by those whose articles we named at the outset, especially by the writer in The Cornhill,' and we have dwelt more on general characteristics than on details. Our point has been to account for and to justify in a degree Mr. Tennyson's popularity, and to show the limits of his enduring fame. He is not one of the great world-singers, and will not be placed by after ages among the sublime figures of Homer, Eschylus, Dante, Shakespeare, Milton, Goethe. Nor, when time allows of calm judgment, will he stand on the first level among our own great ones. If the glories of English poetry can ever be lost, the brows of Chaucer, Pope, Byron, Shelley, Scott, Keats will all yet catch the sunlight when darkness has fallen on those of the Laureate. But for many a year to come, and may be for many a century, wherever the language we now speak is spoken or read; wherever good work short of the very highest is prized; wherever men love the music of

The Lord's Supper Historically Considered.


ordered words, the quiet loveliness of English landscape, the calmness, sometimes the commonplace, of our insular life; wherever they value a terse interpretation of the aspects of nature or scientific facts, a love for what is lovely, and a hopeful outlook on the future, will these works give delight. They will form the studies for boys and girls in the dawn of young feeling and imagination, afford subjects for young painters, and sweet words to ring in our memory as we grow old. It is difficult to forecast the day when Alfred Tennyson's will not be a honoured name, and his poems among the treasures of a rich and varied literature.

ART. II.-The Lord's Supper Historically Considered.

(1) The Lord's Supper, History of Uninspired Teaching from Clement of Rome to Canon Liddon. Two Vols. By CHARLES HERBERT, D.D. London, 1879.

(2) Cana Domini: An Essay on the Lord's Supper, its Primitive Uses and Subsequent History. By JOHN MACNAUGHT, M.A. London, 1878.

(3) Die Lehre von den Sakramenten in ihrer Entwicklung innerhalb der abendländischen Kirche bis zum Concil von Trient. By Dr. G. L. HAHN. Breslau, 1864.

(4) Ausführl. Historia Motuum zwischen den evang. luther.- und reform.-Kirchen, in welcher der ganze Lauff der Streitigkeiten erzehlet, &c. In Three Parts. By VAL. E. LÖSCHER. Leipzig, 1722-1724.

(5) Die evangelische Abendmahlslehre im Reformationszeitalter geschichtlich dargestellt. By AUG. WILH. DIECKHOFF. Göttingen, 1854.

WHAT is the purport of the Lord's Supper? Is it a sacrifice, a communion, or a memorial? If a sacrifice, is it a thankoffering or a sin-offering, is it eucharistic or propitiatory ? is it allied to the shew-bread and the holy feast, or to the passover and the solemn atonement ? If a communion, is it a communion of the soul with Christ or of believers with each other an act of adoring worship or, as the author of 'Ecce Homo' would have it, a club supper'? If a memorial, is God called to remembrance, or is man put in mind? In short, what is the significance of this great Christian ordinance, and what are the benefits it is supposed to confer?

The first two books which head this article are two of the most valuable recent contributions to the voluminous litera

ture upon these great questions. They are both written by clergymen of the Established Church. This is their strength and their weakness. The special controversies concerning the Lord's Supper of late years within their own denomination have so engrossed the attention of the authors that other aspects are excluded quite as important for thought and belief and practice. They are both largely historical; they are also in some degree complementary; but they both lack that abstract character which is scientific. To use a theological technicality, they are both somewhat too apologetic.

Of the patience, scholarship, and thoroughness of Dr. Hebert's work it would be difficult to speak too highly. The object is to extract all the passages bearing upon the Lord's Supper to be found throughout the entire list of extant ecclesiastical writers. As Dr. Hebert says, 'It is not possible to form final opinions upon the Lord's Supper without weighing what has been said upon it during eighteen centuries by learned or pious or masterful thinkers; but to consult and consider' these thinkers 'requires not only time and familiarity with Greek and Latin, but free access during a long period to several hundred volumes.' Dr. Hebert would facilitate such praiseworthy and necessary reference. To that end he has given extensive selections from some 325 divines, ranging from the Roman Clement to Photius and the Fathers of Toledo, and from Alfric to Dean Goulburn and Canon Liddon. These extracts are arranged quite chronologically, the only classification allowed being that of centuries; biographical notices are prefixed to almost every writer; there are occasional critical suggestions; a certain amount of context is given at the judgment of the compiler; and there is a good table of contents which analyzes as well as summarizes the testimony of each author. The labour expended has been enormous. But there are two great defects in the method adopted. One defect is the absence of a general estimate of the theological position and tendencies of the several writers. A man's opinions cannot be philosophically judged by brief extracts from his works. Proof extracts must go the way of proof texts; and just as no competent theologian would rely for the proof of a Biblical doctrine upon a string of isolated passages of Scripture selected without reference to the age, position, and development of the books quoted, so no competent investigator into ecclesiastical doctrines neglects to frame his views after a penetrative and sympathetic study of the whole appearance of the writer he criticizes. Let us take a concrete example. He who pieced together in his mind the

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