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this protection, and called upon Charles to require of all his subjects the profession of the one or the other religion (ii. 323).

As one reads the history from first to last, three things come out with terrible distinctness. The first is the utter treachery of the French monarchs, Francis I., Henry II., Charles IX., and their unscrupulous lying, even in solemn edicts. They kept no faith, and one marvels that the Huguenots could have trusted them at all. The second is the bloodthirstiness and brutality of which, above all nations in modern European history, the French seem capable; for it is not in the massacres of the Huguenots merely, begun at Vassy and culminating in St. Bartholomew, but in the great Revolution and in the Commune of ten years ago that the same ferocious qualities came out. Not even the Turk has surpassed the horrors of these cruel and heartless butcheries. And the third is the equal callousness and devilry of the Papal see: from first to last its incitements were to a more thorough butchery of the Huguenots; and while all Europe was horrified at the massacre of St. Bartholomew, it felt an indecent joy that knew no bounds, and that found expression not only in fulsome letters of congratulation, but in solemn religious thanksgiving festivals and blasphemous Te Deums, in medals and rewards.

History can never forget, nor will Europe ever forgive, either France or Rome for their bad pre-eminence in slaughter and brutality in the massacre of St. Bartholomew. Religion is made to sanction the most atrocious crimes of modern history.

We thank Professor Baird for a book of great historical and moral value, of untiring patience, scrupulous fairness, noble sympathies, and the deepest religious interest.

Professor Baird's history closes with the death of Charles IX. in 1574, two years after the massacre. The Edict of Nantes, which gave toleration to the Huguenots, was promulgated by Henry IV. in 1598, and revoked by Louis XIV. in 1685. For nearly a century it restored to the Protestants of France their earlier liberties, so that more than a century of Protestant history elapses between the close of Professor Baird's record and the beginning of Mr. Poole's. Mr. Poole thinks that various causes induced Louis XIV. to revoke the Edict—a centralizing policy, which Protestantism seriously marred; a means of recruiting the exchequer, which had the disastrous effect of impoverishing France, not in money only, but also in her best men and most productive industries, more than the most disastrous wars; a sacrifice to the liberties of the Gallican Church; and an atonement for the personal crimes of the monarch. The object of Mr. Poole, however, is not to delineate Protestantism in France, but the fortunes of the emigrants outside France. The number of the emigrants has been variously estimated, from Vauban's 80,000 to Limiers' 800,000. Guided by Cassefigue, Mr. Poole estimates it as probably approaching 300,000. He traces the migration in the Netherlands, Holland, England, Switzerland, and Germany, and brings to light many interesting particulars of their treatment and influence. England especially was indebted to the migration for a large development of artistic manufacture and of

the commercial growth which resulted from it. Terribly in all waysfinancially, commercially, socially, and religiously-has France suffered from her rejection of the Reform, her unrelenting and inhuman persecution of the Huguenots, and the expatriation of so many of her best citizens.

Mr. Poole, like Professor Baird, has carefully consulted all available authorities, and has brought together information carefully verified and both valuable and interesting. His style is somewhat hard, crude, awkward, and obscure. He is too often allusive rather than informing, and gives us not so much statements as judgments upon matters to which he vaguely alludes, and of which the majority of his readers are necessarily ignorant. Here is a sentence containing all the information given on the matters referred to: When Louvois opened his missionary career by an attack upon the churches of Poitou, it was in Friesland that popular passion was soonest excited. The instructions to Marilloc were despatched on the 18th of March, 1681: they were published on the 11th of April.' A reader, not a historical student, will ask, Who was Louvois? what was his missionary career? and what was his attack upon the churches at Poitou? Who again was Marilloc? what were his instructions? and who gave them? This vague kind of reference makes the book hard reading, and is unnecessary even for economy of space; a sentence or two would give the necessary information.

Historical Abstracts: being Outlines of the History of some of the Less Known States of Europe. By C. F. JOHNSTONE, M.A. C. Kegan Paul and Co.

The author modestly disowns all attempt at originality, and claims to be only a mere collector of facts. He has, however, put together in a lucid and scholarly way very interesting sketches or summaries of the History of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway; of the Netherlands and Belgium; of the Ottoman Empire and Greece; of Portugal, Prussia, Russia, and the Swiss Confederation. His volume is a kind of historical handbook, and supplies information which, as he intimates, is not elsewhere easily available.

Congregational History. 1850-1880. Fifth Vol. of the Series.

By JOHN WADDINGTON, D.D. Longmans, Green, and Co. Dr. Waddington's history necessarily becomes a chronicle when it passes, as in this volume, into contemporary life. It has, moreover, an inevitable tendency to the summarizing of the chronicler, and it is due to himto say that this is generally fair and genial. The volume will be chiefly valuable as mémoires pour servir. It preserves many incidents that would be forgotten, and it interprets much that would be misunderstood. We have been interested in reading these summaries of things with which, in their occurrence, we were familiar, and have not unfrequently derived additional intelligence from the setting of the author. As we have said,

it is a comment, a record of what men did and said; but the intelligent reader will trace the underlying thread of historical continuity and the law of historical development. We are not to-day what we were thirty years ago, but we are what thirty years of legitimate growth have developed. Dr. Waddington's work would not have been complete without this volume. It were easy to criticize its particulars. Sometimes Dr. Waddington is exuberant, as when he gives eight pages to a lecture on Inspiration by Mr. Bayley. Sometimes he is partial and scant, as when he gives only a page to the great Exhibition of 1851, and mentions only one of the addresses which it called forth; but generally it may be said that too much praise cannot be accorded him for the industry, lucidity, and impartiality with which he has collected and put together its materials.

English Constitutional History, from the Teutonic Conquest to the Present Time. By THOMAS PITT TASWELL-LANGMEAD. B.C.L. Second Edition. Stevens and Haynes.

When a book on so solid a theme as English Constitutional History reaches a second edition so speedily as this has done, it may be safely concluded that its value is not slight. Mr. Langmead's work has, we believe, met with special and hearty appreciation from those whose business it is to study our constitutional history professionally; and in this second edition, enlarged and made still more complete, it cannot fail to meet with continued success. We may add that it would form not only a very instructive, but also a most interesting study to ordinary readers who wish to know the political history of our country. Such chapters as those on the Succession to the Crown, the Origin of Parliament, and the Progress of the Constitution, written, as they are, with great clearness of style, would enable amateur politicians to follow the present course of events with much more intelligence. Mr. Langmead has mastered all the great works on his subject, such as those of Hallam and Stubbs; and readers who might find the latter somewhat 'dry' could find no such drought in the fresh pages of the volume before us. History of Ireland: Cuculain and his Contemporaries. By

STANDISH O'GRADY. Vol. II. Sampson Low and Co. The second volume of this strange 'history' takes us deep into the region of Irish mythical romance. The author has come to the conclusion that the best way to excite interest in the early history of Ireland -the complete reproduction of her heroic literature being hopeless-is to publish what he calls the Irish bardic remains.' Anxious to make the 'heroic' period of his country's history to live again in the imagination of his countrymen and to make familiar to them its chief characters, and despairing of achieving these ends by a mere history such as ordinary unheroie historians write, Mr. O'Grady has with congenial sympathy set himself to the task of reanimating the dead past under imaginative forms,

The keynote to an understanding of his task may be said to be supplied in the following passage: 'If,' he says, 'I can awake an interest in the career of even a single ancient Irish king, I shall establish a train of thought which will advance easily from thence to the state of society in which he lived, and of kings and heroes who surrounded, preceded, or followed him. Attention and interest once fully aroused, concerning even one feature of this landscape of ancient history, could be easily widened and extended in its scope.' He has endeavoured to excite and extend this interest by revivifying for his readers the story of Cuculain and his Contemporaries,' an ancient Irish hero whose memory is cherished by those of his countrymen who are students of the bardic literature. Dealing as the book does with incidents and events, however, that take us back to nearly 3000 years before the Christian era, it is not likely to stir any real historical interest; and perhaps, after all, Mr. Standish O'Grady, desiring to appeal to the Hibernian imagination rather than to cultivate the historical method, is right in his resort to imaginative and legendary literature.

The Migration from Shinar; or, the Earliest Links between the Old and New Continents. By Captain GEORGE PALMER, R.N., F.R.G.S.. Hodder and Stoughton.

The main portion of Captain Palmer's Lectures consists in resemblances between early European civilization and prehistoric American civilization-Aztec, Toltec, Peruvian, and Mexican. He traces records of migration, mound-building, linguistic and physiological resemblances, &c., in support of the theory that America was first peopled not from Asia, but from Europe by the north-west-that is, across Behring's Straits-and that the first inhabitants were of Turanian origin. The defects of Captain Palmer's work are first, his fierce controversial spirit, and next, the desultoriness and inconsequential character of his reasoning. He heaps together a multitude of facts, or phenomena, but he subjects them to no scientific analysis. He does not try to fix their exact evidential value. He throws them before his readers, who are left to make their choice. We have read through his book with some attention, but generally with a confused feeling as the result. The method of the author is not scientific but polemical. He contends for the supreme authority of the Bible, apparently as a teacher of science, and brings the facts of science to its test, but he nowhere tells us what his theory of inspiration is, on what authority it rests, or what value is to be attached to its quasi-scientific intimations. He has, too, the bad habit of applying denunciatory epithets to those from whom he differs. Agreeing with much that he affirms concerning the dogmatism of science, and not yielding to him in one iota of reverence for the Divine character and authority of Scripture, we regret on behalf of religious reverence such a method of controversy. Truth is to be established not by vituperation, but by exact definition, clear evidence, and calm thorough argument. In all these Captain Palmer's book seems to

us lamentably deficient. It is a disorderly collection of particulars, many of them pointing in the direction which he indicates, but neither exactly appraised nor welded into conclusive argument.

India Past and Present. With Minor Essays on Cognate Subjects. By SHOSHEE CHUNDER DUTT. Chatto and Windus.

Some of our readers may remember our review of two previous volumes by Mr. Dutt ('British Quarterly,' vol. lxviii. p. 546), who is a Hindu in the Indian Civil Service, and who has attained to an admirable knowledge of English history and literature, and to great command of the English language. In the present volume he tells us that religiously he is neither a sceptic nor a Christian, but a believer in one God, recognizing as revelations of God only nature and the conscience of man. The present volume consists of a series of papers on Indian Subjects-the Brahman Race, Vedism, Buddhism, Pouranism, Vedantism, Caste, the Mahomedan Conquest and Rule, Hindu Superstitions, the Parsees, Hindu Women, &c. A second series of papers treats of Taxation in India, the Indian Statute Book, British Opium Policy, &c., and an Appendix contains a series of short, religious, and ethical papers. There is nothing very original in the papers. They add nothing to our information, and are marked by no specialties of thought or philosophy. They are the vigorous expositions of a well-informed man. To those ignorant of the subjects treated they are, of course, full of interesting information. Indeed Chunder Dutt is best described as an expounder of the lore of the scholar to the common people. The papers on the Hindu Religions especially will give to such much information put in an intelligent and popular way. We are chiefly interested in the writer as a Hindu who has attained to such power of thinking and expressing himself in good, popular English. In his former book he spoke more fully about English rule in India, more especially about the evil wrought by the hauteur of Englishmen in their bearings towards the natives. He reverts to these matters in the present volume. He thinks English rule an incalculable blessing for India, both in the moral, social, and material benefits it has conferred and will confer. He is therefore a strong advocate of it, and generally an apologist for it. He urges that Hindus should have greater access to the civil and military services; that the ideas of young Bengal should find more sympathy, and that more courtesy on the part of Englishmen would ensure more respect and affection. We very heartily commend his book both for its intrinsic merits and as an early product of English cultivation in India.

Africa Past and Present. By an OLD RESIDENT. Hodder and Stoughton.

This is a useful summary of the progress of African discovery. Beginning, if not at the beginning, yet with Herodotus and Strabo, Mr.

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