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4. Among modern nations as reached by the teachings of Christianity, in the gradual unfolding of the present received ideas of school organization, and of the principles and methods of instruction,—through (a) the peculiar organization and distinctive teaching of the early Christians; (b) the first popular school of the Christian Fathers, Chrysostom and Basil; (c) the Catechist schools of Clement and Origen; (d) the seminaries and cloister schools of Tertullian, Cyprian, Jerome and Austin; (e) the Monastic institutions of Benedict, Dominic and Francis; (f) the court schools and educational labors of Charlemagne and Alfred; (g) the modifications wrought by Arabic culture which followed the incursions of the Moors; (h) the rise and expansion of universities; (i) the demand of chivalry for a culture for man and woman distinct from that of the clergy, and of incorporated cities for schools independent of ecclesiastical authorities; (j) the revival of the languages, and the literature of Greece and Rome; (4) the long-protracted struggle between Humanism and Realism, or between, on the one hand, the study of languages for the purposes of general culture and the only preparation for professions in which language was the great instrument of study and influence, and on the other, the claims of Science, and of the realities surrounding every one, and with which every one has to do every day, in the affairs of peace or war; () and the gradual extension and expansion of the grand idea of universal education of the education of every human being, and of every faculty of every human being, according to the circumstances and capabilities of each. While thus aiming to give in each number, contributions to the History of Pedagogy and the internal economy of schools, we hope in this series to complete our survey of―
II. Systems of National Education, and especially an account of Public Schools and other Means of Popular Education in each of the United States, and of all other governments on the American Continent.
III. The history and present condition of Normal Schools and other special institutions and agencies for the Professional Training and Improvement of Teachers.
IV. The organization and characteristic features of Polytechnic Schools, and other institutions for the education of persons destined for other pursuits than those of Law, Medicine and Theology, including a full account of Military Schools.
V. The history and courses of study of the oldest and best Colleges and Universities in different countries.
VI. The life and services of many Teachers, Promoters and Benefactors of Education, whose labors or benefactions are associated with the foundation and development of institutions, systems, and methods of instruction.
VIII. Special Schools and Departments of Science, Arts, XVIII. School Architecture.
Agriculture, Museums, &c.
IX. Military and Naval Education.
X. Preventive and Reformatory Education.
XIX. Educational Endowments and Benefactors.
XXI. Educational Biography and List of Portraits.
CHAPTER I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND HISTORY OF EDUCATION.
EDUCATION defined by Eminent Authorities; English,
XI. 11-20; Greek, Roman, French, German, Scotch
and American, XIII, 7-16.
Educational Aphorisms and Suggestions, from Two
Hundred Authorities, Ancient and Modern.-Man,
his Dignity and Destiny, VIII, 9. Nature and
Value of Education, VIII, 38. Duties of Parents
and Teachers, VIII. 65. Early Home Training,
VIII. 75-80; XIII. 79-92. Female Education
XIII. 232-242. Intellectual Culture in General,
X. 116. Subjects and Means of Education, X, 141,
Religious and Moral Instruction, X, 166. Disci-
pline, X. 187. Example. X, 194-200. The State
and Education, XIII, 717-624.
Reformers at Beginning of Seventeenth Century,
VI. 459. Thirty Years' War, and the Century
Following, VII. 367. Real Schools, V. (89. Re
formatory Philologists, V. 741. Home and Private
Instruction, VII, 381. Religious Instruction, VII.
401. Methods of Teaching Latin, VI. 581. Metir
ods of Classical Instruction, VII, 471. Methods of
Teaching Real Branches, VIII, 101–228. German
Universities, VI, 9–65; VII, 47-152. Student So-
cieties, VII. 160.
Educational Development in Europe, by H. P. Tappan,
Hebrews, and their Education, by M. J. Raphall, I.
Education, Nature and Objects of-Prize Essay, by Greek Views of Education, Aristotle, XIV. 131;
John Lalor, XVI, 33-64.
Education for the Times, by T. M. Clark, II. 375.
Education u State Duty, by D. B. Duffield. III. 81.
Education and the State; Aphorisms, XIII. 717-724.
Views of Macaulay and Carlyle, XIV, 403. Amer-
ican Authorities, XI, 323; XV. 5.
Education Preventive of Crime and Misery, by E. C.
Tainsch, XI. 77-93.
Home Education-Labors of W. Burton. II. 333.
Intellectual Education, by William Russell.-The
Perceptive Faculties, II. 113-144, 317-332. The
Expressive Faculties, II, 47-64, 321-345. The
Reflective Faculties, IV, 199-218, 309–342.
Lectures on Education, by W. Knighton, X, 573.
Misdirected Education and Insanity, by E. Jarvis, IV.
Moral and Mental Discipline, by Z. Richards, I. 107.
Objects and Methods of Intellectual Education, by
Francis Wayland, XIII, 801-816.
Philosophy of Education, by Joseph Henry, I. 17-31.
Philosophical Survey of Education, by Sir Henry
Wotton, XV, 131-143.
Problem of Education, by J. M. Gregory, XIV. 431.
Powers to be Educated, by Thomas Hill, XIV, 81-92.
Self-Education and College Education, by David Mas-
son, IV, 262-271.
Thoughts on Education, by Locke; Physical, XI.
461; Moral, XIII, 548; Intellectual. XIV, 305.
Views and Plan of Education, by Krüsi, V. 187-197.
Unconscious Tuition, by F. D. Huntington, I, 141-163.
Schools as they were Sixty Years Ago in United
States, XIII. 123, 837; XVI, 331, 738; XVII.
Progressive Development of Schools and Education
in the United States, XVII.
History of Education, from the German of Karl von
Raumer, IV. 149. History of Education in Italy.
VII, 413-460. Eminent Teachers in Germany and
the Netherlands prior to the Fifteenth Century, IV.
714. Schlettstadt School, V. 65. School Life in
the Fifteenth Century, V. 79. Early School Codes
of Germany, VI. 426. Jesuits and their Schools,
V. 213; VI. 615. Universities in the Sixteenth
Century, V, 536. Verbal Realism, V, 655. School
Lycurgus, and Spartan Education, XIV. 611;
Plutarch, XI, 99.
Roman Views of Education, Quintilian, XI. 3.
Italian Views of Education and Schools, Acquaviva,
XIV. 462; Boccaccio. VII. 422; Botta, III, 513;
Dante and Petrarch, VII. 418; Piens. Politian,
Valla, Vittorino, VII, 442; Rosmini. IV, 479.
Dutch Views of Education, Agricola, IV. 717; Busch
and Lange, IV, 726; Erasmus, IV. 729; Hierony
mians, IV, 622; Reuchlin, V, 65; Wessel, IV, 714.
French Views of Education and Schools, Fenelon,
XIII. 477; Guizot, XI, 254, 357; Marcel, XI.
21; Montaigne, IV. 461; Rabelais, XIV, 147;
Roussenu. V. 459; La Salle, III, 437.
German Views of Education, Abbenrode, IV. 505,
512; Basedow, V. 487: Comenius, V. 257; D ́es-
terweg, IV, 235, 505; Dinter. VII, 153; Felbiger,
IX. 600; Fliedner, III. 487; Franké, V. 481;
Graser, VI, 575; Gutsmuths, VII. 191; Hamann,
VI. 247; Hentschel. VIII. 633; Herder, VI, 195;
Jacobs, VI. 612; Juhn, VIII. 196; Luther, IV.
421; Meinotto, VI. 609; Melancthon, IV. 741;
Neander, V. 599; Overberg, XIII, 365; Ratich,
V. 229; Raumer, VII. 200, 381; VIII. 101: X.
227, 613; Ruthardt, VI, C00; Sturm, IV, 167, 401;
Tobler, V. 205; Trotzendorf, V. 107; Von Turk,
V. 155; Vogel. IX. 210; Wolf, VI, 260.
Swiss Views of Education, Fellenberg, III, 594;
Krüsi, V. 189; Pestalozzi, III. 401; VII. 513;
Vehrli, III, 3×9.
English Views of Education, Arnold, IV, 545; As-
cham, IV. 155; Bacon, XIII. 103; Bell, X, 467,
Colet, XVI, 657; Elyot, XVI, 485; Hale, XVII,
Hartlib, XI. 191; Goldsmith, XIII, 347; John-
son, XII. 369; Lalor, XVI. 33; Lancaster and
Bell, X. 355; Locke VI. 209; XI. 461; XIII
548; Masson. IV. 262; XIV. 262; Milton, IL 61;
Mulcaster. XVII, 177; Spencer, XI, 445; Sedg-
wiek, XVII.; Temple, F, XVII.; Whewell, W.,
Early Promoters of Realism in England, XII. 476.
Bacon, V, 663; Cowley, XII, 651; Hoole, XIL
647: Petty, XI, 199.
II. INDIVIDUAL VIEWS AND SPECIAL SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION.
Abbenrode. On Teaching History and Geography, Bard, Samuel. Schools of Louisiana, II. 473.
IV, 505, 512.
Barnard, D. D. Right of State to establish Schools,
XI, 323. Memoir of S. Van Rensellaer, VI. 223.
Barnard, F. A. P. Improvements in American Col-
leges, I. 269. Influence of Yale College, V. 723.
Memoir, V, 753-780. Titles and Analysis of Publi-
cations, V. 763-769. Value of Classical Studies,
Abbot, G. D., and the Useful Knowledge Society,
XV. 241. Educational Labors, XVI, 600.
Ackland, Henry W. Natural Science and Physical
Exercise in Schools, XVII.
Acquaviva, and the Ratio Studiorum, XIV, 462.
Adams, John. Education and the State, XV, 12.
Adams, J. Q. On Normal Schools, I, 589. Educa-
tion and the State, XV, 12. Educational Reform
in Silesin, XVII.
Addison, Joseph. Education and Sculpture, XI, 16.
Adelung, J. C. Philological Labors, XI, 451.
Agassiz, L. Museum of Comparative Zoology, IX, 615.
Agricola, Rudolf. Life and Opinions, IV, 717.
Airy, G. B. Mathematics and Natural Science in
Akerly, S. Deaf-mute Training, III, 348.
Akroyd, E. Mode of Improving a Factory Popula-
tion, VIII. 305.
Albert, Prince. On Science and Art, IV. 813.
Alcott, A. Bronson. School-days, XVI, 130.
Alcott, William A. Educational Views, IV. 629.
Plan of Village School, IX, 540.
Allyn, Robert. Schools of Rhode Island, II, 544.
Anderson, H. J. Schools of Physical Science, I, 515.
Andrews, I. W. Educational Labors, XVI. 604.
Andrews, L. Educational Labors, XVI. 604.
Andrews, S. J. The Jesuits and their Schools,
Anthony, H. On Competitive Examinations at West
Point. XV. 51.
Aristotle, and his Educational Views, XIV. 131.
Cited, III. 45; IV. 463; V. 673; VII, 415;
VIII, 40-79; X. 132-195.
Arnold, Matthew. Tribute to Guizot, XI. 281.
Schools of Hol'and, XIV, 712.
Arnold, Thomas, as a Teacher, IV, 545-581.
Ascham, Roger. Biographical Sketch, III. 23.
Toxophilus; the Schoole of Shootinge, III, 41.
The Schoolmaster, IV, 155; XI. 57.
Ashburton, Lord. Prize Scheme and Address on
Teaching Common Things. I, 629.
Austin, Sarah. Ends of a Good Education, XI. 20.
Aventinus. Study of German, XI, 162.
Bache, A. D. On a National University, I. 477.
Education in Europe, VIII, 435, 444, 455, 564, 609;
IX. 167, 210, 569; XII. 337; XIII. 303, 307.
Bacon, Leonard. Life of James Hillhouse, VI, 325.
Bacon, Lord. His Philosophy and its Influence upon
Education, V. 663. Essays on Education, and
Studies, with Annotations by Whately, XIII, 103.
Bailey, Ebenezer. Memoir, XII, 429. Girls' High
School in Boston in 1828, XIII, 252.
Baker, T. B. L. Reformatory Education, III, 789.
Baker, W. S. Itinerating School Agency, I, 729.
Backs, N. P. Museum of Zoology, IX, 619.
V, 763. Open System of University Teaching, V.
765. Post-graduate Department, V. 775. Oral
Teaching, V. 775.
Barnard, H. Educational Labors in Connecticut from
1837 to 1842, I, 669; Speech in Legislature in 1838,
678; Address to the People of Connecticut, 670;
Analysis of First Report in 1839, 674; Expenditures
for School Purposes, 679; Measures and Results,
685; Schedule of Inquiries, 686; Topics of School
Lectures, 709; Plan of State Institute, 721. Labors
in Rhode Island from 1843 to 1849, I. 723; XIV.
558; Institute of Instruction, 559; Series of Educa-
tional Tracts, 567; Educational Libraries, 568;
Correspondence with Committee of Teachers, 579.
Labors in Connecticut from 1850 to 1854, XV, 276;
Plan of Public High School, 279; Public and Pt-
rental Interest and Coöperation, 285; Legal Organi-
zation of Schools, 289; School Attendance, 293;
Agricultural Districts, 303; Manufacturing Districts,
305; Cities, 309; Gradation of Schools, 316; Pri-
vate versus Public Schools, 323; Teachers' Insti-
tutes, 387. Arguments for, VIII. 672. Normal
Schools, I, 753; X, 15. Plan of Society, and Jour-
nal and Library of Education, I, 15, 134. Princi
ples and Plans of School Architecture, I. 740; IX.
487; X, 695; XII. 701; XIII. 818; XIV. 780;
XV. 783; XVI. 781. National Education in Eu-
rope, I. 745; XV. 329. Reports and Documents
on Common Schools in Connecticut, I, 754, 761.
Reports and Journal of Public Schools in Rhode
Island, I, 755. Tribute to Gallaudet, I, 417, 759.
Memoir of Ezekiel Cheever, I, 297, 769. Reforma
tory Schools and Education, III. 551, 819. Mili-
tary Schools and Education, XII. 3-400. Naval
and Navigation Schools, XV, 17, 65. Competitive
Examination, XI. 103. Educational Aphorisms,
VIII. 7; XIII. 7, 717. German Universities, VI.
9; VII. 49, 201. Books for the Teacher, XIII.
447. German Educational Reformers, XIII. 448.
American Text-books, XIII, 209, 401, 628; XIV.
753; XV. 539, English Pedagogy, XVI. 467;
Object Teaching and Primary Instruction in Great
Britain, 469. Pestalozzi and Pestalozzianism, VII,
284, 502. National and State Educational Associa-
tions, XVI, 311; American College Education, 339,
Standard Publications, XVI. 797; Progressive De-
velopment of Education in the United States,
XVII; Educational Land Grants, XVII.
Barnard, J. School-days in 1689, I, 307.
Barnard, J. G. Treatise on the Gyroscope, III. 537;
IV. 529; V. 298.
Barney, H. H. Schools of Ohio, II, 531.
Barrow, Isaac. Education defined, XI, 13.
Basedow, and the Philanthropinum, V, 487-520.
Bateman, N. Educational Labors, XVI, 165.
Bushnell, Horace. Early Training, XIII, 79. Pas-
times, Plays, and Holidays, XIII, 93. Homespun
Era of Common Schools, XIII. 142. The State
and Education, XIII, 723.
Bates, S. P. On Liberal Education, XV. 155. Me- Buss, J., and Pestalozzianism, VI, 293.
moir, XV, 682.
Byron, Lady. Girls' Reformatory School, III, 785.
Cady, L. F. Classical Instruction, XII, 561.
Bates, W. G. On Training of Teachers, XVI, 453.
Becker, K. L. Study of Language, XII. 460.
Beecher, Miss C. E. Physical Training, II, 399. Caldwell, Charles.
Western Education, XV, 274.
Education in North Carolina,
Memorial on Nor. Sch., XVI, 86.
Calkins, N. A. Object Teaching, XII, 633.
Education defined, XIII. 13.
State and Education, XIV, 406. Reading, XVI.
191. University Studies, XVII.
Carpenter, Mary. Reformatory Education, III. 10,
Beecher, Henry W. School Reminiscences, XVI, 135. Calhoun, W. B.
Bell, Andrew, and the Madras System, X, 467.
Benedict, St., and the Benedictines, XVII.
Beneke, F. E. Pedagogical Views, XVII.
Bernhardt. Teachers' Conferences, XIII, 277.
Berranger. Training of Orphan Children, III. 736.
Bingham, Caleb. Educational Labors, V, 325.
Bishop, Nathan. Public Schools of Boston, I. 458.
Girls' High School of Boston, XI, 263. Plans of
Providence School-houses, XI, 582. Memoir,
Blockman, Dr. Pestalozzi's Poor School at Neuhoff,
Carpenter, W. B. Physical Science and Modern Lan-
guages in Schools, XVII.
Curter, J. G. Life and Services, V. 409. Essay on
Teachers' Seminaries, XVI. 71. Memorial, XVI.
Boccaccio, and Educational Reform in Italy, XII, Channing, W. E.
Bodleigh, Sir T. On Travel, XV, 380.
Bolingbroke. Genius and Experience, XI, 12.
Booth, Rev. J. Popular Education in England, III,
252, 265. Competitive Examination, III, 257.
Borgi, Jean, and Abandoned Orphans, III, 583.
Botta, V. Public Instruction in Sardinia. III, 513;
IV, 37, 479.
Bowen, Francis. Life of Edmund Dwight, IV, 5.
Braidwood, J. Education of Deaf-mutes, III, 348.
Brainerd, T. Home and School Training in 1718,
Braun, T. Education defined. XIII. 10.
Breckenridge, R. J. Schools of Kentucky, II, 488.
Brinsley, J. Consolations for Grammar Schools, I, 311.
Brockett, L. P. Idiots and their Training, I, 593.
Institutions and Instruction for the Blind, IV. 127.
Brooks, Charles. Best Methods of Teaching Morals,
I, 336. Education of Teachers, I, 587.
Brooks, K. Labors of Dr. Wayland, XIII, 771.
Brougham, Lord. Life and Educational Views, VI.
467. Education and the State, XIII, 722. Train-
ing of the Orator, and Value of Eloquence, XVI, 187.
Brown, Thomas. Education defined, XIII, 13.
Brownson, O. A. Education defined, XIII, 12.
Buckham, M. H. English Language in Society and
School, XIV, 343. Plan of Study, XVI, 595.
Buckingham, J. T. Schools as they were, XIII. 129.
Bulkley, J. W. Tenchers' Associations, XV, 185.
Burgess, George. Thoughts on Religion and Public
Schools, II, 562.
Burke, Edmund. Education defined, XI, 17.
Burrowes, T. H. Reports on Pennsylvania Schools,
VI, 114, 556. History of Normal Schools in Penn-
sylvania, XVI, 195.
Burton, W. District-school as it was, III, 456. Me-
moir, XVI, 330.
Cecil, Sir William. Advice to his Son, IX. 161.
Teachers and their Education,
XII. 453. End of Education, XIII, 15.
Chauveau, P. J. O. Education in Lower Canada,
Cheever, Ezekiel. Memoir and Educational Labors,
Cheke, Sir John. III. 24.
Chesterfield, Lord. Advice to his Son, XVII.
Choate, Rufus. The Peabody Institute, I, 239.
Christian Brothers, System of. III. 347.
Cicero. Cited, VIII. 13, 14, 43, 79; X. 133, 151,
167, 194-196; XII. 409.
Clajus, and the German Language, XI, 408.
Clark, H. G. On Ventilation, XV. 787.
Clark, T. M. Education for the Times, II, 376.
Claxton, T. First Manufacturer of School Apparatus,
Clay, John. Juvenile Criminals, III. 773.
Clerc, Laurent. III, 349.
Clinton, DeWitt. Education of Teachers, XIII. 341
Cocker, E. Methods of Arithmetic, XVII.
Coggeshall, W. J. Ohio System of Public Schools
VI. 81, 532.
Colburn, Dana P. Memoir and Educational Work
Colburn, Warren. Educational Work, II, 194.
Cole, David. On Classical Education, I, 67.
Coleridge, D. St. Marks' Normal College, X, 531.
Coleridge, S. T. The Teacher's Graces, II, 102.
Colet, John. Educational Views and Influence,