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tuition by the pupils themselves. I confine myself to the simple and well known fact, that the adoption of Dr. Bell's new method in the Aldgate and Kendal schools, was prior to the introduction of it into the Borough school."

The account of the schools of industry át Kendal, referred to above, concludes with these words" But let the reader beware how he ventures hastily to reject all this, as impracticable theory;— for it is a plain and literal account of the MALE ASYLUM AT MADRAS, as it existed in 1796, under the superintending care of the Rev. Dr. Bell. 10th August, 1801."

The following extract is from the first edition of "Improvemenis, &c. in Education, by Joseph Lancaster, 1803." P. 64, 65. "I ought not to close my account, without acknowledging the obligation I lie under to Dr. Bell, of the Male Asylum at Madras, who so nobly gave up his time and liberal salary, that he might perfect that institution, which flourished. greatly under his fostering care. He published a tract, in 1798, [it should be 1797] entitled, "An experiment on education, made at the Male Asylum at Madras, suggesting a system whereby a school or family may teach itself, under the superintendence of the master or parent." Cadell and Davies, Strand, price 18.From this publication I have adopted several useful hints; I beg leave to recommend it to the attentive perusal of the friends of education and of youth. I am persuaded, nothing is more conducive to the promotion of a system than actual experiment. Dr. Bell had two hundred boys, who instructed themselves, made their own pens, ruled their books, and did all that labour in school, which, among a great number, is light; but resting on the shoulders of the well-meaning and honest, though unwise teacher, often proves too much for his health, and embitters, or perhaps costs him his life. I much regret that I was not acquainted with the beauty of his system, till somewhat advanced in my plan; if I had known it, it would have saved me much trouble, and some #retrograde movements. As a confirmation of the goodness of Dr. ? Bell's plan, I have succeeded with one nearly similar, in a school attended by almost three hundred children."

In an appendix to the second edit. also dated 1803, it is added, p. 78, 79. "Dr. Bell was fully sensible of this waste of time in schools, and his method to remedy the evil was crowned with complete success. I have been endeavouring to walk in his footsteps, in the method of teaching about to be detailed.

"The scholars have a desk before them, with ledges on every side, and it is filled with sand to a level with these ledges; every boy is furnished with sha p p ined wire to write, or more pro perly to print with. A word is then dictated by the monitor, for instance beer,' and it is immediately sketched in the sand, by every boy with the point of his skewer, and, when inspected by the monitor, another word is dictated as before. It pos

sesses all the advantages before described, as attached to spelling on the slate; applies to this with an increase of advantage, as this class of children lose more than two-thirds of time, which is more than those do who can write. It has this difference, that instead of writing it is printing, and of course, is more connected with reading, than spelling by writing is.

"I again refer the reader to Dr. Bell's pamphlet, he cannot do better than to procure one and read it himself, which will save me going more into detail, and afford him greater satisfaction."

So far these essays were made without any reference to, or communication with, the author, and without any other guide than the original report of the Madras Asylum. To none of the early writers on the subject of the new system of educationthe critic who has been quoted above, Dr. Briggs, Sir Thomas Bernard, or Mr. Lancaster, was the author, at this period 1803, personally known. Of these the first who opened a correspondence, followed by a visit, was Mr. Lancaster, at the close of 1804.

In April, 1805, the author published of his experiment a "Second edition to which is prefixed the scheme of a school on the above model, alike fitted to reduce the expense of education, abridge the labour of the master, and expedite the progress of the scholar. The process of teaching the alphabet in sand, of reading, spelling, and writing, is explained; and a board of education and poor rates suggested."

In this edition, the documents and vouchers, being considered as no longer wanted to a discovery, which was then recognized by all who adopted the new system, or wrote on the subject, were not reprinted. It was thought sufficient to refer the reader to them as they stood in the former edition, which was still on sale; and to restrict the extracts from the report of the Male Asylum" to those parts which were necessary for example or for practice. Copies of this publication of 1805, were presented to Mr. J. Lancaster, for which a deputation of his scholars returned thanks to the author, who was then in town.

In the 7th month, 1805, Mr. J. Lancaster, in a new work, the third edition of his improvements, instead of the former inserted other and new notices of the Madras school; with a direct statement of the tution by teachers; as follows.

P. 46, 47. "The figures are taught in the same manner. Sand is a cheap substitute for books any where; but more so in those parts of the country where the soil is sandy, than in London. This method was taken in the outline from Dr. Bell, formerly of Madras; but he did not say, in his printed account of that institution, whether wet or dry sand was used. It, for a long time, involved our minor classes in much difficulty, having begun with wet sand: we continued it some time.


these difficulties were obviated by my hearing from Dr. Bell, that it was dry sand.”

P. 57-59. "In reading they read lines or sentences, and sometimes paragraphs, in rotation. They are required to read every word slowly and deliberately, pausing between each. They read long words in the same manner, only by syllables: thus, in reading the word, composition, they would not read it at once, but by syllables: thus, com-po-si-ti-on; making a pause at every syllable. . . . . . I am much indebted to Dr Bell, late of Madras, for the preceding information on the subject: I have reduced it to practice, and find it does honour to its benevolent inventor; to which I have added several valuable improvements, particularly that of the reading and spelling cards."

P. 60. This method of spelling is common'y practised in schools; but, for the method of studying the spelling lessons, I am indebted to Dr. Bell, believing it was his peculiar invention."

P. 23. "The boys school was instituted as a free-school, by Joseph Lancaster, in 1801; and is actually extended to seven hundred boys, who are instructed upon a plan entirely new; by means of which, one master alone can educate one thousand boys, in reading, writing, and arithmetic, as effectually, and with as little trouble, as twenty or thirty have ever been instructed by the usual modes of tuition."

P. 37. "The whole school is arranged in classes; a monitor is appointed to each, who is responsible for the cleanliness, order, and improvement of every boy in it."

P. 40. "To promote emulation, and facilitate learning, the whole school is arranged into classes, and a monitor appointed to each class."

P. 89. " Every boy is placed next to one who can do as well or better than himself."

P. 161. "The chief duty of the master is to see that the monitors have done their duty."

P. 14. 66 Tuition, in this school, is conducted solely by the senior boys, employed as teachers: the master treating them with peculiar attention, and not sparing suitable encouragement when merited; such is their activity and diligence, that no other assistance is necessary at present, or likely to be so in future. J. L. can say with truth, that owing to these advantages, he has Lo more labour with 250 children, than he formerly had with 80, and can do them superior justice in tuition."

The next testimony is from the pen of a writer who was also personally unknown at the time to the author--a zealous and patriotic advocate of the new system of education.

P. 14. "The nation is indebted to the genius, the ability, and persevering industry, of the Rev Dr. Bell, late superintendant and director of the Male Asylum, at Madras, in the East Indies, and now Rector of Swanage, in Dorsetshire, for a most en

lightened plan of education for the poor, which he some time since disclosed to the public; and for which he deserves a statue to his memory. It is upon this plan chiefly that the free-school, in Orchard-street, will be conducted." A new and appropriate system of education, &c. by P. Colquhoun, L. L. D. Hatchard, Piccadilly, 1806.

This school, now conducted with supereminent ability, and enthusiastic energy, under the indefatigable superintendence of the Rev. Dr. Carey, Prebendary of Westminster, and Master of Westminster school, exhibits a correct specimen of the Madras System of Education. The Master, James Wilmont, a young friend and late parishioner of mine at Swanage.

Extract from substance of a speech on the Poor Laws, by S. Whitbread, Esq M. P. Feb. 19th, 1807. Note A. p. 98.

"Dr. Bell, late of the establishment of Fort St. George in the East Indies, and rector of Swanage, claims the original invention of the system of education practised by Mr. Lancaster. So early as the year 1789, he opened a school [undertook the superintendence of the M. M. O. Asylum] at Madras, in which that system was first reduced to practice, with the greatest success, and the most beneficial effects. In the year 1797, he published an outline [the official report transmitted by the government of Fort St George,] of his method of instruction, in a small pamphlet, entitled, " An Experiment on Education made at the Male Asylum of Madras." That pamphlet has been extended, and very valuable details given to it by Dr. Bell, in two subsequent publications of the years 1805 and 1807. Mr. Lancaster's free school in the Borough, was not opened till the year 1800, [1801] So that Dr. Bell unquestionably preceded Mr. Lancaster, and to him the world are first indebted for one of the most useful discoveries which has ever been submitted to society."

Extract from Edinburgh Review, of October, 1807.

"We are so far from wishing to undervalue the labours of Dr. Bell, that it gives us great pleasure to express our warmest admiration of what he has done for education. He is unquestionably the beginner in an art, which we trust will be carried to a still greater perfection· · We hope he will value his deserved reputation above every thing else, and not lose, that originality, which has brought him into notice."

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Extract of a letter from Richard Lovell Edgeworth, Esq. dated Edgeworthstown, Ireland, Oct 31st, 1806. -“I have been lately appointed, under an act of parliament, one of a commission to inquire into the funds that exist, and into the probable means which may be employed, to extend the benefits of education among the lower orders of people in Ire


To whom can I apply for instruction with more propriety than to Dr. Bell; from whom

have borrowed their most useful ideas?"



Extract of a letter from Jas. Wilmont, now master of the free school, Orchard Street, Westminster, to Rev. Dr. Bell.

"I went to Ireland in September, 1808. I lost no time in organizing the school at Wilson's hospital according to your invaluable system, and in the space of two months, the friends of the institution witnessed the effect, and expressed their approbation of the system."

Extract from the 5th Report of the Commissioners of the Board of Education in Ireland, dated 12th May, 1809.

"The boys [of Wilson's Hospital] have lately made an astonishing progress in reading and spelling, under a new master, brought over by the primate, from Dr. Bell's establishment [Parish] in England.”


531, Merion Street, 9th April, 1808. "Sir, I am directed by the society for promoting the comforts of the poor (in Dublin) to convey to you their thanks for your very kind and liberal permission (conveyed through Mr. Bernard) to print your valuable book on education; and at the same time to transmit to you a copy of a resolution unanimously entered into at a meeting of the society, on Thursday the 7th instant.

"Resolved, That, in order to express our sense of the benefit conferred upon the public by the Rev. Dr. Bell's introduction of a method of popular education, which in expedition and efficaciousness appears wholly unexampled, that reverend gentleman be, and he is hereby requested, to permit himself to be enrolled as an honorary member of this society.

"I have the honour to be, with respect, sir, your most obedient humble servant, WILLIAM DISNEY, secretary to the society."

The only schools in Wales, which I have seen, were formed, patronized, and supported by Lord Kenyon, (as many in England are,) and exhibit in strong colours to all around, the blessings which men of rank can confer on all within the reach of their extended influence by means of this system. It is not easy to say, whether are more gratifying the entire knowledge of the system, the energy and zeal with which it is carried into effect; or the wide range to which his lordship's patronage and active visitation of schools is extended. Of these, his own school at Penley is an admirable specimen.

The following extract from the Report, with which his Lordship has favoured me, contains much useful instruction to those who would establish new schools.

"In the year 1911 the Madras system was introduced into the principality of Wales, and into the neighbouring counties of Salop and Chester.

"The first school was founded by the chapel of ease at Pen

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