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under the stimulus of emulation-standing in the circle of their class, it behoves the master, when there is room only for the half, or a part of the classes to stand up at a time, to make such arrangements, that a class may read one hour, and write on sand, slate, copy or cyphering book the next; and direct such alteruation of tasks, as may keep the whole school perpetually employed; one part learning and saying their lessons to the teachers; the other in practices, which can be performed in silence. This diminishes the noise of a numerous school.

For more on these heads, see the preceding chapter.

In executing these directions, and every other of this sort, it is of the greatest benefit, whenever an error is committed, as to the rule of the school, to teach every scholar, at once, what that rule is, and never to quit that point, or any other, till it be well understood by all the class. The usual practice of masters' telling the scholars, when they mistake or hesitate, and giving instructions without stopping to ascertain whether the instructions be attended to or comprehended, is the source of much retardation and imperfect knowledge. Let not any thing, which can be taught at once, be put off to a future lesson (except for repetition or revisal, which, after the most perfect instruction for the first time, will still be necessary), but let it be made easy and familiar, before it be quitted, whatever time it may require. The teachers and assistants enable the master to have this done, without trouble to himself; and the benefit is incalculable. This will often cost some attention at the time, but the attention so bestowed tells ever after. One boy fully instructed may be set to teach another, and each of these two may teach one more, and so on in geometrical progression, till the whole class or school is instructed in that particular point. But above all, it is essentially requisite that the master never allow the least deviation from any gene

tal rule whatever in his school, to go unnoticed and uncorrected, and that, while he leaves to his teachers, the carrying into execution these general rules, he watches over, directs, and controls their due performance.

In a word, if these be generally observed, and no deviation suffered, the progress of the scholar will be as rapid as it is perfect, and all will be satisfaction and delight; and in proportion to the failure in any of these will be the deficiency, and dissatisfaction of the scholar.

To the trustees and visitors of schools, I beg to observe, that it is essential that the duty and interest of their masters coincide; especially that they be not set, as in some instances, in direct opposition the one to the other; and still more especially that those of them who discharge their functions faithfully and ably, experience due encouragement and credit. Let one or more visitors, well instructed in the system, attend the weekly examination of the school; let them always begin by inspecting the marked books, and sometimes comparing them with the registers, and by observing whether the due number of lessons have been learnt; let them examine all the classes, or as many at a time as convenient, and see, whether the lessons so marked and registered be perfectly learnt.

To sum up all, let them see that the books are duly marked, the number of lessons duly learnt, and perfectly said, and all is well.


Recapitulation and Conclusion.

It is not on the practices detailed above, or any such, however important in themselves as individual improvements, that the charm, which this system is found to possess, depends. It depends on the scheme of tuition by the scholars themselves. Wherever this general principle is adopted, methodised, and duly (for all turns on this point) executed, there is the system of the Madras Asylum, whether they write in sand, spell without reiteration, read by syllables, &c. as directed in the subsidiary

practices of that school, or whatever other improvements of this sort are resorted to in preference. Wherever this tuition by scholars does not take place, there is not the system of the Asylum, though the writing in sand or slate, spelling without reiteration, reading by syllables, and all the subsidiary practices of that school be adopted. In every instance, it is by this system, the tuition by the scholars themselves, that the success and economy of which it boasts are to be attained: and wherever this system is not adopted, let the processes be what they may, the same success and economy cannot, in a large seminary, be attained.

But if any master be not yet fully sensible of the intrinsic value of the system of tuition by the scholars themselves in classes of equal proficiency by short, easy, and perfect lessons, and still attributes the grand success of the new mode of instruction to some peculiar practices (or contrivances), independent of the system of tuition under which these practices are carried into effect, he may imagine, or even try a simple experiment. Let him discard all the peculiar practices (or contrivances) of his school, and if the tuition by the scholars be duly carried on, the difference of progress will not be greatly material. Let him on the other hand discard the system of tuition by the scholars, and retain all his practices, the charm ceases, subordination and diligence cannot be so readily maintained, punishments must be resumed, and, after all, the school comparatively stands still.

It is of the utmost importance that the teacher impress his mind with a due sense of this immense disparity, in order that he may, before all, and above all, give his time and direct his attention to the due execution of that system, from which all the practices of the new school derive the grand charm, and without which. they are comparatively insignificant and of small avail..

In one word, I would say of this, and all else which has been detailed, mind these rules before you mend them. They are founded on long experience, and on

the event; and, if duly observed, may render your school not altogether unlike to what the Madras Asylum was seventeen years ago; for which the reader may refer to the Report of that In titution, dated 28th June, 1796: just reprinted in "Elements of Tuition, Part 1st. the Madras school."


I cannot here forbear repeating once more, an observation which it is my most anxious wish, as it always has been my riost earnest endeavour, to incul cate. Let no teacher, as he values the satisfaction and approbation of the visitors and directors of his school, the profit and delight of his pupils, the gratification and applause of their parents and friends, and his own ease and comfort, think he has done his duty, 1 while there is a single child in his school who is not c a good scholar;" that is, who is not perfectly master t of every lesson he has learnt, can turn at once to any page he has gone over, and without hesitation or mistake, read and spell every word, and, in like manner, repeat every other task he has performed, and is never allowed to forget. The rule, by which this is done, I need not repeat. Every child finds his level. The chief check in the master's hands (as well as the superintendent's and visitors'), is the marked book. Never then let a lesson he prescribed without the teacher's marking at the instant where it ends: never let the class go to their seats till one and all of them can tell where it begins and ends; and, in the lower classes, and wherever the lesson is not of considerable length, till they have read it over, and pointed out the hard words, which they are first to learn, and first to be examined in. Let not the scholar's time be idly spent in saying or repeating any thing of any sort already fa miliar to him. Let the school open and close every day with prayers to be read by one of the boys, till he can perform this office well: and then another, &c. is to be hoped that a due form will be prepared or recommended by the National Society.


Resolutions of the Committee of National Society. 61

I should be much wanting, as well in duty as to the feelings of my heart, if I were to omit this occasion of publicly and thankfully acknowledging the long and marked attentions and indulgencies which I have experienced, not only from the trustees and managers, but also from the masters of the schools, in the new modelling, or the forming of which, I have been invited to assist. At the same time, I beg leave to add to the following requisition in regard to particular schools my individual intreaty in regard to all the schools to which at I have referred, for the continuance of those privileges, with which they have ever favoured me, and by which I may be enabled to make them the due return, by endeavouring still farther to advance the best interests of the institutions under their charge.

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At a meeting of the General Committee of the National Society, held at St. Martin's Library, 22d Jun. 1812:

Resolved, That Dr. Bell be requested to act, under the direction of this Society, as Superintendent in the forma€ tion and conduct of the central and other schools, to be established by this Society in the metropolis and its vicinity, with power to engage such persons as masters and mistresses as shall be adequate to carry the purposes of this Society into effect; and to retain, suspend, or dismiss such masters and mistresses.


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2dly. That Dr. Bell be empowered to engage persous to be trained as masters and mistresses.

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3dly. That the Trustees of the several schools of Lambeth, Mary-le-bone, and Gower's Walk, Whitechapel, be immediately applied to by the School Committee, to be hereafter appointed, to enable this Society 1 to give Dr. Bell sufficient power to train masters in ve those schools, according to the former Resolution to this effect.

4thly. That a Sub-Committee be appointed for the general management of the central and other schools, and to assist Dr. Bell in carrying into execution the foregoing resolutions: and that such Committee do

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