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capacity, or a place in the school beyond his profi-/ f ciency. In the new system, his idleness is either pre1 vented, or at least marked, the moment it occurs, by a friend at his elbow-bis tutor-whose observation he cannot elude. Independently of this guide, this individual tutor, so near at hand to each pupil, the teacher and assistant teacher, two monitors walking in front of each class, by their inspection and vigilance, prevent faults, secure obedience, and supersede the necessity of punishment.
But the Madras school, not entirely relying even on those primary means of prevention, has also recourse to such subsequent modes of moral discipline, as are most mild, impartial, and effectual, and has improved these so as to render them in some respects new, by carrying them to the utmost extent, to which they they can be carried. For the law by which every scholar finds his level, renders the school an arena, in which rewards and punishments are assigned to the combatants according to their respective deservings. So far from having occasion to increase or multiply punishments, it often falls to my lot to say to those, who visit Madras schools, see the tears in that child's eyes, and say, if the disgrace by his loss of place in his class, be not a sufficient punishment, and the strongest incitement to future exertion.". How much more then when the scholar forfeits his class?
In exact conformity and intimately interwoven with these punishments, are the rewards of the Madras school. To be the head of a class is a prize of no small value.
'Excitabitur laude æmulatio: turpe ducet cedere pari, pulchrum superasse majores. Accendunt omnia hæc animos--Ducere vero classen, multo pulcherrimum." QUIN.
How much more still is the youthful ambition excited by the desire of rising to a superior class?
Such are the legitimate and intrinsic rewards and pu
nishments which will, I repeat, in the hands of a master of ability and impartiality, generally suffice, as they for months together did at Madras, and as they are found to do in the Barrington school.
But besides these moral engines, the Madras school condescends, if requisite, to other rewards and punishments; some of which are meant to provide remedies for the inefficiency of the master, in executing the rules prescribed for his direction.
When it does not happen, (which will seldom be the case, where the laws of the school are duly administered) that the boy who fails in saying his lesson is not sufficiently corrected by the loss of place, or even by degradation from his form; the master, who finds other punishment requisite, may confine the culprit at extra hours, to 'recover, by his diligence, that which he lost by his idleness.
The same punishment and confinement at extra hours, is assigned to those, who come late, or absent themselves from school.
Crimes of a more serious nature, are entered in the black book, and as has been said, tried by a jury; by whom confinement between school hours, and solitary confinement, and in extreme cases, if any such occur, even expulsion may be inflicted. But the spirit of the whole school, when duly directed, and matured, renders such cases of so rare occurrence, as scarcely to require a separate provision.
Rewards, if others than those already stated, be thought necessary, (as in the first formation of a school, especially with untrained masters, and till the new system be fully comprehended, and felt, and duly executed) are either pecuniary or honorary. The honorary rewards consisting of medals or books, to which may be added clothes, &c. are sometimes given, on the (quarterly, half-yearly, or) annual examination of the school, to the teachers and scholars, who are eminently distinguished by their proficiency and meritorious con
duct. The pecuniary rewards are distributed after the weekly examination. The most diligent and exemplary scholars receive a ticket every afternoon, at the close of the school, and a halfpenny is given for each 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 of these. And the teachers when their class is in good order and improve, are to have a double, or triple, or higher price set on their tickets. The place, each scholar holds in his class, being marked daily, his individual progress in relation to his class-fellows is ascertained, and three or four of those, who in the summing up of the weekly registers, stand highest, are rewarded by a halfpenny, or otherwise. It is an excellent practice introduced at Gower's Walk school (where an infinitude of good has been done by early example and by teachers sent from thence, and from the parochial school of Whitechapel, one of whom, along with a master from the National Society, have just sailed for St. Helena, in the employ of the Court of Directors of the East India Company) to enter in a fund book a part of the rewards of the scholars, which are accumulated for them, till they quit school with leave, and without having forfeited these rewards by the commission of any flagrant crime, which might be of dangerous example.
Mulcting the scholars of the tickets, which they have in store; and withholding them, for a time from those, who are in the habit of earning them, is a common punishment of the ushers, teachers, and meritorious boys, if they should at any time happen to be detected of any venial misconduct.
Such rewards and punishments, when duly administered, will be found as efficacious, and powerful, as they are economical and lenient.
If the scholar be taught monosyllables by writing them in sand, the economy is the greatest possible, and the expense of having acquired the most difficult and
important parts in the art of reading, is so small, as scarcely to admit of calculation, and when a slate is used, it is not worth notice.
Even when such books are used, as are recommended by the National Society, no expense deserving notice will be incurred. If these books have been perused in the perfect manner directed, the scholar is enabled to read his bible, prayer-book, &c. &c. for recreation and instruction. There is a great economy in perfect instruction, it renders few books necessary.
By teaching both writing and ciphering on slates, till the scholar is able to write and cipher well, there is a great saving in copy and ciphering books, of which a comparatively small number will be wanted.
It will amuse those who have been accustomed to hear without contradiction of the expense of the Madras System, to read those parts of the report of the Asylum of Egmore, which refer to economy*: and to calculate the amount of the price of books read in a Madras school, for the purpose of completely instructing the scholar in the art of reading, and in the knowledge of the chief articles of the Christian Religion, and of his duty, previously to his study of his bible and prayerbook, &c.
These are a dozen cards, National Central school Book, No. 2, Child's First Book, Part 2§, Our Saviour's Sermon on the Mount, Parables, Miracles, Discourses, . Ostervald's Abridgement of the Bible, Broken Catechism, and Chief Truths of the Christian Religion. The cost of all of which at the Society's price, is 6d. : but as of these single leaves, and small tracts, one may be easily made, when the school is well-regulated, to serve two or more boys, the expense may be estimated at only one-half of that sum, viz. less than 3d.
Children should never change or quit a book once taken up, if it be a fitting book for the child's age and Exp. p. 29, 30, 31. El. 46, 47, 48, 49. For which will be substituted the National Central School Book, No. 3, when published,
*See list at end.
progress, to try another. For poor children the cheapest of these tracts will suffice: Prayer-books, bibles, and expensive books, should only be put into the hands of children when they can read readily and distinctly, for the purpose of practising and understanding, not merely of learning to spell and to read.
Of the Mistakes commonly made in Schools. "When Crates saw an ignorant boy, he struck his tutor." Having sometimes witnessed in the course of long experience, the failure of attempts to establish the new system of education, and having often perceived errors in carrying it into effect, equally fatal to the progress aud comfort of the scholars, I trust I shall nefther waste the time of my readers, nor my own, if I point out such of these as most commonly occur. Whether they proceed from the negligence, prejudice, or inadequacy of those who are engaged in this work, the enumeration of them may serve (if not to correct existing errors at least) as beacons to warn new adventurers of the rocks, on which there is the greatest danger of being wrecked. These are,
1st. Imperfect instruction. This evil is as general and difficult to cure, as it is afflictive to the peace, and ruinous to the progress of the scholar. But how to cure it, while masters, who perform their functions with ability and success, possess no advantage over those who are indifferent to the progress and comfort of their scholars, I do not know.
I have often seen a book read over five times, each successive reading costing almost as much labour and time, as the first; and after all, if I were to teach the class, which had so read it, I would much rather that they had not before seen the book, than that they should have acquired the fatal habit of indolence, inattention, and slurring over their tasks.
2nd. Not apportioning the length of the lesson to the capacity and proficiency of the scholars. I have fre