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Pittsburg there were six explosions, one damaging the home of a Federal judge. In Cleveland the home of the mayor was bombed. In none of these explosions was anyone injured. in New York the house of Judge Charles C. Nott was partly wrecked and a watchman in front of the house was killed. The most important explosion for future effect was the bombing of the home of Attorney General Palmer in Washington.
ran high. The press carried lurid accounts of the outrages and repeated stories of the impending apprehension of the perpetrators. A gigantic plot was supposed to have been formulated which was to destroy the government in one fell swoop. William J. Burns was called to the aid of the Department of Justice and a "red" crusade was organized. element was introduced in 1919 which kept at high pitch the red hysteria. This was the steel strike of 1919. Kept newspapers declared it to be engineered by agents from Soviet
Russia. Such fears were proved to be groundless by the work of the Commission of Inquiry of the Interchurch World Movement. After several months of preparations for a "red"
crusade the Department of Justice was ready to capture aliens in the United States who came under the exclusive provisions of the Alien Law of 1918. While the Secretary of Labor held the deportation power, relations were established whereby the Department of Justice might make arrests upon warrants previously secured from the Department of Labor. When the raids were actually conducted warrants were disregarded as suspected aliens (and citizens as well) were taken as a group when arrests were
5. Public Opinion and the Steel Strike, N. Y. 1921.
The crusade began on November 7, 1919, when simul
taneous raids were made on meetings of the Federation of Unions of Russian Workers. Those gathered in these raids that were considered deportable were sent away on the "Buford" (The Soviet Ark) late in December of the same year. A total of 249 persons
were deported on the "Buford" of whom 235 were considered
The anti-red crusade of the Department of Justice did not begin in earnest until January 1920. On the second day of the year raids were made from coast to coast in twentythree states of the Union. Thirty-three cities were scenes of the raids. The official report of the approximate number of arrests was 2500. These raids were made upon lawful assemblages of aliens. Concentration points were established for the raids conducted in Massachusetts and New Hampshire and at each point was an immigration inspector with warrants for arrest. Arrests had already been made, however, without regard to warrants. Raids in New York, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Chicago, Detroit and Buffalo were conducted with as little regard for law. The utter lack of necessity for these raids is shown by Louis Freeland Post who, as Assistant Secretary of 6 Labor, was detailed to pass on the deportation of aliens:
"At no place in all that nation-wide raiding of January 1920, were any weapons or explosive materials or destructive mechanisms discovered from which an inference of projected crime, private or political, could be reasonably drawn. Even as to criminal thoughts the proof was flimsy--absurdly so in contrast to the severity of the raiding".
According to a report made by the Bureau of Immi-
gration in 1921, 6,328 warrants of arrest were issued, of
6. Post, Louis Freeland, "The Deportations Delirium of Nineteen
which 2,919 were cancelled and 1,119 sustained and deportations under them ordered. This was between July 1, 1919, and January 1, 1921. This number arrested and deported was out of a total of 60,000 suspected persons whose names and histories were on file in the offices of the Department of Justice as early as November 1919. This leaves 59/60 of those suspected of being "dangerous" still at large in the United States.
Illegal Practices of the Department of Justice
Nothing is so convincing of the mistaken character
of the efforts of the Department of Justice under Attorney General Palmer to suppress all forms "of dangerous radicalism" than the "Report of Twelve Eminent Lawyers upon the Illegal Practices of the Department of Justice". This report, made after a careful investigation by a dozen of the most prominent members of the legal profession in this country, proves beyond a vestige of a doubt that the wholesale persecution and deportation of aliens was a vast blunder. Nothing could denote with greater emphasis the swing from the previous liberality of the people of the United States to the mania for repression than the fact that the actions of the Department of Justice were supported by public opinion. Because the indictment could not be better stated the Report is quoted at length:
"TO THE AMERICAN PEOPLE:
For more than six months we, the undersigned, lawyers, whose sworn duty it is to uphold the Constitution and laws of the United States, Have seen with growing apprehension the continued violation of that Constituion and the breaking of those Laws by the Department of Justice of the United States government.
8. These lawyers were: Roscoe Pound, Ernst Freund, R. G. Brown Felix Frankfurter, Zecharia Chafee, Jr., Swinburne Hale, Francis Fisher Lane, Alfred S. Niles, Jackson H. Ralston, Frank P. Walsh, David Wallerstein, and Tyrrell Williams. 9. Pamphlet-National Popular Gov. League, Washington, D. C., 1920.