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of a committee composed of an equal number of members of the Board, Principals' Association, and Teachers' Association to devise a scheme of classification fair to all interested parties, to report to the board, December 1, 1906. This was rejected.
The Salary Commission now voluntarily made a statement to the board, unique in its gauge of the credulity of both its victims and accomplices.
They would have us believe that they held their commission as a sacred trust in preparing the tests, and were especially considerate of the teachers "in delaying the tests until after the examinations for the required permanent state certificate." They had been actuated only by the loftiest motives (delicacy explains their silence) and "in all their conferences there had been entire unanimity!"
The examinations for permanent state certificates were held May 6, 13, and 20. The commission's written test was held April 15, but how can such a body be expected to concern itself with dates?
They had "used every means to secure all available information from all reliable sources as to the qualifications of the applicants," yet no director or principal can be found who admits having been approached for information.
Several members of the board wished to investigate but were silenced by the majority.
The teachers were now confronted by a serious moral issue: Shall or shall not this defective, injurious, secret method of selecting teachers be permitted to become fastened upon the school system of Pittsburgh? The teachers with a few conspicuous exceptions rallied to the moral side. of the question.
The dissolution of the Salary Commission was obviously the work in hand as a protective measure for future teachers.
April 10 and 24, 1906, the second year's examinations were conducted by this commission. Only 26 out of 300 eligible teachers were willing to endorse this method of classification by taking this examination, notwithstanding threats of loss of position and promises of reward in assured success. This was the greatest proof that teachers were not actuated by mercenary motives in objecting to the commission.
The association entered suit against the board in February, 1906. July 7, 1906, the court decided in favor of the association. The board appealed. from the decision and the Supreme Court sustained the Court of Common Pleas-Exit Salary Commission.
As a result of this campaign the salaries of grade teachers have increased from 30 to 50 per cent, those of instructors non-eligible to membership in the association, principals, high school teachers, and department heads, have increased from $100 to $400 per annum. The present board has increased the salaries of grade teachers $100, making the present maximum $1000 per annum for the first 7 grades, $1100 the maximum. for 8th grade, and ungraded-Yet we have not reached the maximum proposed in 1904.
From the beginning the path of duty to the
public and the schools became plainly marked by the disclosures secured through our organization. Headquarters were established and our dreadnaught, the Pittsburgh School Bulletin, carried arms mightier than the sword in its peaceful voyage of enlightenment, and laden with constructive material where it cited a ruin.
The most advanced school systems in our country were studied and a draft of a new school code was submitted to a prominent citizen, who promised to consider and have the subject brought to the attention of the next legislature. Shortly after that the Governor appointed a commission to revise and codify the school laws of Pennsylvania and report to the legislature at its next session. The report of this commission was brought before the legislature in 1911, and passed both branches with many undesirable amendments, after a bitter contest; but for reasons never satisfactorily explained was vetoed at the last moment by the Governor.
Two years later the New School Code, revised by this commission, became a law,-with an appointive board which had been the bone of contention.
In 1913, a venomous attack was made upon the appointive board by the defeated clients of the former school administration. The Teachers' Association and prominent civic bodies made a gallant defense and the appointive board was sustained.
The association conjointly with the Allegheny Teachers' Association and the Principals' Association secured the passage of a law permitting them to establish and maintain a retirement fund.
The association formed for this purpose has recently been dissolved, since it could not legally be taken over by the Board of Education, which now provides for the retirement of teachers and is working hard to evolve a better plan than the one now in operation.
A fund is maintained by the Association for the benefit of those members whose salaries are forfeited after twenty days' absence on account of illness, the board making partial allowance for the first twenty days. This fund is supplied by the entertainments of our dramatic club, lectures, and an annual bazar. This provision is highly appreciated by our members.
The church, the press, the Chamber of Commerce and other civic bodies have always been our friends. We are affiliated with the Associated Charities of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Child Labor Association, Western Branch, Congress of Women's Clubs of Allegheny County, State Federation of Pennsylvania Women, Pennsylvania State Education, and a life member of the National Education Association.
At the annual meeting in June, 1914, Mrs. Cora Miller Fraser was elected president; Miss Alice Morrow, first vice-president; Miss Mary P. Lang, second vice-president; Miss Elizabeth Becker, treasurer; Miss Imogen Williams, financial secretary; Miss Mary E. Moffitt, recording secretary.
The power to "make up mind" is what you significant a hundred fold than all the factious
Mrs. Ella Flagg Young is probably the leading
mental infirmity and that which arises from
There are said to be 1,200 women owning and
Thomas A. Edison is reported as saying with
ble for the fact that "it takes from five to seven
O. H. Benson of the school extension depart-
vigor of manhood went to his office in the rooms
Dr. Greenwood was born in Sangamon
county, Illinois, on November 15, 1837; came to Adair county, Missouri, with the family in 1852; entered a Methodist seminary at Canton, Mo., in 1857; served in the Civil war, 1861-186+; taught country school, 1861-1867; taught in Kirksville Mo., State Normal School, 18671874; superintendent of Kansas City schools, 1874-1913; adviser to the board of education, 1913-1914. Few men have been equally active in the National Education Association, few have written as much for educational magazines, or been more effective on the educational platform. He was high in educational council, was widely known, highly appreciated, and ardently beloved. A large place is made vacant, locally and nationally, by his death. His widow, Mrs. Josephine Heermans Greenwood, a son and two married daughters, survive him. Mrs. Greenwood is widely known, admired and appreciated, personally and professionally.
PRIZE PARENT-TEACHERS ASSOCIATION
So far as we know Houston, Texas, has the prize Parent-Teachers' Association. We know many of these associations in all parts of the country but we know of none that quite meets the needs of the schools as well as does the Houston organization. The following resolutions were unanimously and enthusiastically adopted and are being lived up to:
"We recommend that every Mothers' Club in the city make a careful study of the needs of the schools, and of the best method of helping secure these needs. We recommend that as a basis for this work we use for reference a textbook known as 'How to Help School Children,' prepared by Miss Elsa Denison of the bureau of municipal research. We recommend that at each meeting of the Parent-Teachers' Association there be a study under a competent leader of certain chapters of this work, bearing in a practical way upon the needs of the schools, and how to help the schools. This book has a wide range of subjects, including school hygiene, child study, the constitution of school boards, etc.
"We recommend that each club continue the policy already inaugurated of working for such special betterments as their local schools need, such as the furnishing of pianos, graphophones, encyclopedias, etc., where such things are not already provided.
"We recommend the continuance of the serving of hygienic lunches at all those buildings where conditions are such as to justify them. We believe that these should be served to the children at the lowest cost consistent with good service. "We recommend that the Parent-Teachers' Association continue its policy of stimulating the improvement and beautification of school grounds.
"We recommend that the school clubs work in absolute harmony with the school authorities, co-operating with them to the end of securing the greatest possible good of the schools. We pledge that the Parent-Teachers' Association shali continue to be strictly a co-operative body; and
we pledge our hearty support to the school board, principals, teachers, and others in all matters of
"We recommend that at some proper time durAssociation ing the year the Parent-Teachers' bring to the city of Houston some speaker on some phase of educational work for the advancement of educational interests in the community.
"We are strongly of the opinion that the best interests of the schools are subserved when the school board is not dragged into politics by means of popular election; but when there is a proper appointive system, and when the question of selection is not that of men or women, but merely that of fitness for the position.
"We especially endorse the action of our school board in the establishment of a department of school hygiene and the selection of a director of school hygienics. We especially desire to cooperate with this new department of school work."
EDUCATION AT THE PANAMA-PACIFIC
We have been much interested in the educational features of all American Expositions be ginning with that at Chicago in 1893. We had a no inconsiderable part in the famous conflict with. the powers that be for a small allotment of space. upstairs in one of the buildings. At the St. Louis Exposition ten years later education was on the ground floor but at San Francisco in 1915 Education, with its running mate, Social Service, will have an entire building in which there will be no upstairs, a building far superior to any building of any kind in any other exposition held in America.
The United States Bureau of Education will make a more impressive exhibit than all America has ever made in the past.
The exhibits by states will be so masterful that as a whole they will present every vital feature of education in all America with no duplication by states or cities.
In other expositions it has been a rivalry between states and cities with many duplications. In some respects there was the same kind of a exhibit from a hundred cities. Now it will merely be American education that will be on exhibition.
Through the use of several moving picture equipments, presenting school activities in action, the Education Palace is likely to be the most attractive palace in all the grounds.
For the first time ever, or anywhere, it will be possible to study results and methods in American education. Any city in America that does not send a superintendent, principal or teacher to San Francisco to stay there for near a month, to study American education in detail and write and report upon it will be derelict in duty. Rightly used a relatively small appropriation may give every city a noble conception of the best in everything educational in America.
It is also expected that every other nation will make the best presentation of its education at San Francisco in 1915 so that visitors with a purpose will have an opportunity to know all that is best. educationally in the whole world.
MARY E. COTTING
NUMBER of years ago there obtained among parents the idea of cultivating child freedom, and as a result of an imperfect understanding, of the right method of applying the basic laws of the idea the children of the present time are mentally keen, fascinatingly unafraid to express themselves and to act; but-also-they are
CHILDREN CATCHING MINNOWS.-Curran (Used by permission of Emery Art Company, Boston.) lacking in the exercise of those virtues which make for physical, mental and spiritual decorum.
That the time has come for a readjustment of the attitude toward child-freedom, and the child's place in life's action is markedly evident. Undoubtedly upon the teacher will fall the heaviest part of the task of working out the corrective of the problem.
For many years the "path of learning" has been made a pleasurable one and, unless the continuance of bright, catchy experiences still obtains the drawing of the child into the proper attitude toward life will become that sort of a struggle from which little of permanent good will result.
Since pictures appeal to the human of all ages it would be wise for the teacher to depend in a goodly measure upon their use as the means of awakening and cultivating a desire to possess those qualities of character which denote a beautiful, well balanced woman and manhood.
To make a natural beginning-one connecting home and school life-there may be used for the first study exercise "Children Catching Minnows," by the American artist Charles C. Curran. While placing the picture before the class begin the following modified story form of developing a lesson: Once upon a time a father and mother said to each other, "We'll take the children off for a holiday-time." So, one day they all started for a place like this. How do you suppose they got there? Yes, they went in the cars (surface, under ground, elevated?) to the wharf (explain) where the boat was. How do you go upon the boat? What do you suppose happened after these people had been on the boat a little while? What made it move? (enlarge, explain.) What did the children see as the boat moved along? -Miss Cotting will answer any inquires if sent with self-addressed and stamped envelope.
After a good while the boat reached the landing place (describe) and all these people that we know about left the boat, and walked way down. the beach. Pretty soon they sat down and ate their luncheon, after which shoes and stockings were taken off, and you can see in the picture just what happened next. Some other children came along with a net and all had a fine time together. Encourage individuals to tell just how it feels to paddle and wade in the water; what fun it is to make feet-pictures in the moist sand; to build cities and model many things with the sand. Enumerate all objects likely to be found, and the discoveries to be made in the puddles left by the tide in the "granny places" among the rocks. When tired the children went back to mother and cuddled down to rest. Some of them went to sleep and when they woke up there was father, who had been "down the beach" and bought small pails and shovels. Now you may be sure there was another kind of play to be enjoyed, and do you know what the children found as they dug? The largest boy thought he'd found a clam, but it was just an empty shell. Speak of the sea-weeds that are brought in by the tide. As it began to be dark everyone got ready to go home, and when the boat whistled the people were all in their places quite ready to enjoy the trip homeward. Could you tell what they saw going home? Yes, stars, lights on the shore, and the moon making lovely shining places on the sea, and queer shadows on land. When our friends had taken their in the car, big brother said, "We've remembered all that the "Safety" tag means all day, haven't we, father?" Father said they certainly had and called the attention of all the children to a large electric transparency which told the same story that the seat tags told. Devote time and thought as to the best means of impressing every child with the importance of Stop! Think! Act!
The artist's subjects like that of this work are attractive and charm by their simple appeal to truth. His pictures present domestic, out-door and other subjects adapted to that treatment styled genre. Encourage the children to be on the alert to find reproductions of his work in current publications.
This first lesson will arouse sufficient interest to make possible the use of "A Boy Sailing a Boat" (Josef Israels), which is somewhat more complicated in construction and suggestion. As it is being placed beside the first picture, question: Is this in any way like the other one? Who are the persons? Is the sister too large to share the boy's fun? Have any of you ever sailed (except in a tub)-such a boat? Encourage the telling of individual experiences, and descriptions of boats owned by the children. What is this boy holding? Why? Then there is more water than is shown in the picture? Are these children old enough to go about alone?
What have father and mother told them ("Safety" -enlarge and apply here as before). Do you think their home is near? Tell about the country and the probability that these Dutch children are playing within home boundaries. Explain the probable difference between this play-place and that of the other picture. Trace the differences in person and action of the small people of both pictures. Notice shadows cast on ground and water. Allow several children to stand so as to "throw" shadows and develop the fact that a strong light is necessary for shadow-forming. Show how sun-shadows may help the children to tell when it is time to go home. Will there be anything to take home to mother? What will the children have to tell her? What will happen afterwards?
Following this another picture "After the Storm" by the same artist (Josef Israels) is to be considered.
Is this an out-doors picture? Of what, then? Yes, and so it is called an interior. What do you see in it? Are any of these persons the ones of the last picture? Why? The women are too old, the child too young. What is the latter doing? Why aren't the women doing the same thing? They are watching for the child's father, and the man who helps him. They are out in the fishing boat, and there has been a hard storm. The woman who is sitting in the doorway came to be company for the other when the storm came up. They do not like to be alone while the storm rages, and it is not wise to take the child away from home. The women are most anxious for
BOYS SAILING A BOAT.-Israels (Used by permission of Emery Art Company, Boston.) they do not yet know if the men are safe; but they do not show their fear for sonny-boy must not be made afraid. Do you think the women are brave? Will the men be brave also? Bring out the thought of the various ways in which one may be brave. Show how the same thought of "Safety" may be put to the test by the fishermen of that far-away land as well as here in our home
land. Anticipate the joy of the meeting when the men shall appear and speak of the self-control exercised by the father, who will not awaken his little son though he longs to greet him.
Notice the construction of the picture; the treatment of light and shadow; the use of the former to bring into prominence the adult faces since they are of most importance; the play of half-light upon the child, who might easily be overlooked because of the emphasis upon the stress-thought depicted in expression and pose of the women. Touch upon dignity of the atmosphere of the work.
The last study-"Interior of a Cottage"-(Josef Israels)-shows an opposite condition from that of the one just studied. Here is the calm, of un
(Used by permission of Emery Art Company, Boston.) disturbed home-life. The heavy tasks accomplished, the mother sews and enjoys meanwhile the near presence of her baby-dear. There is homely comfort and somewhat of prosperity shown in the mother's surroundings. That she is happy and free from need-worry is also evinced by the contented expression of her face, and unhurried peaceful pose. There is less light in this picture and more shadow for the latter is needed to emphasize the thought of quiet, and the low light necessary for perfect rest. Israels used most cleverly light and shadow in creating the atmosphere of his pictures. Probably this is due to his close study of Rembrandts' work by which Israels Israels was greatly influenced. This modern (1824-1911) Dutchman found inspiration as did the French master Millet in the life of the simple peasant and fisherfolk of fisherfolk of his time. Though he learned much from the French school to which Millet belonged, his work is distinctively Dutch. It does not show the indescribable magnetism of the Frenchman's work, but it holds an impelling story-element so well porportioned as to appeal quite as strongly as does the French master's work. So wonderful was the quantity and quality of the atmosphere of his paintings he became a leading force in Dutch art; and, today this characteristic is the dominant one of the whole modern school of art in Holland. The lesson taught by Israels is one of moderation, selfcontrol, care and joy of family life, and the beauty of simple, truthful lives and acts.
R. F. Y., West Virginia: Your American Primary Teacher is fine for primary work and for all teachers.