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are inspiring, and strong in thought and expression. We were sorry to leave him and turn to Longfellow.

This delightful poet, however, charmed us at once, and we soon found him more satisfactory than Macaulay. The fine thoughts and expressions, the musical and dainty rhythm, the simple style, all gave us a new idea of poetry. Nature became more real to us as we read in "Evangeline" beautiful descriptions of twilight or sky, where words seemed to paint the colors of the rainbow, so nicely were they chosen. We shall never forget Longfellow or cease to think of him as a "true poet."

Thus far in our little journey we have studied both prose and poetry, but never a selection in which the two were so closely united as in Palmer's translation of the "Odyssey." This famous poem was composed centuries ago by wandering bards, or minstrels, called “Homerida." They traveled from land to land, singing in their quaint fashion the stories which have been preserved to this day. Mr. Palmer translated these from the original Greek, and in so doing, I think that he gave the world a new treasure, a rare jewel in the shape of a book. The simple and graceful manner in which the "Odyssey is written, the choice of words, and the beautiful descriptions are rarely found in these days. The "wine-dark sea" is lost, and the "rosy-fingered dawn" gone to return no more.


One more poet remains in our journey for this year, but he should not be lightly passed over. William Cullen Bryant is, in my opinion, the grandest and most solemn poet we have thus far studied. His style of writing is stately, slow, and majestic, and his thoughts sublime. "Thanatopsis," which he wrote when only seventeen years of age, is one of the finest poems in the English language.

With Bryant our little journey for this year is at an end. We have advanced slowly but enjoyed each step of the way.



"Truth is worth more than victory."

182. Exposition and Argument. From morning till night, at the breakfast table, on the way to school, in recitations, at recess, on the athletic field, over our indoor work and play,-on all occasions, we are trying to make somebody else see as we see. In many cases argument is simple exposition; as soon as we can explain our meaning to a friend, he agrees with us. Suppose you say, "A college graduate is not an educated person.' Your friend naturally replies that boys and girls go to college to get an education. But when you explain that it takes a lifetime to acquire an education, that a college course merely goes a step beyond the grammar and high schools in showing one how to become educated, how to grow, your friend will probably agree to your first statement. Clearly the first thing for you and him to do is to agree upon a definition of the word in question. To be sure, this agreement may leave nothing to argue, but in the course of coming to the agreement you may find a fair field for argument.

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The following selections are illustrations of editorials which are partly argument and partly exposition:


Professor James says that few college instructors can easily follow a lecture given in French. The number of students who can do so is

smaller. The number of American college graduates who could order a fiacre in Paris or inquire their way to the Hôtel des Invalides and be understood by a Parisian is not large, despite all the money spent on teaching them the language of La Belle France.

That is not a pleasing subject for reflection, and the New York Evening Post, mindful of that fact, comes to the rescue of the foreign language departments of our schools and colleges by saying that talking a foreign language is not of much account anyway - that to read it is the thing.

Now it is an easy matter to learn to read French. One does not need the aid of foreign or native professors to acquire that accomplishment. If the best our schools and colleges can do, after all the money they use up in teaching French, is to fit a pupil to read that language, they have not much to boast of.

Wherefore, we are inclined to the opinion that much of the money spent in public schools and in colleges in trying to teach French is money thrown away. This ought not to be so. Some linguistic expert should find a way out of the difficulty. For, notwithstanding the argument of the Evening Post, French is taught in German schools in such a manner that students can read and write it, and speak it also, as the French soldiers found to their grief in the Franco-Prussian


What Germans can do Americans can do - if they want to.


It is announced that the friends of the plan to compel electrification of railroad lines in the Boston metropolitan district are to attend the hearing before the committee on metropolitan affairs this morning, prepared to present facts and figures showing that positive legislation on the subject is feasible at this session. Their contention is well founded.

For legislation is entirely possible at once. It need not be drastic nor command impossibilities. But it can and ought to be such as to make a start in the matter and require a beginning of the much-needed reform within a reasonable time.

If we await the action of the railroads themselves, contingent upon all sorts of other schemes, financial and legislative, we shall get nowhere, and ten years away are likely to find us submerged in the old familiar grime and smoke. The lesson of New York should be suffi

cient; who believes that anything would ever have been done there had not the roads been compelled to electrify all trains entering the Grand Central station?

"The way to resume is to resume.' The way to electrify is to enact some reasonable and common-sense law now and see that it is enforced.

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183. Developing the Argument. In argumentative writing, as in exposition, we shall find that: (1) the necessity of stating just what we are to show will aid us in securing unity; (2) the logical arrangement is of great importance; (3) one way of gaining emphasis is through proportion; (4) the value of our work frequently depends on the skill with which we use illustrations by example, but we must not attach undue importance to a single illustration by example.

In exposition we set forth one view of a subject. In argument our purpose is to show that one view is better than another. Hence, we need to be particularly careful about the choice of evidence. In selecting evidence which is really nothing but opinion we must remember, for example, that one man's opinion is of no great value unless that man is an expert; and that the substantial agreement of several experts is naturally considered to be more valuable than the opinion of any one of them.

The methods employed in developing argument are like those with which we have become familiar in exposition: by details, by examples, by repetition, by comparison and contrast, by cause and effect. In many cases two or more methods will be required in an argumentative essay, and we must be ready to use every means at hand to make our points clear and forceful.

184. The Argumentative Letter. In business correspondence, as well as in our friendly letters, we shall often

naturally adopt an argumentative or persuasive style of expression. We are constantly meeting the necessity of proving something on paper. The young men and women who will win success in the selling side of a business whether at the counter, on the road, or through letters — must be expert in the use of oral or written argument.

Examine the following letter, written by the private secretary of the general manager of a large department store, as an illustration of the practical adaptation of the persuasive style of argument to business uses.

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We are in receipt of your communication of May 12 in which you say that you have been so greatly annoyed by inattentions at our lace counter that you are going to take your patronage elsewhere. We regret that anything should have occurred in any department of our store to cause you either inconvenience or annoyance. But we realize that because of changes in the personnel of our clerks, which are inevitably of frequent occurrence in a store of these dimensions, conditions may occasionally exist which are annoying not only to our customers but also to us. We have therefore given your complaint prompt and thorough attention, and find that conditions apparently do not warrant the criticism of "incompetent and rude,” which you have entered against our clerks in the department mentioned above.

Both the assistant buyer and the head clerk of our lace department are among our most trusted and efficient employees, and they have exercised more than ordinary care in selecting the clerks under them. The only explanation which either of these persons could give for your

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