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garments from a Birmingham weaver, his scarf from a French silk grower, his shoes from a Brazilian glazier. At breakfast, his cup of coffee is poured by natives of Java and Arabia; his rolls are passed by a Kansas farmer, his beefsteak by a Texas ranchman, his orange by a Florida negro. He is taken to the city by the descendants of James Watt; his messages are carried hither and thither by Edison; his day's stint of work is done for him by a thousand Irishmen in his factory; or he pleads in a court which was founded by ancient Romans, and for the support of which all citizens are taxed; or, in his study at home he reads books composed by English historians and French scientists. In the evening he is entertained by German singers, who repeat the myths of Norsemen, or by a company of actors, who render the plays of Shakespeare; and finally he is put to bed by South Americans who bring hair, by Pennsylvania miners and furnace workers who bring steel, by Mississippi planters who bring cotton, or, if he prefers, by Russian peasants who bring flax, and by Labrador fowlers who smooth his pillow. A million men, women, and children have been working for him that he may have his day of comfort and pleasure. In return he has contributed his mite to add a unit to the common stock of necessaries and luxuries from which the world draws. Each is working for all; all are working for each.
- GEORGE HARRIS, "Moral Evolution."
2. By examples. If you were given the key sentence of a paragraph "I do pity children in the city," would not the most natural way of developing this be by illustration? One or two good incidents, or examples, would be forceful and interesting. The following is a paragraph of this
The true locomotive engineer is always a man of sense, of quick thought and courage in an emergency, and in peril a hero. .. In the riots of 1863, when the city was in possession of a mob, trains of the Hudson River Road were stopped, and hundreds of women were in the depot at Thirtieth Street unable to get to their homes.
The rioters threatened to kill anyone who tried to move a wheel. An engineer instantly volunteered and said, "I will take that train up the river." On either side of the road were men frenzied with rage and with drink, ready for murder or any desperate deed, but they were so awed by the calm courage of this engineer that he was permitted to proceed. After forty years of service on the Central this engineer, Henry Milliken, joined the silent majority. His name stands among the unheralded heroes who are the pride and glory of our humanity.
3. By repetition. A writer frequently likes to repeat the main thought of a paragraph, modifying it slightly or considering it from a somewhat different point of view. See the selection from Franklin on page 344; the paragraph in Webster's "Reply to Hayne," beginning "I have not allowed myself, sir, to look beyond the Union"; and the following from Fox:
It must, indeed, create astonishment that . . . the character of Washington should never once have been called in question - that he should in no one instance have been accused either of improper insolence, or of mean submission, in his transactions with foreign nations. It has been reserved for him to run the race of glory without experiencing the smallest interruption to the brilliancy of his career. The breath of censure had not dared to impeach the purity of his conduct, nor the eye of envy to raise its malignant glance to the elevation of his virtues. Such has been the transcendent merit and the unparalleled fate of this illustrious man!
4. By comparison and contrast. One of the simplest ways to explain a thing is to begin by telling what it is not, or to compare and contrast it with something else. The following character sketch has been developed by means of comparison:
Once in the span of a generation of men comes a chess genius, who, submitting to be blindfolded, carries on successfully against
twenty antagonists twenty simultaneous games of chess . . . he works only at certain hours and under conditions of his own choosing. . . . Yet the work of this marvel . . . is only the work of the train dispatcher, who, blindfolded by four white walls, his right hand on the key and his eye fastened on the figure of a train sheet, forces his mind, when other men are asleep, to visualize the long, winding miles of his division-its trains, its passing tracks and curves, its towers and stations, its semaphores and switches. At twenty points in the darkness of his night . . are swiftly moving trains of Pullman cars. This man is no genius; he is the plain, everyday American he plays every day. . . . He cannot play twenty games and rest; he must for eight hours be ready steadily for every game that comes over the wires against him, whether of storms, blockades, breakdowns, or wrecks.
- FRANK SPEARMAN, The Nerves of the Road," The Outlook.
5. By cause and effect. A paragraph sometimes begins by giving causes and ends with a statement of the effect. If the effect comes first, it is often followed by a statement of the causes that produce it.
These [Scotch] melodies were transmitted from place to place and from generation to generation mainly by ear, and in this way they grew. The plowman in the field or the maid among the cows will whistle or sing a half-caught strain until the air completes itself. But the air will be apt to take some little turn from the singer's mood or temper, and then it is no longer the same; it has assumed a different color, sentiment, and individuality; it has become a different song, demanding different words. Melodies, too, among a musical people, are readily caught when words are lost, and the song, carried away into another glen or haugh, hums itself in the popular mind, until by-and-by it shapes itself into words that embody its changed sentiment. . . And no doubt the fact that they suffered modification from the country people who sang them is partly the reason why they are so rich in feeling. They have gathered to themselves the unspoken humor and pathos of we know not how
many lives, and as we listen to them we seem to hear the voices of generations of dead singers come trembling to us across the centuries with a laugh or a sob.
— J. G. Dow, Selections from the Poems of Robert Burns."
351. How many of the paragraphs of " An Exciting Moment" (see p. 14) follow time order? How many of the paragraphs of "Rikki-tikki " on page 222?
352. Be prepared to read to the class (1) a simple narrative of your own that calls for time order; (2) an explanatory narrative on making or doing something.
353. Show that quotations in Exercises 333, 407, and 601 are developed by particulars, i.e. details. Find the topic sentence of each paragraph, or, if there seems to be none, write one.
354. Bring to class an original paragraph developed by particulars. These subjects may be suggestive:
1. It was a beautiful spring morning.
2. He had chosen an ideal place for a summer vacation.
3. The Battle of Bunker Hill was a desperate fight.
355. (1) Write a topic sentence for paragraph 1 on page 254 and point out the examples in the selection. (2) See whether you can find in your own writing a paragraph developed by examples.
356. Point out instances of repetition in the third part of the long paragraph quoted on pages 309-310, and see whether you can find in your own writing a paragraph developed by repetition.
357. Write a paragraph in which you consider the use of comparison or contrast helpful. See the selection from "The Second Jungle Book" on page 300, the subjects on pages 317318, and the following:
1. A Modern Way of doing Business.
2. The Typewriter.
3. The Stage Coach.
4. The Telephone.
5. Harvesting in the West.
358. In the paragraph from "The Voyage," on page 40, find the causes that make the long voyage an excellent preparative.
359. Use one of the subjects on page 48 as a topic sentence, and develop a paragraph by giving causes. Be prepared to criticize your theme, answering the questions in Exercise 347.
360. Show that the paragraph under Exercise 519 is developed by details and contrast; the paragraph under Exercise 521, by particulars.
361. Show that the following topic sentences may be developed as indicated below. Write (1) a paragraph based on one sentence in each group or (2) a theme of considerable length based on any sentence.
1. Develop by means of incidents in time order:
a. This was what happened.
b. One day last week I went on an errand.
c. The most exciting event of the summer was the tennis tournament.
2. Develop by means of particulars.
a. I like to watch my favorite bantam.
b. Our last lesson in history was very instructive.
c. A walk I took yesterday was wonderfully exhilarating.
d. It was a lonesome spot.
e. Clearly the house has not been occupied for a long time.
f. I feel well acquainted with one great author.
3. Develop by the use of examples.
a. A good phonograph may be an endless source of entertainment and instruction.
b. Our dog is a good companion.
The central" operator in the telephone office sees the world from an unusual point of view.