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the sum of one shilling from each visiter, on his arrival, to form a fund for the poor who have resort to the waters. In 1572 there was a fixed rate, according to the dignity of the visiter, and the money raised was divided equally between the physician and the poor bathers.

Alway provyded the day of your coming thither bee noted, before you enter into the bathes, and the day of your departure, with the country of your habitation, condition, or calling, with the infirmityes or cause you came for, in the regyster booke kept of the warden of the bath, or the physition that there shall be appointed, and the benefite you receyved, paying four pence for the recording; and every yeoman, besides, 12 pence, every gentleman 3 shillinges, every esquior 3s. 4d., every knight 6s. 8d., every lord and baron 10s., every vicount 13s. 4d., every erle 20s., every marques 30s., every duke 31. 10s., every archbishop 5l., every bishop 40s., every judge 20s., every doctour and sergeant of lawe 10s., every chauncellor and utter-barrister 6s. 8d., every archdeacon, prebendary, and canon, 5s., every minister 12 pence, every duches 40s, every marquesses 20s., every countes 13s. 4d., every barones 10s., every lady 6s. 8d., every gentlewoman 2s., and al for the treasure of the bath. To the use of the poor, that only for help do come thither, the one halfe; the other to the physition for his residence.

In the midst of the beautiful scenery we have already described, the High Tor, represented in the engraving, is seen rearing its awful brow on the left bank of the river; the height of this lofty rock is upwards of 350 feet. The lower part is covered with small trees and underwood, but the upper part, for fifty or sixty yards, is one broad mass of naked perpendicular rock. The fragments that have fallen from this eminence form the bed of the river, which flows immediately below, over a broken and disjointed bed. After sudden and heavy rains, the impetuosity of the current is greatly increased, and the interest of the scene proportionably augmented.

Immediately opposite the High Tor is a hill of less steep ascent, but of greater elevation, called Masson Hill, a pile of immense crags, it has received the name of the Heights of Abram, from its resemblance to the celebrated place of that name, near Quebec: from this spot the view is very extensive, taking in the whole of the dale in a bird's-eye view *.

See an interesting account of Eyam, and its Church, among the Derbyshire hills, in the Saturday Magazine, Vol. I., p. 129.

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LONDON: Published by JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND; and sold by all Booksellers.

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Magazine.

FEBRUARY, 1837.

PRICE ONE PENNY.

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74

SOME ACCOUNT OF THE CITY OF COPENHAGEN.

recorded in the naval history of Great Britain, and one of the most remarkable incidents in the life of the gallant hero by whom it was achieved, we must devote a larger share of attention.

THE BATTLE OF COPENHAGEN.

COPENHAGEN, the capital of the kingdom of Denmark, is a well-built city, situated on the eastern shore of Zealand, which is the largest of the cluster of islands that stretch across the mouth of the Baltic, and leave only three narrow passages (those of the Sound, the Great Belt, and the Little Belt,) by which ships can enter into it from the North Sea. In the language of the country this metropolis is called Kiobenhavn,-a contracted form of a compound DURING the turbulent times which followed immediately which literally signifies Merchants' Haven, or Harbour; upon the French Revolution, Denmark remained tranquil, and this appellation it obtained at an early period, from refusing to engage in the wars which convulsed the rest of It is Europe. But when, at the commencement of the present being resorted to by persons engaged in commerce. a regularly-fortified city, being protected on the land-side century, the power of France seemed irresistible on the by a connected chain of bastions, and a broad deep ditch, continent, the secret inclinations of the court broke out, while towards the sea it possesses powerful defences, of and Denmark united with Russia and Sweden in a conwhich not the least formidable are those celebrated under federacy, the object of which was to make England resign her naval rights. Such a combination, under the influence of France, would soon have become formidable to England, for the parties to it possessed ships and men, and all the materials of a powerful opposition to her maritime supremacy; the British cabinet, therefore, resolved at once to crush it. A fleet was accordingly sent to the Baltic early in 1801, under Sir Hyde Parker, with Nelson as his second in command. On its arrival off the Sound, much precious time was wasted in futile attempts at negotiation, and in doubts as to whether it would be better to force that passage in spite of the fortifications which lined its shores, or to attempt an entry by the Great Belt. Nelson saw the evil of this delay; "Let it be by the Sound, by the Belt, or anyhow," cried he, "only lose not an hour!""

the name of the Crown Batterics.

ITS EARLY HISTORY.

THE origin of this city is similar to that of many of the great commercial cities of northern Europe. In the eleventh century, it was scarcely more than a fishingstation, and consisted of little but a few huts. In 1168, however, the famous Bishop Axel, or Absalon, a celebrated character in the twelfth century, having obtained a grant of the place from the Danish sovereign, fortified the harbour, and, on a small neighbouring island, built a castle which served to defend it from the attacks of the numerous pirates then infesting the Baltic. The advantage of these measures was soon felt; Copenhagen increased quickly in population and importance; and before the lapse of a century, was surrounded with ramparts and ditches. About the year 1284, it was thought worthy to receive the privileges of a town; and at length, in 1443, became a city, and the residence of the Danish court.

Copenhagen has frequently experienced the miseries of war. In the year 1523, Frederick, Duke of Holstein, supported by a fleet of ships from Lubeck, invested it, and, after a close siege of seven months, compelled the inhabitants to surrender, and in 1536 the city underwent a similar fate, amidst the troubles arising from the disputed succession to the crown of Denmark. In subsequent times, the constant jealousy existing between that country and Sweden, frequently endangered the safety of this capital, and exposed its people to great injury. Charles Gustavus blockaded it in the early part of his reign, after having accomplished the bold and daring enterprise of marching his whole army across the Little Belt to the island of Funen, and thence to Zealand, on the ice; the Danes were forced to conclude an inglorious peace, which, however, the Swedish monarch chose soon to break. In the war which then ensued, the siege of Copenhagen constitutes a prominent feature; the city was vigorously attacked and stormed by the Swedish troops, but all their efforts were rendered unsuccessful, by the bravery of the citizens and students.

In 1700, during the reign of Frederick the Fourth, Copenhagen was again besieged by a Swedish army, under the renowned Charles the Twelfth, who took up arms to defend his relative, the Duke of Holstein, from the aggression of the Danish monarch. The inhabitants, in the absence of their sovereign, sent deputies to Charles, requesting that he would not bombard their town; to this request he consented to accede, on the condition that they gave him instantly a large sum of money, and brought regularly to his camp all kinds of provisions,-for which, however, he, on his part, engaged to pay punctually. As soon as Frederick learned that his capital was in such imminent danger, he published an edict, in which he promised freedom to all who, in any part of his dominions, should take up arms against the Swedes. Charles, upon learning this, informed the Danish monarch that he only made war, to oblige his majesty to make peace; and that he must either do justice to the Duke of Holstein, or submit to have his capital destroyed, and his kingdom laid waste by fire and sword. Frederick chose the former alternative, and quickly concluded a peace. From this period Copenhagen enjoyed uninterrupted security, until the celebrated attack under Lord Nelson, in 1801; but to this event, which forms one of the most brilliant triumphs

At length, on the 30th of March, the fleet moved into the Sound, Nelson leading the van: as the ships passed along, they kept the mid-channel between the hostile coasts, all cleared for action; but the Swedish batteries were silent, so that they were enabled to get out of reach of the guns on the Danish shore, and pass without damage. On their arrival off Copenhagen, the enemy's means of defence were quickly reconnoitred, and found to be formidable; upwards of an hundred pieces of cannon were mounted upon the Crown Batteries at the entrance of the harbour, and a line of twenty-five two-deckers, frigates, and floating batteries, was moored across its mouth. Nelson offered his services for the attack; they were accepted, and Sir Hyde Parker gave him twelve sail-of-the-line, and all the smaller craft, to conduct it with. The channel of approach was little known, and extremely intricate, a difliculty which the Danes considered insuperable. But Nelson saw with his own eye the soundings made, and the buoys laid down, boating it upon this exhausting service day and night till it was effected. The battle was fought on the 2nd of April. It began at five minutes after ten; the first half of the squadron was engaged in about half an hour, and by halfpast eleven the action became general. The plan of attack had been complete; but its execution was prevented by several untoward accidents. Three of the ships grounded; and owing to the fears of the masters and pilots, the anchors were let go nearly at the distance of a cable's length from the enemy. Had they proceeded, they would have deepened their water, and the victory would have been decided in half the time. Nelson was extremely agitated when he saw his force thus materially weakened; but every painful thought was soon lost in the excitement of action. Of all the engagements in which he had borne a part, this, he said, was the most terrible. Three hours had elapsed, and the enemy's fire was unslackened. A shot through the mainmast knocked a few splinters about the admiral, who was pacing the quarter-deck. "It is warm work," he observed to one of his officers with a smile, "and this day may be the last to any of us at a moment. But mark you!" added he with emotion, stopping short at the gangway, "I would not be elsewhere for thousands." About this time, the signal-lieutenant called out that No. 39 (the signal for discontinuing the action,) was thrown out by the commander-in-chief, who was with the rest of the fleet four miles off. Nelson continued to walk the deck, and appeared to take no notice of it. The signal-officer met him at the next turn, and asked if he should repeat it.

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No," he replied, "acknowledge it." Presently he called after him, to know if the signal for close action was still hoisted; and being answered in the affirmative, said,

"Mind you keep it so." He now walked the deck, moving the stump of his lost arm in a manner which always denoted great agitation. "Doctor!" he said to the surgeon, "do you know what's shown on board the commander-in-chief? No. 39!" The doctor asked what that meant. "Why, to leave off action!" Then shrugging up his shoulders, he repeated the words,-" Leave off action! No, hang me if I do! you know, Foley," turning to the captain, "I have only one eye; I have a right to be blind sometimes. Hang the signal! keep mine for closer battle flying; that is the way I answer such signals;-nail mine to the mast!"

At length about two, the greater part of the Danish line had ceased to fire; some of their lighter ships were adrift, and many had struck. It was, however, difficult to take possession of these last, because the batteries on Amak island protected them: and because an irregular fire was kept up, as the boats approached, from the ships themselves, owing to the ignorance or inadvertence of the fresh crews, who were constantly coming on board them from the shore. This irritated Nelson: he must either, he said, send on shore, and stop these irregular proceedings, or send in fireships, and burn the prizes: "and then," as Mr. Southey observes, "with a presence of mind peculiar to himself, and never more signally displayed than now, he availed himself of this occasion to secure what he had gained, and open a negotiation." He retired into the stern-gallery, and wrote thus to the crown prince:-" Vice-admiral Lord Nelson has been commanded to spare Denmark when she no longer resists. The line of defence which covered her shores has struck to the British flag; but if the firing is continued on the part of Denmark, he must set on fire all the prizes that he has taken without having the power of saving the men who have so nobly defended them. The brave Danes are the brothers, and should never be the enemies, of the English." A wafer was brought him for this letter; but he ordered wax and a candle, saying, "This is no time to appear hurried and informal;" and affixed a larger seal than usual. During the absence of the aide-decamp who was sent with it, the remainder of the enemy's line eastward was silenced: the Crown Batteries continued to fire till the Danish general Lindholm, returned with a flag of truce, when the action closed, after four hours' continuance. His message from the prince was to inquire what was the object of Nelson's note? The British admiral wrote in reply:" Lord Nelson's object in sending the flag of truce was humanity; he, therefore, consents that hostilities shall cease, and that the wounded Danes may be taken on shore. And Lord Nelson will take his prisoners out of the vessels, and burn or carry off his prizes as he shall think fit. Lord Nelson, with humble duty to his royal highness the Prince, will consider this the greatest victory he has ever gained, if it may be the cause of a happy reconciliation and union between his own most gracious sovereign and his majesty the King of Denmark." The proposal was accepted; a suspension was agreed on for twenty-four hours; and an armistice was afterwards concluded for fourteen weeks. The death of the Russian

emperor, Paul, intervened, and the northern confederacy

was destroyed.

SIEGE OF COPENHAGEN IN 1807..

DURING the earlier part of the war which broke out between England and France, in the year 1803, Denmark adhered strictly to her system of neutrality; but when the peace of Tilsit, in 1807, rendered the power of Buonaparte paramount on the Continent, it became evident to the British government, that even if she were really unwilling to enlist in his cause, she was no longer capable of acting as an independent state. It was known, also, that France was determined to possess herself of the Danish navy; and a proposition was made by Great Britain to the crown prince, to enter at once upon a defensive alliance, or, as a pledge of neutrality, to surrender his fleet, which should be restored on a general peace. This was rejected; and it then became necessary for England to resort to force. A fleet was sent up the Sound; and an army of 25,000 men, under Lord Cathcart, having been landed in Zealand, Copenhagen was surrounded, after an unsuccessful resistance on the part of the Danes, on the 17th of August. The demands of the British government were now repeated, but the Danish court persisted in its refusal; and the capital was bombarded for three days. On the 7th of September, the city capitulated; the British army took possession of the citadel, dockyards, and batteries dependent on

them, and Admiral Gambier immediately began rigging and fitting out the ships that filled the spacious basins in which they were laid up in ordinary. These, together with the stores, timber, and every article of naval equipment found in the arsenal and storehouses, were carried off, and all, with the exception of one line-of-battle ship, which grounded on the isle of Huen, and was destroyed, were brought to England.

SITUATION AND EXTENT.

COPENHAGEN is built partly on the coast of the island of small isle of Amak, or Amager, which is separated from Zealand, and partly on the northern extremity of the its larger neighbour by only a narrow channel, that constitutes the harbour of this metropolis. It is commonly regarded as consisting of three distinct parts, the Old Town, the New Town, and Christianshaven. Of these, the first is the largest and most populous; and it forms what is properly called the city. Its foundation is of earlier date than that of the other divisions, and thus it is distinguished by the appellation of "old;" but its buildings are of more modern erection than either of them, having been principally raised since the destructive fires of 1728 and 1794. This quarter, together with the new town, is all of the city that stands on Zealand; and its communication with the remaining portion, is kept up by means of two bridges, that stretch across the harbour to Amak, on which Christianshaven is placed. This little island has been called the kitchen-garden of Copenhagen, because it supplies the inhabitants of the capital with fruit and vegetables, together with milk, butter, and cheese. Its origin is curious, and is thus described by an old writer:-"Christian_the Second, otherwise called the Northern Monster and Nero, having married Isabel, sister to the emperor, Charles the Savoy, the queen his wife's aunt, and governess of the Low Fifth, wrote to the Archduchess Margaret, Duchess of Countries, desiring her to send him some people out of those parts that understood gardening, so that the queen, his wife, might have pulse, and other fruits at hand, that pleased her. The governess sent him several families, to whom he assigned Amak to be cultivated by them, in the

year 1516.

Their descendants at this day are called Hollanders, and dwell within large boroughs; they still retain the Dutch fashion: their clothes are also singular to themselves, and much like those of the North Holland

boors."

Every succeeding writer, by whom this curious race of people is mentioned, speaks of them in the same terms; and their condition remains to this day unchanged. They still cling to the manners of their forefathers, retaining all those habits of industry and cleanliness that have ever characterized the stock from which they are sprung, and keeping themselves almost distinct from the community in which they are thrown. They never intermarry with the Danes; and so limited is their intercourse with the inhabitants of the city, that they are seldom to be seen in any part of it but the market, where they sell the produce of

their labours.

The

The approach to Copenhagen by land is very beautiful; and from a height at a short distance, the view of the city, together with the scenery around it, is delightful. appearance of this capital from the water is not less striking, and is spoken of in high terms of praise by those who have visited it. The traveller who makes the voyage from England or France, or any country not bordering on the Baltic, has, towards the close of his journey, to pass through the Sound, which is the only frequented entrance to that sea; and the little channel bearing that name, has, besides the attraction which it derives from its political importance, much to impress his imagination, in the grand and interesting objects both of nature and of art, with which it abounds.

THE SOUND.

THIS, as we have before remarked, is one of the three channels into which the mouth of the Baltic is broken, by the islands of Zealand and Funen, and by which ships can enter that sea from the Great Northern Ocean. "This passage," says Dr. Southey," which Denmark had long considered as the key of the Baltic, is, in its narrowest part, about three miles wide, and here the city of Elsineur is situated; except Copenhagen, the most flourishing of the Danish towns. Every vessel which passes, lowers her top-gallant sails, and pays toll at Elsineur; a toll which is believed to have had its origin in the

consent of the traders to that sea, Denmark taking upon itself the charge of constructing lighthouses, and erecting signals, to mark the shoals and rocks from the Cattegat to the Baltic; and they, on their part, agreeing that all ships should pass this way, in order that all might pay their shares: none from that time using the passage of the Belt; because it was not fitting that they who enjoyed the benefit of the beacons in dark and stormy weather, should evade contributing to them in fair seasons and Summer nights. Adjoining Elsineur, and at the edge of a peninsular promontory, upon the nearest point of land to the Swedish coast, stands Cronenburg Castle, built after Tycho Brahe's design; a magnificent pile; at once a palace, and fortress, and state-prison, with its spires and towers, and battlements and batteries. On the left of the strait is the old Swedish city of Helsinburg; at the foot and on the side of a hill. To the north of Helsinburg, the shores are steep and rocky; they lower to the south; and the distant spires of Landscrona, Lund, and Malmoe, are seen in the flat country. The Danish shores consist partly of ridges of sand; but more frequently their slopes are covered with rich wood, and villages, and villas, denoting the vicinity of a great capital. The isles of Huen, Saltholm, and Amak, appear in the widening channel; and at the distance of twenty miles from Elsineur, stands Copenhagen in full view; the best-built city of the North, and one of the finest capitals of Europe; visible with its stately spires far off. Amid these magnificent objects, there are some which possess a peculiar interest, for the recollections which they call forth. The isle of Huen, a lovely domain, about six miles in circumference, had been the munificent gift of Frederic the Second to Tycho Brahe. Here most of his discoveries were made, and here the ruins are to be seen of his observatory, and of the mansion where he was visited by princes; and where, with a princely spirit, he received and entertained all comers from all parts, and promoted science by his liberality, as well as by his labours. Elsineur is a name familiar to English ears, being inseparably associated with Hamlet, and one of the noblest works of human genius. Cronenburg had been the scene of deeper tragedy; here Queen Matilda was confined, the victim of a foul and murderous court-intrigue. Here, amid heartbreaking griefs, she found consolation in nursing her infant. Here she took her everlasting leave of that infant, when, by the interference of England, her own deliverance was obtained; and as the ship bore her away from a country where the venial indiscretions of youth and unsuspicious gaiety had been so cruelly punished, upon these towers she fixed her eyes, and stood upon the deck, obstinately gazing towards them, till the last speck had disappeared."

HARBOUR, ETC.

In the advantages of its position as a port and a place of commerce, Copenhagen is scarcely surpassed by any city on the globe; it affords a secure shelter to ships, and seems as it were meant to maintain the communication between the countries washed by the Baltic and the other parts of Europe. "Its situation for trade" says Lord Molesworth, who was ambassador from our King William the Third to the court of Denmark, and who wrote an account of that kingdom, as it was in the year 1692, "is one of the best in the world, because of the excellency of its port; so that without doubt, were Copenhagen a free city, it would be the mart and staple of all the traffic of the Baltic. This port is enclosed by the bulwarks of the town, the entrance into it being so narrow that but one ship can pass at a time; which entrance is every night shut up with a strong boom; the citadel on one side, and a good blockhouse well furnished with cannon on the other, command the mouth of it. Within this haven rides the Navy Royal, every ship having its place assigned to it; a wooden gallery ranges round the whole enclosure where the fleet lies, laid over the water in such manner, that all the ships may be viewed near at hand, as easily and commodiously as if they lay on dry land. This harbour is capacious enough to hold five hundred sail, where neither wind nor enemies can do them the least mischief. The road without is very good and safe; being fenced from the sea by a large sandbank, on the points of which float always a couple of buoys to direct all ships that come in or go out. Here are no tides to fear; but always a sufficient depth of water: sometimes, indeed, according as the winds blow in or out of the The sister of our George the Third.

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Baltic, there sets a current; but 'tis not frequent nor dangerous. To conclude, this port may justly be reckoned one of the best in the whole world."

This description is equally applicable in all its leading features at the present day. Yet notwithstanding these natural advantages, Copenhagen can hardly be said to occupy a very high position in the commercial world; and its harbour does not present the bustling appearance of a first-rate seaport. It is the principal station for the navy of Denmark; but that is not now so considerable as it was formerly. In the beginning of the year 1801 it consisted of twenty-two ships of the line, fit for service, and seven which were dismasted; of fifteen frigates, four brigs, thirteen gun-boats, and three praams, besides several vessels on the stocks. This force was greatly reduced, or rather almost entirely annihilated, first by Lord Nelson's victory in 1801, and afterwards by the seizure of the fleet at Copenhagen in 1807; and from these losses Denmark has not yet been able to recover. The building and refitting of the ships is intrusted to a particular board appointed for that purpose, to whose examination all plans and models are submitted. The greater part of the oak employed in the naval arsenals is procured from Prussia; for though Holstein produces oaks, they are few in number, and are reserved for cases of emergency. Norway furnishes the iron-work; pitch and tar are procured from Sweden, while flax, hemp, and masts, are obtained from Russia. The Danes have manu-' factories of their own for cordage and sails; but these scarcely yield sufficient for the use of the fleet.

The seamen belonging to the navy of Denmark are all registered; their number is nearly 15,000, and they are divided into two classes. The first consists of those who are not engaged in immediate service, and are allowed to enter in merchant-ships trading to any part of the world; each receives two rix-dollars annually from the crown, and is liable to be recalled in case of war. The second comprises the fixed sailors, who are constantly in the employment of the king, and whose number, under the present peace-establishment, amounts to 4000; they are divided into forty companies, and are stationed at Copenhagen for the ordinary service of the navy and dock-yards. When not at sea, they receive each two rix-dollars per month, besides being accommodated with a residence, clothing, and many of the necessaries of life; when they sail, their pay is augmented to five rix-dollars per month.

STREETS AND SQUARES.

THE public thoroughfares of Copenhagen are fine, and in this respect the Danish capital is superior to many cities of a larger class. The streets are in general broad and handsome; they are also well paved, and furnished with a footway on either side. Some of them are intersected with canals, which afford great facilities for the conveyance of goods; and all are characterized by an air of neatness and cleanliness. A British traveller, Mr. Macdonald, mentions a peculiarity in the arrangement of the masses of buildings, which would seem to be attended with considerable advantage. He says, that instead of the usual right angles presented by the corners of the houses at the extremities or divisions of the streets, the builders of Copenhagen have substituted terminations of a semi-octangular shape. The advantages thus secured are various: carriages and horses cannot so frequently run foul of one another, or knock down foot-passengers, at the turnings of the streets, while the open spaces which are gained promote the free circulation of air, and contribute to the beauty of the city. The finest street is that known by the name of Amalie Gade; it is about a mile in length, and runs nearly in a straight line. The Oster Gade, or East Street, which is sometimes called the Bond Street of Copenhagen, is also a good thoroughfare; but though its length is considerable, its breadth varies much.

of which would be considered as ornaments to any city in This capital possesses several large open squares, some the world. The "King's New Market" is a spacious area situated nearly in the centre of the city, and surrounded with many fine houses. On one side of it is the palace of Charlottenburg, which contains the Royal Academy of Fine Arts; and its centre is adorned with an equestrian statue of Christian the Fifth, which is said to be void of taste and symmetry, and remarkable only for its size. It was executed in the year 1688 by a French artist. The new town possesses the place of Amalienburg, which is a large open space, of an octagonal form, and containing four beautiful

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