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THE WALNUT, (Juglans regia.)

THE Common Walnut-tree was originally brought from Asia; it is found particularly, in great abundance, on the shores of the Caspian sea, but it has been so long naturalized in Europe, as to give it a place among the European trees. The Romans were well acquainted with the Walnut-tree. At the conclusion of their marriage-ceremonies, the young couple flung walnuts among the spectators, emblematical of their intention of renouncing the games of their youth, and allowing more serious matters to occupy their attention. This custom is still preserved in the south of Europe, where nuts and almonds are employed in the same manner. The Walnut is not only valuable on account of its fruit, but, on the Continent in particular, its timber also is in great request; the value of the nuts, however, renders it scarce, as few trees are cut down for the use of the cabinet-maker.

The unripe Walnut is well known in England as a pickle, and for its use in the making of Walnutketchup. Our French neighbours, in addition to this, employ it in making preserves; they also make a liqueur, by adding a pint of brandy to a dozen of unripe Walnuts, and sweetening the liquor with sugar according to the palate. The dried nuts also yield, by expression, a quantity of oil, of a good quality; this oil has been used in medicine, and is considered an excellent vermifuge, particularly in the case of the tape-worm. This tree has many good, or fancied good qualities, one of which was discovered by the French at the time they were unable to obtain our West India produce; namely, that the sap contains a considerable quantity of sugar; the discoverer gives a long account of the method of preparing the sugar, which is much the same as that employed in the case of the juice of the sugar-cane, but he omits to mention the amount collected from a given quantity of sap. The dyers, formerly, were in the habit of employing the roots of the tree, and the husks of


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COLLEGIATE CHURCH OF MANCHESTER. WILLIAM CAMDEN, the chief of English antiquaries, who wrote his Britannia in 1586, says quaintly of Manchester, in the words of his old translator, Dr. Philemon Holland


Because the inhabitants had borne themselves as valiant men in the Danish war, they will have their town to be called Manchester, that is, as they expound it, The city of men; and in this conceit, which implieth their own commendation, they wonderfully please themselves. But full little know the good honest men, that Mancunium was the name of it in the Britons' time, so that the etymology thereof, out of our English tongue, can by no means seem probable. I for my part, therefore, would derive it rather from Main, a British word which signifieth a Stone: for upon a stony hill it is seated, and beneath the town there are most good and famous quarries of stone.

He assigns the foundation of "the fair Church and College" of Manchester to Thomas Lord de la Ware, a priest, the last heir male of his family.

This Thomas de la Ware, who was for some time rector of the parish church of Manchester, (having succeeded to the barony and estate of his family by the death of his brother John, Lord de la Ware,) | obtained leave of King Henry the Fifth to make his church collegiate, to consist of a warden and eight vicars. It was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and endowed with revenues to the yearly value of about 2007, This college was dissolved in 1547, by King Edward the Sixth, but refounded, first by Queen Mary, and afterwards by Queen Elizabeth, in 1578, and again by King Charles the First, in 1636, for a warden, four fellows, two chaplains, four singing men, and four choristers; being incorporated, as they had been before by Queen Elizabeth, as "The Warden and Fellows of Christ Church in Manchester."

These were ejected by parliament during the rebellion, and their revenues seized; and in 1649 the door of the chapter-house and college-chest were broken open by the soldiery under Colonel Thomas Birch, when the deeds and writings relating to the foundation were taken to London, and never returned They were afterwards destroyed in the great fire of 1666. In 1642, during the siege of Manchester by the earl of Derby, the college-house had been used as a storehouse by the troops within the town. In 1649, the Independents converted it into a meeting-house. After the death of Mr. Chetham*, it was purchased

Mr. HUMPHREY CHETHAM, a great benefactor to the college,

whom Fuller briefly mentions among his Worthies of England, was
born in July 1580. He was descended of an ancient family, and
obtained his wealth chiefly by supplying the London market with
fustians, a material of dress then in almost general use throughout
the nation. By this commerce, which was probably conducted on
an extensive scale, Mr. Chetham acquired opulence; while his strict
integrity, his piety, and works of charity, secured him the respect
and esteem of those around him. His chief residence was Clayton
Hall, near Manchester, at that time surrounded by a moat, the
traces of which are now to be distinguished.
"He was," says
Fuller, "a diligent reader of the Scriptures, and of the works of
sound divines; a respecter of such ministers as he accounted truly
godly, upright, sober, discreet, and sincere. He was high sheriff of
the county of Lancaster, A. D. 1635, discharging that office with
great honour, insomuch that very good gentlemen of birth and
estate did wear his cloth at the assize, to testify their unfeigned af-
fection to him."

{MAY 27,

of the earl of Derby, in pursuance of a recommendation in the will of the former person, as a suitable building for the benevolent institution which he had contemplated, as stated below.

The present Collegiate Church, of which a view is annexed, and which occupies the site of the old parish-church of Manchester, is described in the following terms by that eminent antiquary, the late Rev. Thomas D. Whitaker, L.L.D.

"The outside, being constructed of red, crumbling stone, has suffered extremely from the operations of fire and smoke. Within, and on the south side, are several large chantries, one of which is the property and burial-place of the Traffords of Trafford. At the east end, and behind the altar, is the chapel of the Chethams, where the munificent founder of the hospital has a tomb. There are also some later monuments of the family. On the north side of the north aisle is a very spacious chapel built by Bishop Stanley, and now the property of the Earl of Derby. Beyond this is a small projecting chantry, under the founder's arch of which, and within a plain altar-tomb, lies the same James Stanley, Bishop of Ely (consecrated in 1506,) and Warden of Manchester, who died in the college. There is a small figure of him in brass, and an inscription in old English, which is given in Bentham's History of Ely. But the great ornaments of the church are the stalls, screens, and lattice-work of the choir, finished, in a great measure, at the expense of this prelate, who, though little of a scholar or an ecclesiastic, seems to have had a munificent spirit not unworthy of his birth. His family connexion induced him to reside much at Manchester, to which he appears to have been greatly attached; for nothing less than the powerful influence of the Stanleys could have obtained for him permission to hold a commendam with the wealthy see of Ely. In richness and delicacy of execution, the canopies of these stalls exceed anything I have seen, though, perhaps, in point of lightness, they lose something from the want of those tall spiring front pinnacles which marked the stalls of the two former centuries.'

The town, probably the church, of Manchester, was originally a place of sanctuary, and one of the eight places to which this privilege was confirmed by the statute of 32 Henry VIII. in 1540-1. But the privilege was transferred to Chester in the following year, as it had been found to operate to the prejudice John Huntingdon was the first Warden of Manchesof the wealth, credit, and good order of the place. ter, appointed in 1422. The very Rev. Thomas Calvert, D.D., is the present Warden, appointed in


Many of our readers are aware, that it is intended to erect a bishop's see at Manchester. The Collegiate Church is to become the Cathedral, and the diocese will consist of those parts of the county of Lancaster, which compose the deaneries of Amounderness, Blackburn, Leyland, Manchester, and Warrington, and which now form part of the diocese of Chester. In the Second Report of the Ecclesiastical Commis

The charity of Mr. Chetham was not to appear only after hissioners, published last year, it is stated that the estadeath. During his life he had "taken up and maintained fourteen boys of the town of Manchester, six of the town of Salford, and two

of the town of Droylsden; in all twenty-two. By his will, bearing

date Dec. 16, 1651, he directed that the number of boys should be increased to forty; bequeathing the sum of £7000 for the purchase of an estate, the profits of which are to be applied to the support of this establishment. The operations of this benevolent institution have been since greatly extended by judicious management, and due attention to the views of the founder. Mr. Chetham bequeathed also the sums of £1000 for the purchase cf books, and £100 for a building, as the foundation of a public library; for the augmentation of which he devised the residue of his personal estate. He further left £200," says his biographer, "to purchase godly English books to be chained upon desks in the churches of Manchester Bolton &c."

blishment at Manchester is already so similar to that proposed for the cathedrals of the new foundation, that little change will be required besides the alteration of titles from Warden and Fellows to Dean and Canons.

O BLESSED health! thou art above all gold and treasure; 'tis thou who enlargest the soul, and openest all its powers to receive instruction, and to relish virtue. He that has thee has little more to wish for; and he who is so wretched as to want thee, wants everything with thee.-STERNE,

Patriot, say not such hopes may die;


MAY 24, 1837.


LADY, bright hope of royal line,

Fair Albion greets thy natal day!

She would not soon her throne were thine,
Yet prays thy race may ne'er decay.

Not soon; for soon she could not spare

The hand that wields her sceptre free: Long live the king!-thus speeds her prayer;— And, sooth, not soon, in love to thee.

For, Lady, 'tis a dizzy height,

And who may say what storms shall fall? Snares may be rife, and dark the night


God shield thee, Lady, 'midst them all! Then would she not such tender flower

Too early life's rough gust should bide; But bloom awhile in sheltered bower, The more to cast its fragrance wide. Yet since in nature's course thy brow Shall one day throb with Queenly care, She antedates the loyal vow,

And fondly breathes her patriot prayer.
She asks not for thee wider realm

Than girds thy patrimonial crown ;
For far-off lands obey her helm,
Ne'er on her bounds the sun goes down.
Ere on her evening shore he lave,

He gilds her far Atlantic isles;
And when he quits the Western wave,
Her orient Ind hath hailed his smiles.
For her, while 'neath his zenith ray

Bright gems and spicy forests glow,
Australia drinks the slanting day,

And Arctic ice-bound barriers flow. Thrice goodly realms! but light it were To sing in plausive minstrel guise, Her heroes brave, her maidens fair,

Her wealth, her arms, her pageantries.
Of such oft-chequered frail behest

Whose good and ill men scantly know,
Heaven knows the brightest and the best;
That bright and best may Heaven bestow.
But most, fair Peace to deck thy reign;
-Lady, be such the high decree ;-
With meek Religion's hallowed train
And Health, and smiling Liberty.

Should strife, which many a realm hath marred
Vex the young bud of Brunswick's stem,
In heaven, may fostering angels guard,
On earth fond hearts, thy diadem.
Offspring of hope, that broods not fears,
Blessing and blessed be this thy lot,
To live and reign for lengthened years;
To love, be loved, nor e'er forgot.
And when e'en lengthened years shall close.
And last adieus surround thy throne,
To smile, unwont, 'midst Britain's woes,
No heart then tranquil but thine own

To smile as opes a brighter sky,

Where kings may reign, nor spurned the slave; Redeemed by no mean agony,

To endless life from wintry grave.

May children's children crown thy age,
And filial catch thy parting breath;

Each youth a gem in history's page,
Each maiden an Elizabeth.

That thus eclipsed full many a name

Which long hath crested glory's tide,— Alfred or Edward's youthful fame,

Or hers who quelled the Armada's pride ;—

Bards, when they sing of mighty ones,
Thy future race may proud aver,
"Our monarchs are Victoria's sons;
Our queens renew Victoria."

Nor count fond omen flattery's voice;
Heaven listeth prayer, and hearts beat high.
Why then should Albion not rejoice?
For sure in sacred page we read,

Princes to reign in love were given;
Though Edward's were a gentler meed,

To 'scape earth's crown, and reign in heaven. Patriot, then cheer thy careful brow,

Nor vex bright morn with omened knell; Large be thy heart as warm thy vow: Heaven listeth prayer-all shall be well. S. C. W.


THE following is the description which Dr. E. D. Clarke gives of a blind female Harper, of Aberystwith, and of the first effect of the native music of the country upon his feelings.

Here we had, for the first time since we entered Wales, the pleasure of hearing the music of the country, in its pure state, from a poor blind female harper. She could speak no English, nor play any English tunes, except Captain Mackintosh and the White Cockade. There was so much native simplicity in her appearance, and the features of sorrow were so visible in her countenance, that no one could behold her unmoved. She was led in by the waiter, dressed after the style of her countrywomen, in a coarse woollen gown, and a hat of black beaver. She had seated herself in a corner of the rooin, and by an involuntary motion, I drew my chair close to hers. A predilection for Welsh music would alone have disposed me to listen to the harp; but our blind minstrel, with her untaught har mony, called forth all our admiration, and attention became the tribute of pity. When she touched the strings, she displayed all the execution and taste of the most refined master. Her mode of fingering was graceful, light, and elegant; her cadences inexpressibly sweet. We had never before heard such tones from the harp. She ran through all the mazes of Welsh harmony, and delighted us with the songs of the bards of old. She seemed to celebrate the days of her forefathers, and fancy led me to interpret the tenour of her melody. It sung the fall of Llewellyn, and broke forth in a rapid tumultuous movement, expressive of the battles he had fought, and the laurels he had won.

All at once she changed the strain; the movement became slow, soft, and melancholy-it was a dirge for the memory of the slaughtered bards, the departed poets of other times. An air was introduced after a momentary pause, which vibrated upon our very heart-strings. With trembling hands, and in a tone of peculiar melody, she told us the sad tale of her own distress. She sung the blessings of light, and portrayed in cadences the sorrows of the blind.

Without any support but her harp, deprived of her sight, friendless, and poor, she had wandered from place to place, depending entirely upon the charity of strangers. We were told that she contrived to obtain a decent livelihood by her talents for music nor did we wonder at it, for who can refuse pity to the sufferings of humanity, when the voice of melody breaks forth in its behalf?

[BISHOP OTTER's Life of Dr. E. D. Clarke.]

WHAT avails all the pomp and parade of life which appear abroad, if, when we shift the gaudy flattering scene, the man is unhappy where happiness must begin, at home! Whatever ingredients of bliss Providence may have poured into his cup, domestic misfortunes will render the whole composition distasteful. Fortune and happiness are two very distinct ideas; however some who have a false idea of life and a wrongness of thinking may confound them.-SEED.

YOUNG men in the conduct and management of actions embrace more than they can hold, stir more than they can quiet, fly to the end without consideration of the means and degrees, pursue some few principles which they have chanced upon absurdly, care not to be innovate, which draws unknown inconveniences; use extreme remedies at first, and that which doubleth all errors, wil' not acknowledge or retract them.-BACON.


Ir often happens that the commonest things are those of which the least is known. As it is probable that some of our readers, who, from their childhood, have been accustomed to use Magnesia, or to see it used by others, may not have taken the trouble, or may not have had the opportunity, to make themselves acquainted with its origin, and the methods by which it is prepared, we hope the following details will not be unacceptable.

Magnesia is usually denominated one of the earths, a definition which, for ordinary purposes, is sufficiently accurate. We shall have occasion, however, to say something more about this in a future paper. The native combinations of Magnesia with other substances, both solid and liquid, are not very numerous, but some of them are very extensively dif- | fused. In the waters of the ocean*, and in those of several mineral springs, it exists in union with sulphuric acid, (oil of vitriol,) and with hydrochloric acid, (spirit of salt.) Combined with the first-mentioned acid, it occurs in some places in a crystallized form, constituting sulphate of magnesia, (Epsom Salt.)

Magnesian minerals exhibit peculiar properties. Their colours approach more or less to yellow or green. Only a few of them possess any lustre; and to the touch most of them appear of a soft, or, more properly, of a soapy texture, whence one variety has received the name of soapstone.

Magnesian Limestone, called also Dolomite, is the form in which Magnesia exists as a mineral product in the greatest abundance. It consists chiefly of lime and magnesia, in variable proportions, combined with carbonic acid, and which are hence called carbonates. Some of its varieties, as obtained in the northern counties of England, yield from 25 to 40 per cent. of carbonate of magnesia.

A native carbonate has been found in Piedmont, Moravia, the East Indies, and at New Jersey, in America. At the latter place, and at Unst, in one of the Shetland Isles, Magnesia has been discovered in a state of greater purity than any of those previously mentioned; it is called native hydrate of magnesia, which means that it is composed of Magnesia chemically combined with water. This curious mineral is of a greenish colour, and its structure is soft and lamellated, that is, consisting of thin layers or flakes.

The Magnesia known in commerce, and so generally used as medicine, is of two kinds; one is called common, and the other best, or, more properly, calcined Magnesia. For the first of these the more correct name is carbonate of Magnesia; but this, although sufficiently descriptive of its character for any practical purpose, is not perfectly accurate.

Carbonate of Magnesia is usually prepared by the mutual decomposition of sulphate of Magnesia (Epsom Salt) and carbonate of Potash (Pearlash), or of Soda, (common Soda.) The latter salt is generally preferred, on account of its being obtained in a purer form than the Potash. The process may be thus described;-six parts, by weight, of carbonate of soda, and five parts of sulphate of magnesia, are separately dissolved in five or six times their respective weights of boiling water. The two liquids are then mixed, and carbonate of Magnesia is precipitated. The solution must be boiled for a short time, after which it is suffered to cool, and the magnesia separated from it by drawing off the superabundant liquor, and by filtration. It is then repeatedly

* See Saturday Magasine, Vol. X., p. 156.

washed with pure water, dried, and made into small cubes, such as may often be seen in show-glasses in druggists' windows.

Suppose we now, in a very plain way, go through some parts of this process again, in our remarks on it laying aside, as much as possible, scientific terms. We shall be thus particular about what may to some persons appear as a very trifling matter, because it supplies us with a beautiful example of chemical agency, its interest being rather heightened than otherwise, in consequence of the substances operated on being so well known.

Into a wine-glass let us put about half a teaspoonful of soda, having first pulverized it, that is, reduced it to a powder. Into another glass we must put a similar quantity (say rather less,) of Epsom salt, and then upon each of these substances pour three or four tea-spoonsful of boiling water, stirring the contents of each glass until the whole is dissolved. The respective liquids should now be mixed, and on doing so, we shall perceive that, although previously quite transparent, the instant they are united, the mixture becomes turbid; this is occasioned by the formation of carbonate of magnesia, which, as the liquid cools, will subside to the bottom of the glass. The liquid in the glass being carefully poured off, let its place be supplied with cold water; this is for the purpose of washing the magnesia, and must be repeated, at intervals of about a quarter of an hour each, three or four times. The magnesia may now be put upon a piece of linen or paper, and dried, when it will be found, in every respect, to resemble that which is prepared on the large scale.

The changes which have been effected by the mode of operating here described, next claim our attention. Soda, it must be recollected, is called carbonate of soda, because it is composed of soda and carbonic acid. In like manner Epsom salt has received the name of sulphate of magnesia, inasmuch that it is formed by the union of magnesia and sulphuric acid. These two substances being dissolved in hot water, and their solutions mixed, the following curious transformations take place. Carbonic acid having a greater affinity for magnesia than it has for soda, under the circumstances just mentioned, it leaves the latter, and unites with the former, constituting carbonate of magnesia, whose presence is indicated by its rendering the liquid turbid.

But before this change can have taken place in the character of the magnesia, it must have been separated from the sulphuric acid with which it was previously combined. Now, as it is impossible for us to conceive of what actually takes place in a process which seems instantaneous, we must be content with supposing that whether the sulphuric acid is first displaced to make way for the carbonic acid, or whether the carbonic acid is the first to move, yet no confusion occurs. The results teach as that the sulphuric acid leaves the magnesia and combines with the soda, for if the liquid holding it in solution were evaporated, we should obtain from it sulphate of soda, (Glauber's salt.) So also the carbonic acid leaves the soda, and unites with the magnesia, and hence the origin of the carbonate of magnesia. It must, of course, be understood, that the respective substances of which we have been speaking combine in certain definite and uniform proportions; so that if there be an excess of either, that will remain unchanged.

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Carbonate of magnesia is but very sparingly dis solved by water; requiring 2500 times its own weight of cold, or 9000 times its weight of boiling water, for its solution.

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