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reader to secure details on points which are still in controversy. The positive value of the work is undoubted. Rarely does a volume appear in the field of social science which discusses social relations with such breadth, sanity, and insight.


SEX AND SOCIETY. By William I. Thomas. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. $1.50.

This suggestive and stimulating volume by Professor Thomas gives us a new interpretation of the character and origin of some of our social institutions and occupational activities. It is an attempt to explain certain important facts of social life as originating in the physical, biological, and psychological differences between man and woman. The various chapters are disconnected in the character of their subject-matter-each chapter being a complete study-but “. . . . the general thesis running through all of them is the same-that the differences in bodily habit between men and women, particularly the greater strength, restlessness, and motor aptitude of man, and the more stationary condition of woman, have had an important influence on social forms and activities, and on the character and mind of the two sexes" (Author's Note).

The first chapter discusses the organic differences between the two sexes and develops the fundamental evidence upon which the remaining chapters are based. After this there is a series of studies regarding the factor and influence of sex in primitive morality, primitive industry, and primitive social control of sex and social feeling; the psychology of modesty and clothing; the adventitious character of woman; the mind of woman and the lower races.

In this work Professor Thomas has made the first attempt to develop a scientific unified theory regarding the influence of sex in social life and activity. While the basic evidence of the author's theory is somewhat fragmentary and as yet incomplete, the inferences and deductions made are on the whole conservative. The last two chapters, on "The Adventitious Character of Woman" and "The Mind of Woman and the Lower

Races," are of peculiar value to the student who is analyzing the social position and influence of modern woman. The limitation which existing conventions and prejudices place upon woman and the social results of these limitations are described and analyzed.

The new view-point of recognizing sex as a fundamental factor in social life, and the development of a scientific theory of the influence of sex from that standpoint, make a suggestive contribution to scientific thought along these lines. The book is to be commended to all those who are interested in sex problems and sex relations. JAMES G. STEvens.

THE EVOLUTION OF LITERATURE. By A. S. Mackenzie. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company. Second Printing. 12mo, net $1.50.

Professor Mackenzie, of the University of Kentucky, here puts forth in a popular-priced edition his manual of comparative literature, which was issued for the first time about four years ago. His attempt to approach the study of literature from the side of anthropology, as an essentially social phenomenon, involves wide reading and careful anaylsis and discrimination. There are chapters on the primitive literatures of Africa, Oceania, Asia, and America, and in the songs, dances, stories, and drawings, the author seeks to discover the germs of various types of literature. In traversing so wide a field it is inevitable that the author should occasionally draw hasty conclusions (as, for example, the suggestion that the negroes borrowed their animal tales from Indian prisoners of war); but on the whole the book is an interesting and valuable contribution to a phase of literary study which hitherto has received only fragmentary treatment.

Legends of OLD HONOLULU. By W. D. Westervelt. Boston: Press of George H. Ellis.

These legends have been compiled from stories told by old Hawaiians; some taken down from the lips of those still living, and others found in the files of newspapers published in the language of Hawaii. Though many of these tales are limited to

the locality from which they come, and deal with various phases of Hawaiian life,-such as surf-riding, contests with devouring sharks, tales of singing shells, weird ghost dances in volcanoes, cannibal dog-men and sharkmen,-there is one legend of old Hawaii concerning three princes in search of the Water of Life, which contains features common to European folk-tales. The two older brothers through their rudeness fail in their search; whereas the youngest, by means of his natural kindness and generosity to the King of the Fairies (who is disguised as a dwarf), throws food into the mouths of the dragons guarding the water, succeeds in his quest, and wins a beautiful bride. As a matter of course, however, his wicked brothers almost rob him of his hard-earned victory, so that he barely escapes with his life. The collection is an interesting one, though at times the story suffers from too frequent interpolation and explanation on the part of the translator.

WRITTEN ENGLISH. A Course in thE MAIN THINGS TO KNOW IN ORDER TO WRITE English CorrecTLY. By Edwin C. Woolley. New York: D. C. Heath & Company. 300 pages. Price, $1.00.

This book is prepared for first-year classes in secondary schools, and its object is "to teach students to write correctly— not to teach them to write with literary excellence." It begins with elementary, but necessary, instruction in the preparation of the manuscript of the school theme and of letters, and then takes up the study of composition, based throughout on principles of grammar; for the author very properly is convinced that correctness in written English depends on a "knowledge of the leading parts of grammatical theory and terminology." The rules are stated briefly and clearly, and are accompanied by abundant illustrations, so as to give the student constant drill and practice. Most teachers will regret to see the time-honored word "sentence" (for the simple reason that it is loosely and indefinitely used) put aside for the more pretentious term "predication." But the book is an excellent one and it should do much towards banishing from the school-room the dry, theoretical rhetoric, which has been in the past such a bane to every highschool pupil.

THE RISE OF CLASSICAL ENGLISH CRITICISM. By James Routh. New Orleans: Tulane University Press. 101 pages.

This pamphlet traces the "history of the canons of English literary taste and rhetorical doctrines, from the beginning of English criticism to the death of Dryden." In order to set definite limits to his work, the author defines the science of criticism as "the science of rhetoric in its largest sense"; and "the history of criticism is the history of rhetorical principles as they have changed from century to century, and grown in changing." The subject is treated in the following chapters: The Rule of Law, The Purpose of Literary Art, Types of Literature, Materials Suitable for Literature, Style, Verse Technique. Professor Routh has read widely and judiciously and makes his conclusions with discrimination and critical insight. It is to be regretted, however, that he did not take pains to polish his own work so as to avoid, in paragraph after paragraph, such wearisome repetitions as: "Another dictum," "Another important point, ""Another fundamental principle," "Another distinct pronouncement," etc.

BIBLICAL LIBRARIES. By Ernest Cushing Richardson. Princeton: University Press.

The Introduction discusses the question "What is a Library?" and at what seems undue length belabors the Assyriologists for seeking to limit the term "library" so as to apply only to a "large literary collection." The author's own conclusion is that "A library is a book or a collection of books kept for use, and one kind of book kept for use is the original or official copy of a public document," so that "archive" may be defined as one kind of library. Though the book covers "the period of Biblical history from about the first dynasty of Egypt, or say 3400 B.C. (or 4200), until the death of the last of those who figure in the books of the New Testament, or say the middle of the second century A.D.," the question naturally suggests itself why did not the author explain his use of the term "Biblical" as applied to collections of books, or brick tablets, or rolls, in Babylonia, Egypt, and Persia? The book is, however, both scholarly and

interesting, and the text is accompanied by many illustrations and plans of ancient temples and various buildings used for the housing of books.

GEOGRAPHIC INFLUENCES IN Old Testament MasterpieCES. By Laura H. Wild. Boston: Ginn & Company.

The purpose of this book is "to give illustrations of how Old Testament literature is interpreted through the geography, history, botany, and zoology of the land in which it is written." For example, the story of Joseph sold to the caravan of Ishmaelites is interpreted in its relation to the old coast road of Palestine; some of the Psalms of David as well as the story of Abraham and Isaac are taken to illustrate the feeling of the Ancient Hebrews for the hill country. Each chapter has a supplementary list of suggested readings and of books for more extended commentary. The book thus helps the student to relate the Bible more intimately to its original setting, and should serve to make each story concrete and vivid in all its details. It is intended for high school classes studying Old Testament literature, for teachers of general literature, for beginners in college Bible classes, or for teachers in the Sunday School. It contains excellent photographs of scenes in the Holy Land, and it is attractively written, so that it is well suited to read aloud to the children in the home circle.

WILD BIRD GUESTS. By Ernest Harold Baynes. New York: E. P. Dutton & Company.

In the Foreword the author declares that a fundamental solution of the problem of conserving our wild birds lies in creating an interest in and love for the birds, so that a large majority of people will not only have no desire to kill the birds, but will actually fight to prevent their destruction. "Because of the enormous value of birds -economic, æsthetic, and moral-the writer believes that it is the duty of every civilized community to take its part in a great world-wide campaign for the conservation of bird life, and he knows of no more practical way to do this than by the organization of a bird club whose

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