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analyzes the trend of the present, and aims to determine the extent and probable result of existing social tendencies. In warfare he inquires what is to follow the dreadnought. In discussing British imperialism he asks: "Will the Empire Live?" In writing on the American Population his inquiry is, "What social structure is this pool of mixed humanity developing or likely to develop?" (p. 327).
Probably the American reader will take the keenest interest in that part of the book which describes the American Pópulation. The primary distinction (in regard to social problems) between America and other countries is the fact of an immigrant population. America is "a great sea of human beings detached from their traditions of origin" (pp. 330-331). But this "huge classless sea of American population is not destined to remain classless, is already developing separation and distinction and structures of its own" (p. 331). It is this process of social change and assimilation and integration of the foreign element in the United States which is so fascinating to Mr. Wells. Four potentially constructive elements are behind the "new movement of ideas that make for organization in American medley at the present time" (p. 356). These are the American plutocracy, the great American universities, the socialist movement, and the latent possibilities of the American woman. The personal quality of the American plutocracy has risen in the last three decades, and there is a new and awakened sense of public responsibility on the part of the one-time irresponsible holders of great wealth. The moral and intellectual influence of American universities is tending to bring about a definite, planned, and persistent social improvement in place of sporadic efforts at social reform. In the socialist movement there is the germ of the "sense of the state" which holds the promise of patriotic and generous cooperation by all classes of people. The developing consciousness of woman is profoundly influencing the more intimate social life of the people. In the possibilities of these different elements the author finds a hopeful and constructing basis for the future growth and vigor of our national life.
The treatment of other subjects is scarcely less suggestive
than the discussion of the American Population. The student of contemporary social problems will find here a wholesome and refreshing book, which arouses keen interest over a wide range of material and which adds to the stimulus of its ideas the touch of literary brilliancy and charm. J. G. STEVENS.
RACE ORTHODOXY IN THE SOUTH AND OTHER ASPECTS OF THE Negro QUESTION. By Thomas Pearce Bailey. Washington and New York: The Neale Publishing Co.
As this volume of nearly four hundred pages consists of numerous articles, addresses, book reviews, etc., written at different times, there is of course a good deal of repetition. But there are some things which bear repetition, and the book is a timely and valuable one.
By "race orthodoxy," of which Mr. Bailey is a firm adherent, he means the creed that this is a white man's country and that not only is social equality with resulting inter-marriage between whites and blacks to be resolutely resisted, but also political, civic, or any other kind of equality that may act as an entering wedge to social equality and inter-marriage. He says, for example: "When high-grade whites demand that certain negroes be treated as exceptional persons apart from race status, they endanger the peace of the community." And again he declares that, for the sake of the blacks and whites, no "door of hope" should be opened to the negro "that will usher him into ultimate hell-fire of race strife." Nevertheless, the author states his beliefs in Christian and democratic equality and in the immeasurable worth of each human soul in the eyes of God. Each reader of the book can judge for himself of the author's success in reconciling his belief with "race orthodoxy." He admits the impossibility of putting this abstract humanitarian creed into practice as long as the two races live side by side and so long as the white race is determined to prevent amalgamation by inter-marriage. His tentative solution of the negro problem is therefore colonization of the blacks, with "their free consent and enthusiastic coöperation," if possible; but by force if necesHe does not, however, dogmatically urge this solution.
On the contrary, he does not believe that anyone yet fully understands this the most important of all the questions confronting the American people. He therfore repeatedly and with intense earnestness urges that a scientific, systematic, coöperative, nation-wide, and world-wide study of the problem be made. R. H. DABNEY.
THE LETTERS OF RICHARD HENRY LEE. Collected and edited by James Curtis Ballagh. Volume II, 1779-1794. New York: The Macmillan Company. 1914. Pp. xxiii+603.
Professor Latané, of the Johns Hopkins University, has so fully and so ably reviewed the first volume of the present work, in the Sewanee Review for April, 1912, that only a brief note is needed for the second volume, to the effect that it sustains the high standards set in the first. The period,-a particularly interesting one-covers the last fifteen years of Lee's life, from 1779 to 1794. The editor has added a very full and useful index for both volumes. S. L. W.
STUDIES IN SOUTHERN HISTORY AND POLITICS. Inscribed to William Archibald Dunning. New York: Columbia University Press. 1914. Pp. viii+394.
The fifteen essays in this volume are written by a group of former students of Professor Dunning and dedicated to him as a testimonial.
The writers, some of whom have become widely known as specialists in Southern History, take as their theme the great questions and problems which have agitated the South during the nineteenth century, and in part continue to do so. The first essay in the volume, that of Professor Fleming on "Deportation and Colonization," gives Lincoln's views on this subject, which may come as a surprise to his negrophile admirers. The succeeding essays deal with Secession and Reconstruction; but the most interesting studies in the volume are those that come last, for they represent what the South is now thinking and doing for the training and education of her population, white and black. The studies of Professor Boyd, and of Professor Thompson,
respectively, on the History of Education in the South since the War, and on the New South, Economic and Social, will be found particularly stimulating in their record of achievement and in their hopeful outlook.
The essays as a whole maintain a uniform degree of excellence, and, while they may add little that is new to the scholar, they constitute a mine of information gathered from many and widespread sources which are often not available to the ordinary student. S. L. WARE
THE RIVERSIDE HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES. Edited by William E. Dodd. vols. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1915.
These four neat gold-lettered little volumes give, in short compass and convenient and inexpensive form, an up-to-date history of the United States. Each volume averages a little over 300 pages and sells for $1.25. The first volume, by Professor Becker of Kansas University, brings the story down to the winning of independence, thus wisely leaving ample space for the problems of the independent nation. The last volume, by Professor Paxson of Wisconsin University, is devoted to the period 1865-1915. The intermediate books are by Professor Johnson of Yale and by the editor, respectively. Throughout the series the treatment is fresh and entertaining, comparatively little attention being paid to the analysis of constitutional and legal documents, but much to "the forces, influences, and masterful personalities which have made the country what it is." The series is designed primarily for the maturer university student or for the cultured reader. A commendable feature appears in the numerous maps and charts, which include presidential elections, population, public domain, areas of growth of staples, distribution of manufactures, etc., and furnish graphic illustrations of political, social, and economic conditions of the various periods of our history. After each chapter comes a bibliographical note in which authorities and source material are both given and briefly discussed. S. L. WARE
THE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE Church with RegARD TO ITS MESSAGE AND PROGRAM. By Paul Moore Strayer. New York and Boston: The Macmillan Company.
The Rev. Paul Moore Strayer, the author of this suggestive book, is a successful Presbyterian minister of Rochester, New York. He does not write as one who sets out to gather material in order to make a book. The book is a by-product of an effort to solve the problems of the Church by one whose sympathies are bounded by no parochialism, denominationalism, or class distinctions. Through personal intimacy with their leaders and contact with their organized movements, he knows the point of view of the men who are estranged from the churches. This leads him to stress the social aspect of the Church's mission, though his devotion is not less to the spiritual welfare of all classes and communities. His outspoken courage may antagonize some who do not wish to be found where earnest blows are dealt and received for the cause of truth.
The author is one who is as eager to learn as to teach, and the practical programme he suggests has been largely tested in his own efforts or in the efforts of those personally known to him. Moreover, the book, in point of style, is readable, condensed, and epigrammatical. While blinking no practical difficulties, the author is full of hope. To those who complain of the peculiar difficulties of the urban church problem he says: "The theatrical man is not aghast over the apartment house, nor the merchant over the shifting population. The politician gets his appeal to the voters and the voters to the polls. The city problem is handled now and the church can solve it, too, if we give the same sort of thought to the problem."
There is profound practical wisdom in such statements as: "Many churches seek men because of their youth, while clients and patients avoid them for the same reason."
"Christianity is in the air, we are told, but it has the unfortunate way of staying there."
Though the problem of the church in urban communities receives most attention, there is a useful chapter on "The opportunity of the rural church."
JAMES BISHOP THOMAS.