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and even the well-informed of the American public. It is a fact that ignorance often begets prejudice, and prejudice is often the basis of harsh criticism, the consequences of which are serious and far-reaching. In the current literature of the day, not only as represented in journalism, but even in more serious publications, Japan has been, for several years, the subject of unrelenting criticism in the United States. As a consequence of this campaign of criticism, prejudices have been created on the one hand which may possibly never be dispelled, while on the other, currents have been set in motion which may conceivably lead to troublesome camplications. Dr. Mabie is perfectly right when he remarks that the real character of the Japanese race is not yet well understood by the world. Geographically, Japan belongs to the Orient, but she is not a common Oriental country. Every nation in the world has its general characteristics and its peculiarities, and Japan is richest in the latter, presumably as a result of her insular position, which allowed her to grow up without any foreign influences. In respect to ideals, customs, and manners, therefore, she differs so much from other civilized countries that she often incurred their misunderstanding.

And yet the underlying principles of our national development, as the author points out, are not very different from those of the Western civilization. "Difference of environment and of racial experience have created an Eastern and a Western temperament; an Eastern way of looking at life and the world and a Western way; but the human spirit is one and the same in both hemispheres, and there is no kind of knowledge possessed by one from which the other is debarred by racial incapacity from understanding." Indeed, "there are no obstacles which right feeling, generous treatment, and, above all, undeviating justice, can not remove." To unfold these points of resemblance and help on a better understanding between peoples of two hemispheres, Dr. Mabie tries and, I believe, succeeds in bringing out the basic ideals that underlie our national growth.

Lafcadio Hearn, the most eloquent interpreter of the Japanese mind, once observed that the history of Japan is really the history of her religion, and that Japan can be understood only through the study of her religious and social evolutions. While

this remark is not wholly correct, it is nevertheless true. The characteristic traits of any nation are so intermingled with its religious discipline that it is almost impossible to differentiate the two. Dr. Mabie is well aware of this, and he rightly emphasizes the influence of Shinto upon the Japanese character.

With his literary skill and poetic imagination, the author has been notably successful in describing our historic art and beautiful scenes throughout the country, reënforced by novel and well-chosen illustrations.

It is to be hoped that this charming volume will receive a hearty welcome in America and help to enlighten the general public on their knowledge of Japan and contribute to strengthen the historic friendship between the two nations.

SHINJIRO KITASAWA.

THE INFLUENCE of ReconstruCTION ON EDUCATION IN THE SOUTH. By Edgar Wallace Knight, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Education in Trinity College, North Carolina. Teachers' College, Columbia University, Contributions to Education, No. 60. New York City. 1913. Pp. 100.

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"By a detailed comparison of ante-bellum with reconstruction conditions . . supplemented by a comparison of legislation in the other nine states before 1868 and between 1868 and 1876" (p. 8), the following conclusions are reached: "That Southern ante-reconstruction educational conditions were more nearly similar to educational conditions found in other sections of the nation than is generally supposed; . . . . that the reconstruction constitutional provisions for education in these states were superior to the provisions before that time" (p. 94). "Even in respect to the educational sentiment and educational results, conditions do not appear very different in the Southern States from those found elsewhere. . . . . In their tone, the message of an Eastern governor is similar to that of a Western or Southern governor. The same thing is seen in the reports of the superintendents. The idea of popular education developed very slowly in all the states outside New England. Opposition to the public school was more or less widespread and was not confined to any section of the country. The so-called 'agitation period' in North Carolina was almost exactly par

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alleled in Pennsylvania" (p. 97). "These facts, then, show only a slight influence of the Reconstruction, or 'carpet-bag,' régime on Southern education." Besides mandatory constitutional provisions, two others appear in Reconstruction legislation: "First, provision for Negro education; and second, provision for a uniform system of taxation for school support" (p. 99).

"And the evidence seems on the whole to indicate that had there been no outside interference, practically the same educational policies would have been outlined as were made by the Reconstruction régime" (p. 100).

Slowly the "truth about the South" is becoming known!

T. P. BAILEY.

THE POLICE CONTROL OF THE SLAVE IN SOUTH CAROLINA. (Dissertation for the degree of Ph.D., Vanderbilt University). By H. M. Henry, Professor of History and Economics, Emory and Henry College, Emory, Virginia. 1914. Pp. x+215.

This carefully worked out monograph is written by a South Carolinian on a typical Southern subject and under the auspices of a Southern university. We need more work of this kind, and it is greatly to be desired that Professor Henry will be able to fulfil his promise of giving us a study of Southern efforts to control the emancipated slave—a matter ill understood even at the South.

Among the topics treated are: The legal status of the slave, the overseer, the patrol system, punishment of slaves, the court for the trial of slaves, control of the slave's "outside" labor, stealing and harboring of slaves and kidnapping of free Negroes, regulation of educational and religious care of the Negroes, slave insurrections, abolition and incendiary literature, manumission, the free Negro. The Appendix contains interesting documents "illustrative of slavery in South Carolina." There is a full and critical bibliography, including newspaper files and private collections.

Professor Henry concludes that South Carolina showed no symptom of the desire to modify the slave system; that there was a progressive tendency to ameliorate the condition of the slaves; that there was reactionary legal regulation largely due to

fear of insurrection and to the abolition movement; that the non-slaveholders "felt that their personal security and that of their families depended upon an arrangement which gave the superior race a means of control that they imagined could not be evolved with the inferior race living under any other status" (p. 191). He calls attention to the remarkable opportunities represented by the history of Charleston for studying every phase of control of the slaves (p. 162).

Students of social control will find valuable hints in this study with regard to extra-legal control of an inferior race.

T. P. BAILEY.

THE RISE OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE: A PHILOSOPHICAL INTERPRETATION OF AMERICAN HISTORY. BY Roland G. Usher. New York: The Century Company. 1914. Pp. 513.

As its sub-title indicates, Dr. Usher's volume is not a textbook of American history, but resembles rather a series of essays connected and correlated to show the development of institutions in the sequence of time. In vigorous, lucid, and often picturesquely colored style, the author takes up such topics as: States' sovereignty; the growth of national sentiment; the growth of the spirit of democracy; the influence of economic and geographical factors; and in each of these fields he fulfils his claim of having accorded them a fuller treatment than may be found in any other brief history. To the intelligent reader with some knowledge of our history the book will prove a boon in clarifying and crystallizing his ideas on the foregoing topics. To the teacher the volume will be equally valuable, for Dr. Usher has freely quoted from the sources, and his treatment is both scholarly and entertaining. S. L. WARE.

THE WHIG PARTY IN THE SOUTH. By Arthur Charles Cole. Washington: American Historical Association. 1913. Pp. xii+392.

This learned monograph on the evolution of the Whig party in the South forms one of the prize essays series of the American Historical Association, and in the very nature of the subject appeals to a limited circle of specialists and scholars in Ameri

can history. The author brings out the fact that the Whig party cannot be treated as a unit, for Whiggism often meant one thing in the North and quite another thing in the South. In the South the party could never hope to rally any large number of voters on issues purely national in their scope, such as the Hamiltonian theory of the Constitution, or the American System of Henry Clay. Therefore, in the South at any rate, the party was purely opportunist in its character and methods. It had all the unsteadiness and fluctuations of a coalition and opposition party, which it was. When, after 1852, the old issues of the National Bank and the distribution of the public land sales became obsolete, and the issue of the extension of slavery became paramount, the Whig party, already a house divided against itself, passed out of existence. A useful feature of the book is the series of colored maps showing the voting strength of the Whigs in the South from 1836 to 1852. S. L. WARE.

THE SUPREME Court and UNCONSTITUTIONAL LEGISLATION. By Blaine Free Moore. New York: Longmans, Green, & Company. 1913. Pp. 158.

In these days of the Initiative, the Referendum, and the Recall, and of attacks by organized labor on "Government by Injunction," it may be of interest to peruse Professor Moore's account of the origin and growth of the immensely important governmental function which our Supreme Court arrogates to itself of declaring the laws even of our National Legislature null and void. The author goes back to Colonial precedents and with a wealth of quotations from judicial opinions, brings the story down to our own days. This monograph by Dr. Moore forms part of Volume LIV of the Studies in History, Economics, and Public Law, issued by Columbia University. S. L. W.

PRO FIDE: A DEFENCE OF NATURAL ANd Revealed RELIGION. BY Charles Harris, D.D. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co. 1914. Pp. lxxvii+575.

This "new and augmented edition" appears nine years after the original issue and is probably a fair reflex of Christianity "defensively stated" for the edification of candidates for Holy

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